REPRESENTING invade the country. During the period

  REPRESENTING MOROCCO, FEZ The kingdom of Morocco that is at the crossroad ofEurope and Africa is an inspiring country with its beautiful culture, rich andinteresting in terms of history. The country has a very strong sense ofculture. Various rulers that ruled the country influenced the country’scultural diversity. Despite the weakness of its authority, the Alaouite dynastydistinguished itself in the 18th and 19th centuries by maintaining Morocco’sindependence while other states in the region succumbed to Turkish, French, orBritish domination. However, in the latter part of the 19th centuryMorocco’s weakness and instability invited European intervention to protectthreatened investments and to demand economic concessions.

That’s what made thecountry lost its control over its land and its people. Frenchand Spanish activity in Morocco began during the end of the 19th century. In1904 the French government was trying to establish a protectorate over Morocco,especially in some cities that were and still till now rich in its cultures andarchitecture .Such as, Marrakesh,Tanger , Rabat and Fes which was the capital cityof the country at that time . TheFirst Moroccan Crisis grew out of the imperial rivalries of the great powers,in this case, between France on one side and Spanish, with British support, onthe other. Morocco during that period was like the center of attention for manyother colonies which aimed and, were able to conquer and invade the country. Duringthe period 1850-1930 , many European and British travellers visited andexplored the place, and found it much interesting , For instance, Edith Wharton(1867-1937), who wrote a book (In Morocco ) 1920 , where she wrote a traveldiscourse about the place .

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Much more than that, she explained what thecolony did with the place, Also the Moroccan dynasty during the colonial timeand how it was after World War I. Besides, for what purpose Wharton travelledto Morocco. The last thing the various wars and conquers of the country.

Fromthis work, we trying to analyze what the author write about Morocco, especiallyFes in the duration of eighteen and nineteen centuries. We will give a try toanswer various questions like the different views and perceptions back to thecolonial period of British and European domination on the country. And how thewestern people see and consider the orientalist people. Thebook, in Morocco (1920), by the travel book and novelist Edith Wharton whereshe stated her experience during her visit to Morocco, especially the city ofFez .Edith described the city in many different sides. In the first visionwhere she gave to the reader the true image of the city. Focusing on the walls,towers, and the fantastic architecture of the diverse culture .

due to theimpact of the colonies .Fez was the city that all the adventurous travellersand foreigners interested in. she also explored the dynast tried to standagainst the conquers, but the strong and length of the invaders influencedharshly on the country, not only the people but also the way of their living. Secondly,fez Eldjdid (the new fes) as a very old, and the place Bou- Jeloud stands andbelongs to almoravid Kasbah of the eleventh century, and erected.

Fez elbalihad already existed for more than three hundred years .Beside that, Elkayrouiyin is belonging to the contemporary of saint ambrogio of Milan ,andthat the old original mosque of Molay idriss II was built over his grave in theeight century .Historically speaking , according to Edith in her second chapter, fezis the oldest city in morocco without any dynasty of phenician or roman past.Furthermore, Wharton mentioned that fez El jaded the new place and government buildings,was founded in the Fourteenth century by The Merinid princes , and look much asit did then. Inher last chapter which titled Fez el Bali , she described the infrastructure ofthe city such as( the distance , streets and quarters)considering it like amelting pot of many different culture of Turks ,Jews and Berbers of themountains gathered in one society and been assimilated to each other. Sohere we can summarize that this text is a narrative text, which by Edithdescribed and tried to tell us everything about Fez and morocco in particularway. Mainly focusing on the positive sides, rather than the negative of thearea.

From this work we can analyze and observe that the information Whartonused and opinion is clear and presented objectively about the place. Earlytravel literature played a historical and key role in spreading information,remote and faraway culture. Before the age of aviation, television, internet,knowledge and information about foreign culture relied almost exclusively onoral and written accounts of adventurous travellers like Edith Wharton. It isclear that the author here involved and mixed a variety of issue based onstimulating, motivating and facilitating communication between the people ofthe United Kingdom and Morocco from one side. Muchmore than that, to facilitate the way of invading, controlling and mapping theplace on the other hand .Besides, to show some of the aspects of Moroccanculture which retained the attention of British travellers and those whichcontributed to enhance the mutual understanding between the two countries .

themain reason why they are interesting in the area is that Morocco is toocurious, too beautiful and , too rich in landscape and architecture .due to theexploring and discovering of the place at early time .this is why Whartontravelled to Morocco as the guest of the French governor of the protectorategeneral Hubert Lyautey . There are many various theoriesthat been use for Wharton to put a clear image about the place during thecolony time and its influence on the society of Morocco especially Fez city.

Such as cultural diversity, as she enjoyed her trip in the city and beensurprised with its diverse culture, traditions, customs and languages too .thesecond theory she functioned is Race , whereby the issue of the slavery ofchildren and stifling conditions affects the society on one side , and on theauthor’s feeling on the other .the Third one is surveillance andclassification, where these description could be deeply analyzed by EdithWharton theory of surveillance or the power of the gaze that enables thecolonizer of inspecting ,examine ,exploring and mapping the targeted territory. To sum up,Wharton gave a try to share with us her experience in many cities in thecountry during the eighteen, and nineteen century At the duration of theAlaouite dynast from one side, and of the British and French domination on theother .That’s all due to the instability and the wars that destroyed thecountry and affected it on many sides. Historically consist of the Frenchgovernment and its protectorate over Morocco.

Also the activities that bothFrench and Spanish with the help of the British started at the end of thenineteen century .in the other hand, the influence of the colonizer on theinfrastructure and the power of territory based on the rules they established.Thanks to the rich architecture and various cultures that exist in the country.

That’s what clearly made a relationship between the two countries. Furthermore,the manner in which the realm of postcolonial theory .For instance, Orientalismby Edward said where he examines the historical, cultural, and political viewsof the East that are held by the West, and examines how they developed andwhere they came from. From this we can understand why colonialism was part of ahistorical moment to the process of modernity to Morocco.


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