ResearchMethodology – MSc first semester – SPU TCIHawarHussein Yaba2018January 1.
1 Introduction: Information technology (IT) nowadays playsa very important role in the success of a business, private and public sectors indifferent organizations; it is and should be considered as a strategic elementand should be an integral part of corporate governance 1. This is theresponsibility not only of IT managers, but also of the board of directors,executive management and senior executives 7.Therehave been many attempts at improving IT governance over the years in order topromote satisfactory project completion.
Companies have invested a lot of moneyto solve this problem, but have failed because they have focused on IT supplywithout taking into account business requirements. Theperformance of a business process is interrelated with the adequacy of softwaresystems. Software aims to provide services at all levels of a businessorganization to effectively achieve their goals and objectives. Withthis study we can conclude that ITIL is useful for increasing the overallquality of IT services, reduced costs, improved customer satisfaction, improvedproductivity and delivery Managers’personal values importantly influence their innovative behavior.
In the globalcompetitive environment, enterprises can survive in the long run by permanentlyinnovating their working and behavior, especially with innovation of theirmanagement (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4). In literature innovation is defined asevery novelty found beneficial in the experience of its users 1; 4; 5.
Inother words: Innovation = invention + commercialization. Theimportance of creativity has been altered recently especially in IT industry.Thus, managers in charge of IT departments in organizations must have highinnovative capacity that rests on different pillars of innovative behavior. Inthat framework, a crucial issue is innovativeness and what drivesinnovativeness.
Among all factors, which influence innovativeness the lessinvestigated ones are the internal factors, which define relations betweenmanagers’ behavior and their innovativeness. Today,quality is no longer the first priority for consumers. The global market hasenabled the selection of the optimal supplier or supply partner. Beingextremely efficient technique of the conventional quality control produces arisk of falling into over-quality.
Society’s as a whole consumption and therelation of production change a lot in the computerized society. “Itwas pointed out the competitive advantage of the Japanese assembly type ofmanufactures, which are strengths in technology that are close to theproduction site. Historical changes of the industry of Japan’s Manufacturingare deployed SQC (Statistical Quality Control) in 1920 era, then it wascompletely introduced into Japan in 1950 era.1 Since 1950, it was based on thedomestic market first then export was started to the European and Americanadvanced nation markets.
In that time, many Japanese companies faced problemsin that the quality was only able to compete in the market in Europe/UnitedStates but only in the lower value market segment. Then Japanese companiesstrove to improve the quality without increasing the cost, The product wasgradually shifted into higher value markets in the Europe and America, andestablish their competitive advantage in the markets. Competitive advantage ofthe Japanese manufacturing industry has attributed to change the paradigm ofmanufacturing, to minimize cost increases, while carrying out execution of aprocess of moving into the high-end market segment.2 However, by rapid progressof overseas production and development of an information technology in recentyears, the competitive advantage of “being budget prices at highquality” or “conformance quality” of Japanese products is being lost.Additionally, it was felt that excessive quality by “KAIZEN” as an improvementof continuous innovation, profitability has gone up in the in the European andAmerican market. This paper is to clarify the impact on an enterpriseorganization and inter-company relationship to arise in the course of thespread of IT technology since 1990, to identify a conformance quality based ontoday’s market, and to propose what are the competitive advantages for Japan’smanufacturing industry.
” Forabove citation references: – The impact of IT technology on the quality management organizationin Japan by Yoshiyuki NAKURAa*, Masakazu OHASHI b- KAIZEN, How Japanese involve the world, Hizoka Hiroshy, 2011 ITIL formerly known as the InformationTechnology Infrastructure Library and it consists of a set of practices for ITservice management also known as ITSM. ITIL focuses on aligning the IT servicesin a company to best fit with the necessities of the business. It was observed that without any standardpractices, the private sector together with the government agencies, werestarting to create their individual IT management practices. And yet, it is areality: when critical IT services are not available, the business (Banking,healthcare, accounting and finance, public utilities, shipping andtransportations, airline industry) suffers.
The definition of ITI encompasses avariety of components. Based on previous studies, Duncan 1995 stated that ITIincludes a group of shared, tangible IT resources that provide a foundation toenable present and future business applications Broadbent & Weill, 1997;Davenport & Linder, 1994; Earl, 1989; Keen, 1991; McKay & Brockway,1989; Niederman, Brancheau, & Wetherbe, 1991; Weill, 1993. Byrd and Turner 2000, p. 172 provided athorough definition of ITI as: “the shared IT resources consisting of atechnical physical base of hardware, software, communications technologies,data, and core applications and a human component of skills, expertise,competencies, commitments, values, norms, and knowledge that combine to createIT services that are typically unique to an organization.
These IT servicesprovide a foundation for communications interchange across the entireorganization and for the development and implementation of present and futurebusiness applications.” 2.1 Old routine government systemsconvert to the new one 2.2 Background Markellou et al.
5 proposes that for theimplementation and successful operation of e-government, the proper design,which will be the basis in order to receive a series of strategic,administrative and operational benefits, is necessary. 2.3Existing Legacy and E-Services Platforms In order to effectively support bothsystems (e.g. the portal and the legacy system), the following decisions werereached:- Replacedistributed databases of residential offices with a central one hosted in theData Center.- Support server-basedcomputing.
– Rewrite mostapplications of the legacy information system to facilitate a web interface. 1 The Gap indication: There is the same database that they workon it the old one, they recently updated and replaced the hardware of it, and theymust design a new database or web interface, a centralized database. 3.1 Improvingwith Six Sigma There are two approaches that can be usedto improve information technology service management (ITSM), the “ITIL” and”Six Sigma”. ITIL defines the “what” of service management and Six Sigmadefines the “how” of quality improvement. The ITIL provides the foundation forquality ITSM.
Six Sigma ensures the service improvement program is focused oncritical business areas (called critical to quality), Together, they make agreat combination for improving the quality of IT service delivery and support 2. Motorola was facing the same problems asthe industry at this time, but found that they were losing a large portion oftheir business and productivity through the cost of none quality, “Six Sigma”is a federally registered trademark of Motorola. To illustrate why 99 per centquality level is not acceptable, consider the following facts at majorairports, 99 per cent quality means two unsafe plane landings per day, in mailprocessing 16,000 pieces of lost mail every hour, in power generation 7 hoursof no electricity each month, and in medical surgery 500 incorrect surgicaloperations per week.2 TheGap research is not including a flowchart of the applied new system. And wherethe system design is for example is it web based or is it computer applicationsystem. 4.
1 Information Technology for healthcare Education service This explores theinformation and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure for education atthe Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) and theUniversity of Ghana (UG) and its implications for health education at the twouniversities. ICT Literacy is valued in many academic and professional sectors,from primary school to continuing education. (Compton and Harwood, 2003) 4.2 Challenges:4.2.1Awareness of existing ICT services A couple instructors at KNUST commentedthat they were under the impression that Moodle was a service available only tothe School of Medical Sciences.
4.2.2Coordination across campuses and departments Each website was designed by differentdevelopers and has different designs and does not cross-reference the othersinside university.4.2.
3Instructor incentives to integrate technology with teaching and research There is also little incentive forteaching staff from chalkboard or PowerPoint handouts to online learningsystems.4.2.4Frequent power outages and fluctuations The power is the potential impact of thenetwork improvement projects at both universities. Staff and students aboutpersonal or work computers that were damaged due to power surges.
3 5.1Information technology for International business services Using data from 200 U.S. and Canadiancompanies, this study examines the impact of the four components of ITIflexibility (compatibility, connectivity, modularity, and IT personnel) onstrategic IT-business.
Thefindings from analysis provide evidence that the four components makesignificant, positive impacts on strategic business implementation. 5.2 TheClear Experiment on ITI: In the early 1990s, Johnson & Johnsonfaced new business pressures when large customers, such as Wal-Mart and K-mart,made new demands on the company, such as cost savings and just-in-time stockreplenishment.
Johnson & Johnson’s business and IT managers acted inpartnership to develop a new set of ITI capabilities which enabled the companyto provide the necessary services for its large customers while, at the sametime, reducing costs for the firm Weill & Broadbent, 1998. At the same time during late 1990s,Charles Schwab focused on delivering timely, customized information to itsinvestors. Using the company’s ITI and applications aligned with its businessfocus, Schwab became a full service brokerage firm.
The firm was able toprovide information and process transactions in meeting its businessobjectives. Customers could retrieve stock quotes and place orders via Schwab’sWeb site. As a result, the corporation continues to be an industry leader.
Kettinger, Grover, Subanish, & Segars, 1994. Duncan 1995 also stated that ITIincludes the alignment of IT plans to business objectives, the IT architecture,and the skills of IT personnel. Broadbent and Weill 1997 noted that ITIcapabilities enable the various types of IT applications required to supportcurrent and future business objectives, and enable the competitive positioningof business initiatives.McKayand Brockway 1989 described ITI as the enabling foundation of shared ITcapabilities upon which the entire business depends. This foundation isstandardized and shared by business functions within the organization, andtypically used by different organizational applications. 5.
3 InformationTechnology Infrastructure flexibility Weill 1993 asserted that an ITI shouldbe flexible to be able to handle increased customer demands without increasedcosts. Davenport and Linder 1994 stated thatITI flexibility should be viewed as a core competency of the organization andsuggested that an effective ITI is flexible and robust. ITproject developmentITproject development is a crucial point for the success of any IT organization,IT (Information Technology) project management and the delivery processes arethe vital points to complete a project within agreed time, budget and quality. Theyalso mention five reasons for why projects failed which are related to poorrequirements, managing resources, impractical schedules, weak planning andunrevealed risks. To become successful in IT project development, it’simportant to have a clear idea on these five failure issues and to takenecessary steps to overcome it. In today’s business world itisimportant for every organization to have a well-defined project managementprocess and to follow that process strictly to achieve the best result.
Moreover,a well-organized IT project development framework helps a company to improveits productivity as well as the business competitiveness and provide betterservices for their customers. But it is impossible to have one process for alltype of IT projects like ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), sourcing, HR(Human Resources) and so on. Depending on project size and others criteria,organizations choose agile, waterfall or other models to complete theirprojects. On the other hand when project scope is not fixed and the feedbackrequires from the client to proceed on, the next steps are the selection of anagile model that can provide the best results.
Therefore the project managerneeds to have a clear idea about the differences between project lifecycle andsystem development lifecycle. Project models are important for systemdevelopment whereas time, cost and quality issues are mainly related withproject lifecycles. Often requirements are not possible to be defined at thebeginning of the project, which makes the project development more complicated.Nowadays, many companies have decided to follow an outsourcing strategy fortheir IT projects. Depending on different situations, project managers faceddifferent complexities that require vast knowledge and experience to overcomethat situation.
That’s why an IT project framework is so important to runprojects successfully within a defined time, cost and quality. ProjectFrameworkAproject framework is an organized approach to present clarity the project’sobjectives with a sequence of check points at which advancement and consequenceis possible to review and check. Moreover it provides a set of procedures fordaily management of project group including roles and responsibilities of keyproject members. Mainproject delivery task includes reporting, time recording, documentation,configuration management, monitoring and control, stakeholder management,change control, procurement, training and so on based on specific project type.Moreover, reviews of the project and benefits realization are also importantactivities after project completion.
Accordingto Cadle and Yeates 9, before start a project, a detailed business case isimportant to be prepared which can provide a clear picture of projects’ scopesand values.Thereare many types of IT projects like development, implementation, andinfrastructure etc. but the general principles of managing any IT project arebasically almost the same.Projectdevelopment process includes a set of structured procedure to accomplish theexact and unique result within a predefined and limited amount of time period.The project manager always needs to remember that there are some distinctionsin structure of each type of IT project work. Meredith and Mantel 18mentioned that, for a successful IT project, it is important to have a clearunderstanding about project organization and about the role of each participantincluding customer, major decision maker, steering group and so on.
Methodology:Mostcompanies encounter problems to complete IT projects according to agreement,which is a crucial point to become successful.Accordingto Peffers et al. 33, design science research methodology for IS researchconsists of six activities. These activities are in number of six and are thefollowings: problem identification and motivation; define the objectives for asolution; design and development; demonstration; evaluation; and communication. Inthis research we have as case study Company A to address the particular problemfor answering the research question. Every projects and project areas have itsown characteristics that could be considered as a single case.
In order tocollect the data from Company A, observations, document studies, a survey andinterviews have been performed in this research. Both qualitative andquantitative techniques have been used to maximize the benefits and to provide thecomplete understanding for the analysis purpose 34. As this research is basedon improvement of IT project development, the qualitative data are mainlygathered from the analyzed projects reports and from observation processes inCompany A. The discussions we had with the project related personnel likeproject managers and project area managers, has helped us to gather additionalvaluable information. Finally, to understand the priority of each KPA and tocollect data about this issue a survey has been done in Company A among theproject managers, as a quantitative technique. Weused the case study method to conduct exploratory research in order todetermine the current status of strategic IT demand management inorganizations, because strategic IT demand management is considered as a newtopic in the area of research 3.
This case study is considered as exploratory21, 22 because we failed to locate many sources of information during theliterature review of this topic. On this ground, we decided to learn directlyfrom the experience of board members, senior executives, IT professionals andbusiness owners about how they manage strategic IT demand in theirorganizations. The research was carried out taking into account the case studyprotocol 16. We used a combination of different data collection methods andtechniques, primarily surveying, supported by other media, such as telephoneinterviews, email, social networks and the web. The survey included a series ofquestions exploring the reality of strategic IT demand management. In somecases, participants were contacted by telephone at their companies to find outwhether they were available to participate voluntarily, and, if they were, theywere then given the web link to complete the survey.
In other cases,respondents were contacted via email indicating the web link for them to accessand participate in the survey. ResearchdesignTheimpact of personal values on managers’ attitudes toward typical innovativebehavior is tested in three steps. First, the impact of four individual levelhigher-order dimensions of personal values on typical innovative behavior istested.
Second, the impact of ten individual-level sub-dimensions of personalvalues on typical innovative behavior is tested. Third, the impact of singlevalues on typical innovative behavior is examined, including all 56 personalvalues. We used hierarchical regression analysis. Model 1 represents entry ofdemographic variables. Model 2 presents entry of personal values, considered eitheras four individual level higher-order dimensions, or ten individual-levelsub-dimensions of personal values, or 56 single values according to universalstructure of personal values, proposed by Schwartz (e.
g. 43, 39, 32). Researchmodel is depicted in Figure 1.
Designof the framework for IT projects development in Company A4.1.Problem Identification and Motivation4.2.Objective for a Solution4.
3.Design & Development of Proposed Framework for IT Projects Development4.4.Demonstration of the Framework4.
5.Evaluation of the Framework4.6.Communication of the Framework Howthe technology impact Kurdistan:Usingmobile telephone, fiber cables, using social medias, using online shopping, howthey using the online systems of companies and governments. Answeredside:Kurdistanregional government, Department of information technology, directorate offollow-up, Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research, ministry ofmunicipality, Ministry of Anfal and Martyrs, Ministry of Economic, Ministry ofHealthcare, Ministry of Education, Ministry of planning, Ministry ofAgriculture and water resources, Ministry of work and Social care, Notanswered side:Ministryof Financial, Ministry of Natural resources, Ministry of Electricity, References:1- Researchand Practical Issues of Enterprise Information System, Universityof Athens, 20062- Improving theInformation Technology Service Management with SixSigm, 20103- Informationand Communication Technology Infrastructure Analysis of KwameNkrumah University of Science and Technology and University of Ghana, 20114- Informationtechnology for International business services Chung,Sock H.; Rainer, R.
K. Jr.; and Lewis, Bruce R.
(2003)5- Knowledge Managementfor Interstate E-Government, Proceedings of the Workshop on KnowledgeManagement in Electronic Government Riedl, 2001.6- Infrastructureand Technologies for Education and Training, Electronic Government Bose, 2004.7- IntegrationStrategies and Tactics for Information Technology Governance Peterson,2003.8- An ExploratoryAnalysis of the Value of the Skills of IT Personnel: Their Relationship to ISInfrastructure and Competitive Advantage.
T.A. andTurner, E.D., 2001.9- A Framework forIT Project Development in a Large Company, Mousumi Kabira,Lazar Rusub*, 2013.10- Case Study of Strategic IT Demand Management in Organizations -Exploratory Results, Igor Aguilar Alonso *, José Carrillo Verdún, Edmundo Tovar Caro,2013.11- Goal-Driven Approach For Business/IT Alignment Evaluation, LerinaAversano*, Carmine Grasso, Maria Tortorella, 2013.12- Implementation of an Information Technology Infrastructure LibraryProcess – The Resistance to Change, Rui Estevesa,*,Paulo Alvesb, 2013.13- Innovativeness of IT Managers – Exploring Influences of PersonalValues on IT Managers’ Innovativeness, Vojko Potocana,*,Zlatko Nedelkoa, 2013.14- The impact of IT technology on the quality management organization in Japan, YoshiyukiNAKURAa*, Masakazu OHASHI b, 2013.15- KAIZEN, How Japanese involve the world,Hizoka Hiroshy, 2011.