Determine the Size, Parameters and Construction Timeline for the Property Lot and Unit Assumptions – Bateman Apartments Lot Square Meters: Minimum Square Meters Per Unit: Apartment Units: Average Apartment Unit Size: You start with the Lot Size in square feet or square meters, and then base the number of units, rooms, or gross area Of 10,000 sq. m. the building on that. In more complex models you look at 50 sq. m.
200 the FAR (Floor Area Ratio) and local zoning requirements to determine the exact size. Also in more complex models, you would distinguish between Gross Area andRentable Area, especially for office and retail developments – the Rentable Area is always smaller due to walls, elevators, stairs, and so on. Next, you estimate the average rent per square foot or square meter, or per unit if it’s an apartment complex; for hotels you would look at the Average Daily Rate (ADR) per room instead. You also determine the operating expenses and property taxes per unit or per square foot or square meter at this stage. If your building has a parking structure attached, you estimate the spots required for that as well; that may be based on an assumed number Of spots per unit or per rentable square foot/ square meter.
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Average Monthly Rent Per Square Meter: Average Monthly Parking Fees Per Spot: Average Monthly Rent Per Unit: 50. 00 1 50. 00 2,500 Monthly Operating Expenses Per Unit: Monthly Property Taxes per Unit: Total OPEX and Taxes per unit: 300. 00 450.
00 Required Parking Spots per Unit: Parking Spots: Assumed Vacancy Rate at Stabilization: Finally, you should pick a stabilized Vacancy Rate to reflect the fact that you’ll never fill the building 100% with tenants at any given time. You speak with local real estate agents, other developers, and property owners in the area to determine the proper figures to use for all of the etrics above.Pre-Construction # Months: Construction Start Month: Construction # Months: Rental Period Start Month: 3 4 6 10 The Construction Timeline may be either simple or complex depending on your model – in this example 1. 5 300 5. 0% with only 1 year, we include only the Pre-Constructionr Construction, and Post-Construction periods. In a more complex model over many years, you would also include events such as the Tenant Move-ln Dates (rather than assuming everyone moves in at once), the FF&E and Tl purchase dates, and so on.
You may also assume a Sale Date here to indicate the exact month in hich the building will be sold.Step 2: Estimate the Revenue, Expenses, and NOI for the Property Annual Property Income Statement: Gross Potential Annual Apartment Revenue: Gross Potential Annual Parking Revenue: Less: Vacancy Allowance: Annual Net Revenue: Annual Operating Expenses: Annual Property Taxes: Total Property-Level Expenses: 540,000 (327,000) 6,213,000 720,000 360,000 This is the easy part: Rental Income is rentable area * average rent per square foot or square meter; you could also use units for apartments, or rooms, days, and the ADR for hotels.Parking Revenue is based on the number of spots times the onthly fees times the months in a year. You must also subtract the Vacancy Allowance to determine net revenue (except for hotels, where you normally look at the occupancy rate as part of the revenue buildup) – the entire building will never be fully occupied. Current Year Net Operating Income: $ 5, 133,000 So ifyou were expecting to earn $100,000 in Rental Income but you also expect a 5% Vacancy Rate, you would net the 55,000 against the $100,000 to get $95,000 in net revenue.Operating expenses and property taxes are based on the cost per unit, room, square foot, or square meter and the total area or nits/rooms.
Then, Net Revenue ” Operating Expenses ” Property Taxes = Net Operating Income. In more complex models, you also have to account for the fact that revenue scales up over time as tenants move in, and you have to decide on Gross Area vs. Rentable Area when calculating expenses.Step 3: Estimate the Development Costs for the Project The main expense categories are Land Acquisition Costs, Hard Costs, Soft Costs, FF&E, and Tenant Improvements (see the Real Estate Development Key Terms PDF for definitions). Project Cost Assumptions – Bateman Apartments Project Costs: Hard Costs and FF&E: Soft Costs: Land Acquisition Costs: Capitalized Interest: Total Project Cost: per unit: Total: $ 130,000 50,000 1 70,000 14,000,000 684,809 You can go in-depth and project all of these on a fixed cost + variable cost (tied to square feet/meters) basis (see the office development course for an example of that).Or you can stay at a high level and estimate lump sum amounts for everything (see estimates on the left).
You must also include “hidden costs” such as Capitalized Financing fees, the Operating Deficit, and the Origination Costs of Debt. This part is tricky because there’s inherent circularity – you can determine hese expenses only once you’ve already built the rest of the model.The convention in real estate is to assume that loan interest is capitalized when the building is still under construction; the Operating Deficit corresponds to the period when you start paying expenses but do not yet have sufficient net income to cover everything. With all of these expenses, you need to speak with local real estate agents, developers, and property owners to get a sense of what your building might cost based on its size, location, and function – the numbers here are not necessarily representative of a real property.Step 4: Create a Sources & Uses Schedule and Determine the Debt and Equity Levels Once you know the Total Development Costs (TDC) you can assume a Loan-to-Cost (LTC) Ratio, an interest rate on the debt, and determine the required debt and equity: Project Cost Assumptions – Bateman Apartments Hard Costs and r-F&E: per Unit: 70,000 Debt & Equity Assumptions: Loan to Cost (LTC) Ratio: Debt Interest Rate: Required Equity: Loan Amount: Equity Amount: 70. 0% 30. 0% $ 35,479,366 1 5,205,443 In a more complex model, you would include both Developer Equity and Investor Equity, and you might have multiple tranches of debt (such as SeniorNotes and Mezzanine) with different interest rates.
The proper amounts for all of these and the Loan-to-Cost Ratio are based on comparable property developments – you would use whatever nearby, similar buildings have done recently. You might need those additional equity levels and additional tranches of debt because investors are only willing to invest up to a certain amount – you, the developer, might only have $3 million to invest, in which case you would need to recruit 3rd party investors to cover the rest of the equity.Step 5: Build an Income Statement Down to Net Operating Income or Net Income This part involves checking which Development Phase you’re in and then linking in the appropriate numbers. In this example, we assume a stabilized Vacancy Rate and 100% of monthly net revenue and monthly expenses as soon as construction finishes.
might add the following: In more complex models (see the office development example on the site), we 1 . Scale up revenue over time as more tenants move in over many months; 2. Model in expenses before revenue, since it takes a while to attract tenants and sign leases; 3.Assume a higher Vacancy Rate until it declines to a stabilized level. Ideally, you will also project Interest Expense to calculate Net Income rather than the NOI we’ve stopped at above – here, it doesn’t matter much because the NOI is more than sufficient to cover cash interest. But if it were not, we would need to draw on additional debt or equity. Normally you don’t look at Depreciation in real estate development models, but you may include it in real estate acquisition models if the property is already built; it doesn’t make a difference because you would add it back when calculating cash flows any. ay (and there are no corporate taxes, so no tax savings either).
Step 6: Distribute the Development Costs and Determine the Debt and Equity Required In this model, we simply straight-line expenses over the pre- Construction and Construction Phases: In more complex models, you might create a normalized distribution schedule for Hard Costs and something more random for Soft Costs; others such as FF, Tls, and Land Acquisition Costs would be straight-lined.You pay for the Land Acquisition Costs in the Pre-Construction phase; Hard Costs Occur mostly in the Construction Phase; Soft Costs are distributed throughout all phases; and you pay for FF and TIS in the Post-construction Phase, just before the tenants move in (simplified in the example above). nlike an LBO, where you pay for everything upfront, with real estate development the expenses occur gradually over time. That’s important because the debt and equity draws (see below) also occur over time, which affects the internal rate of return (IRR).