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Republicof the PhilippinesMindanaoState UniversityGeneralSantos City     Knowledgeon Sexual And Reproductive Health Among Adolescents Attending Senior HighSchool in Mindanao State University General Santos City       SubmittedBy:MarielleD. Donaire  SubmittedTo:Prof.Mario Aguja             WHO’s definition of health as a stateof complete physical, mental and social well- being, and not merely the absenceof disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductiveprocess, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health,therefore, implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying andsafe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom todecide if, when and how often to do so (WHO, 2017). As of 2013 data update, approximatelyfive million adolescent women currently live in the Philippines; they fornearly one fifth (19%) of all women of reproductive age (15-49 years old).

Adolescenceperiod is a transition period from childhood to adulthood characterized by physicalgrowth, hormonal changes, social and emotional development (UNICEF, 2011). Adolescents are exposed into too manyrisks and become vulnerable to problems that can have a long term impact ontheir lives. Despite on the efforts made by different institutions in thesociety to educate the adolescents on reproductive health, still there is an increasein the reported  high risks level insexual and reproductive health problems in the population such as HIV/AIDS,STD’s, early pregnancies and abortions.

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15% of adolescents Filipino women in2013 reported ever having had sex. Among women aged 18-24, 19% said they hadsex before age 18. This proportion was for higher than average among thepoorest women (36%) and slightly higher than average among those living inrural areas(22%). Due to ignorance or possession ofinadequate or improper knowledge on reproductive health most adolescents facecritical health status. Studies indicate that more knowledge leads to lessreproduction health problems.

The most useful way to reduce problems associatedwith sex is sexual education because it educates adolescents on safe sex,abstinence and contraceptive use. Also it makes them become more responsible inmaking decisions about their life ( Khoza, 2004).  Through these stated facts, it showsthat there is a need in assessing tye knowledge that adolescent possess andthen formulate a plan for strategies for helping them by addressing theknowledge gaps because through awareness about HIV/AIDS, abortion, earlypregnancies and other related factors, sexual and related risks behavioursamong adolescents can be reduced.

The general objective of this study isto assess the knowledge on reproductive health among adolescents in Senior HighSchool-MSU GENSAN. This is to determine what knowledge do the adolescents possesson sexual and reproductive health problems and to determine the sources fromwhich adolescents seek for informations.   Sources of Information and AdolescentsPositive Environment’s SupportAccess to information andcommunication service is now seen as a universal right, and the United Nationsis advocating for a global initiative for such access within this decade.

Adolescents are known to obtain information about sexual and reproductivehealth from a variety of sources such as through course books, mass media,parents, teachers, peers, government and nongovernmental organizations. Most common source in a traditional wayof searching informations is through reading books, magazines, journals andother reading materials. Topics related to sexual and reproductive health are availablein many published books wherein adolescents can use as a medium of information.

But as globalization takes place and the use of television, radios, andspecially the internet, informations are easily spread through advertisements,tv shows and websites giving facts and related topics to sexual andreproductive health. Meanwhile, we cannot ignore thepresence of family in the society. Parents are a major influence on their children’slives, and therefore adolescents are more likely to respond to sexual and reproductivehealth programs which include support from their homes and family. Family areconsidered to be a role model in shaping the perception of adolescents on genderroles and they can influence the choices of their children in making their ownsexual behavior. Perents and other family members often have the greater powerin guiding childrens development toward their sexual and reproductive health.

They can help their children develop and practice responsible sexual behaviorand personal decision making. Moreover, not all parents are equally knowledgeableabout sexuality or feel comfortable in diacussing it with their children. Rooeof teachers at school is now responsible in providing consistent and medicallyaccurate information that many students do not receive at home for theyconsidered as the second parents of the students. School environment offers sexeducation lessons which support and reflect the informations about sex and relationships.Sex education is mainly taught in public and some in private schools discussingabstinence and reproduction to sexually orientation and sexually transmitteddiseases.

It is very important because it informs students about issues relatedto sex and sexual health. Access to correct and meaningfulinformation on sexual and reproductive issues are among the greatest challengesfor Filipino society. Various governmental and nongovernmental programs haveintroduced sexual and reproductive health education in both formal and informalways and with varying degrees of success. The Responsible Parenthood andReproductive Health Act of 2012 ( Republic Act No. 10354), which is also knownas the Reproductive Health Law or RH Law is a law in the Philippines that insuresuniversal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, sexualeducation and maternal care. Government and othe nongovernment organizationsfund and conduct a widespread distribution of family planning devices such ascondoms, birth control pills and IUD’s, as the government continues to spreadinformation on their use through all health care centers.   Adolescents’ Sexual and Reproductive HealthProblemsReproductive health has been definedby the World Health Organization as the total well-being in all aspects of reproduction,i.

e, physical, behavioral social and mental health. As the adolescents becomeeligible to reproduce, it is essential to inform them about consequences ofunsafe sexual practices and early pregnancy. Sexual health problems are theresult of conditions, either in an individual, a relationship or a society thatrequire specific action for this identification, prevention and treatment (WHO,2017).The WHO assessed in 2008 that reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for20% of the global burden of ill-health for women and 14% for men. ·         STI and HIV/AIDSA sexuallytransmitted infection (STI) or formally called as sexually transmitted disease(STD)or venereal disease (VD) is an infection that has a significant likelihood oftransmission between humans by means of sexual activity. As per definedby the Department of Health, AIDS is an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, itis the appearance of clinical manifestation of HIV infection. In this state,the person presents with opportunistic infections of unlimited extents andpossibilities.

They also present with a typical presentation and severity.Person with AIDS is prone to aggressive kinds of cancer. HIV, on theother hand, is a viral infection that attacks and slowly destroys the immune systemof the infected person that leads to “immune deficiency”. It is progressiveand can lead to lack of body defense to all kinds of infection including thosethat don’t normally infect MDS and can also lead to cancer susceptibility.

·        EarlyPregnancies and AbortionSexual activity among young people isbecoming more common in the Philippines..Despite the taboo against premaritalsex, many women report such behavior: In 2008, the median age of marriage amongyoung women was nearly a year later than the median age at first sexualexperience (22.

1 vs. 21.3 years). Filipino women are also giving birth earlier:Among first-time mothers, the proportion who were teenagers increased from 20%in 2000 to 27% in 2010. Adolescent females are particularly at risk ofunintended pregnancy because they lack access to comprehensive sex educationand contraceptive supplies.Teenage pregnancy is defined as an unintendedpregnancy during adolescence. Approximately 750,000 of 15- to 19-year-oldsbecome pregnant each year, according to The American College of Obstetriciansand Gynecologists, though many teenagers do not believe that they will getpregnant if they engage in sexual activity.Of the hundreds of thousands ofFilipino women who have unintended pregnancies each year, many face a difficultchoice: either give birth to a child they are not prepared or able to care for,or obtain a clandestine, and often unsafe, abortion.

Because abortion is highlystigmatized and punishable by law, it is extremely challenging to directlyestimate the number of abortions in the Philippines, as both women andproviders are likely to not report the procedure. Teenage abortions aresurprisingly common, but unavoidably traumatic. The growing exposure of teensto help them explore their sexuality without the right sex education can leadto physical relationships, which often lead to STDs, and, in some cases,pregnancies and subsequent abortions.  Sexual and Reproductive Health ServicesAvailable for Adolescents·        SexEducation at SchoolSchools offersex education which gives informations about sex and relationships. It discussesabstinence and conducts an orientation related to reproduction and specially onsexually transmitted diseases. ·        CounselingCounseling isa professional, confidential and private conversation between counselor andclient for the purpose of helping client to explore difficulties he or she isfacing, dissatisfaction or experience BACP, (2002).

Counseling and testingservices for young people where various topics were discussed such ascorrectness using of condoms, other contraceptives than condoms, how to avoidSTI and AIDS, and types of sexual intimacy that do not end up with transmissionof HIV/AIDS. This action was very successful as many youth got the opportunityto give out their difficulties and get education.·        FamilyPlanning and Contraceptives UseFamily planning areintroduced especially to women which gives them information on a variety ofmethods used to plan or prevent pregnancy based on identifying the woman’sfertile days. Family planning and information and services shall include as afirst priority making women of reproductive age fully aware of theirreproductive cycles to make them aware of when fertilization is highly probableas well as highly improbable ( Philippine Commission on Women, 2009).

   Contraception Contraceptionis the use of various devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgicalprocedures to prevent conception or pregnancy.                                   Conceptual Paradigm   Knowledge on Sexual and Reproductive                      Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm                   Reference 

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