rationalise all the procedures and build them similar. Once the scope is outlined at the piloting committee of ECA on the project, which will also encompass the Press Trust Ltd as the project client, the foremost obligation of handling the scope shall be allocated with the project managers. The project managers shall alert any scope non-conformities at the monthly project meetings.
• Human resources
Planning is the initial stage in human resource (HR) management. So the acquisition, growth and management of human resources are to be arranged at a broad level for the duration of the project-planning stage. As the project scope turns out to be more clear, the HR plan shall be refined from time to time to integrate the up-to-date specifics. Motivation talks in workshop training would demonstrate to be critical to the enhancement of the confidence and zeal of the project team. Performance appraisal measures also have to be established in applause to reward the team members for greater performance supply.
The BPR project team is to have a weekly communication gathering at the functioning board composed of the Project Manager and a fortnightly gathering at the piloting group comprised of the project client and relevant stakeholders. The project leader from the established BPR team are expected to be reporting directly to the top management so that all the essential authorisations and consents for the BPR might be established as an uppermost urgency (Reijers, H.A. & Liman Mansar, S. 2005). The BPR team members also will be cheered to network with the piloting group This will make certain that they are receiving latest data about the project progress. Individual team members of both teams also to communicate with each other on a one-to-one basis and this will ensure that both the teams are working in harmony.
It is very challenging to utilise former approximations from other projects for outlining the precise time schedule for the Press Trust BPR project attributable to the difference of the project scope. Conversely, the former estimations contribute some understanding. Two number of procedures are extremely random in BPR projects namely, identifying the precise problems founded on the objectives, and attaining the answer to these matters.
Usually, the BPR team is supposed to be prepared to recognise the matters that possibly will disturb the optimisation of the objectives. On the other hand, if the team’s exploration of a matter is incorrect, more repetitions may be necessary to discover the right issues (Reijers, H.A. ; Liman Mansar, S. (2005).
These added repetitions cause the project to exceed its timeline and the timelines may slip and prove to be costly. It is also necessary for the BPR project team at ECA to consider attaining the best substitute answers to decide the matters recognised previously. The popular approaches to be used are brainstorming, Delphi method, Ishikawa diagram, 5 why (5Y) technique, Pareto charts, etc. (Hale A. ; Cragg P.B. (1996). Any extra time taken in the phases are required to be counterbalanced in next phases of the project.
Since a BPR project spans many sections in the corporation and almost all levels of management, it runs high risks. Hence, the risk management plan needs to be developed during the planning phase and updated as the project progresses (see Appendix VI).
The risks are great in the initiating stages of the project, and rises, as the project grows and then, successively the supreme substitute solution, is found for a prevailing activity, the risks commence lessening and turn out to be inconsequential at the close of the project. The cause for the amplified risks in BPR projects is because of the great perceptibility and high rewards of these projects. If they are unproductive at the end, both the resources invested and the morale of the project team or the client will be affected. Overall, this can induce a bad working environment for the professionals. Therefore, the leading professional on the team has to be aware and oversee the client’s anticipations awaiting the greatest alternatives are established for all the undertakings.
The preliminary cost planning phase on the yearly aimed savings from this project shall regulate the cost approximations which will be decided for the project. Subsequently, these approximations are to be broken down into various stages (As-Is study, To-Be process design) to be executed throughout the project.
Operating within the budgeted costs for each phase is a challenge bearing in mind the changes made in searching for the greatest alternative process which has a great probability to exceed the budget in this stage. On the other hand, as the other phases shall be completed within the specified budget, the overall project budget may be put under control.
The measuring the quality of the productivity for each phase in BPR project is very challenging. However, it is better to utilise process efficiency as an indicator from our perspective. The process efficiency measurement will involve the conversion of the stage yield in monetary terms.
The new re-engineered processes are achieved if costs are comprised as extra investments, for instance, manpower, and infrastructure, then the investments before the re-engineering of the project, will determine the quality factors for the procedures along these lines:
• The to-be process is 50% or extra efficient than the existing As-Is procedure, therefore exceeding the prospects.
• The to-be process is between 25% and 50% extra efficient than the existing as is procedure — meeting anticipations.
• Any to-be procedures not more than 25% is less efficient has to be revised.
Another quality parameter can be associated with the culture. While designing the re-engineered processes, it is important that the local cultural aspects and regulations should be taken into account. If any future re-engineered process violates the local cultural principles or regulations should be excluded.
2.7. Possible Constraints
It can be recognised to comprehend the intricacies required in numerous dimensions for this BPR design process project. Each dimension has to be assessed thoroughly while designing and implementing this BPR project. However, the following are the possible constraints or draw back the ECA organisation is likely to face:
• Divergent employment time
The local Malawi rules allocate to about 40 hours of working per week, however, the BPR project, especially from the client perspective, will involve working with professionals from other countries like Germany where a 35 hours per week is observed or Asia where a 48 hours per week duration is their custom. The respective divergent working periods may generate a concern when developing the benchmark time for implementation of the BPR process.
• Risk of omitting dominant Procedures
The procedure to lessen the outcome fluctuating lead time, most of the current processes will need be amalgamated or cut to make them correspondingly, lean and mean. The risk is to accidentally remove a dominant procedure which may affect the overall project duration to produce the intended design (Thompson, P. A. 1989).
• Working culture of resistance to change
One of the major anticipated challenge will be the culture of resistance to change which appears in almost every organisation. Some of the team members in the BPR project may resist adapting to the change to new re-engineered processes because of the following reasons:
? Loss of authority and command as project team position is reshuffled
? Lack of proficiencies and experience desired to administer the change.
? Worry about employment loss as their skills may become absolute
? General individual dissent with the new re-engineered processes.
? Uncertainty or disbelief concerning the demand for change
? Disagreement to the innovative technologies, obligations and procedures initiated by the change
? Corporate history and culture of our Malawian working custom to be comfortable with the status quo as they fear the unknown
? Individually failing to comprehend the goal and demand for change
In addition, since the BPR project encourages diversity, the so-called liberal employment policies from other employment country postures an issue with respects to how severe the administration can be when developing and applying up to the project work standards (Hale A. & Cragg P.B. 1996).
The BPR activity encloses all hierarchies and stages in the overall building design project processes. The first initial stages of the project is the formation of a central team of the design for Press Trust Ltd project. The processes then should be established appropriately and made to prevent any sagging procedure that is likely to cause problems/failure in the delivery of the office design to the client thereby affecting the project severely. The fundamental and significant process to design and regulate is likely to be communication within the organisation as it envelops the overall process dialogue administration.
Risk also needs to be premeditated in the planning phase of the BPR project. It should be anticipated that at every phase of the design process, various types of risks will be encountered. Bearing this in mind, it is essential that the recognition and documentation of risks records ought to be conducted regularly.
The Scope analysis process also should be considered regularly as there is always a fine line between “inside scope” and “out of scope”. Therefore, the BPR team needs to concentrates on the principal objectives of BPR project and work within the project scope to save time and cost on conducting out of scope irrelevant activities. In addition, by means of suitable systematic modus operandi and inventiveness, time and cost of project will be contained inside the specified parameters as it is critical to regulate the feasibility of the building design project. The possession of quality scales or parameters/indicators will help in making quick verdicts on procedures to be re-engineered and eventually leading to the accomplishment of the anticipated BPR objectives (Thompson, P. A. 1989). Extra facts arising during the project implementation are to be processed in the later phases of the optimisation.
The critical success factors disclosed in this case are revealed to be in line with the majority of the available BPR concepts in existing literature. In spite of this, the critical success factors presented are not golden regulations because BPR focusses on creativity, innovation and drastic alterations. It is expected that ECA corporation will continue to advance their BPR process and the continuous training procedure will prolong.
Hammer and Champy (1993) accurately express that BPR is similar to a contest of chess than roulette; one loses not for the reason of bad chance but since one is not fully conversant with the rules and moves of the game.The project leaders in the BPR projects therefore need to take note the setback to the idea of achieving radical productivity as their over-enthusiasm may make vulnerable the attainment of a fine conceptualised design project.