Q&A on Diseases essay

As I was going down, leaving the nose I knew I would encounter several types Of defense Systems 0 top me, encountered some mucous lining located in the trachea.

Was digested along the mucous into the stomachs harmful acids. Ouch that was very painful. I then got through the soft skin tissue of the intestine, where I infected an area of tissue. That part got red, hot and swollen. Oh no I knew that was a response of the body so I was then encountered with a rush of blood, which would help me get into the blood stream.There was confronted with an army of interruptions, which all tried to take form of me and consume me. I managed to dodge them. After that there was the last fence called the lymph nodes, which tried to destroy me, Oh the horror, there were so many white-blood cells.

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But I got through it all and landed in the bloodstream, where I multiplied and successfully managed to take over the blood stream. 3. Why is the cell (invaded by a virus) called the host cell?This is because viruses can only grow and reproduce, inside the cells that they have invaded. The virus uses the host cell to reproduce and make thousands of copies of it.

It feeds off it and gains nutrients and that is why the cell is called a host, as it is being used of to benefit the virus . Often after taking medicine or being ill, people are advised to eat yoghurt. Find out why this is done and what the benefits of this food maybe? Yoghurt is very good for the digestive system.It prevents bacterial infection in the intestine. Yogurt is made with good bacteria, which it provides more of the good bacteria. That is just what your stomach needs to help get back to functioning normally and get rid of the bad bacteria causing you to fall ill. 5.

Name one infectious disease and identify symptoms preventions treatments and cures (if there is a cure) polio is a very highly infectious asses that can lead to permanent paralysis, or even death.This disease is more likely to happen to the elderly, pregnant women and young people, though 90% of polio infections have no symptoms at all Gym Potts Common symptoms: severe muscle pain, muscle spasms, fatigue, back and neck pain, Non paralytic: flu-like symptoms, fever, sore throat, headaches, vomiting, breathing problems Paralytic polio: Paralysis, stiff muscles, loss of muscle reflexes Preventions There are two vaccines available to fight polio – inactivated oblivious (PIP) and oral polio vaccine (POP).Treatments There is currently no cure for polio, only time will tell, if they get better, though treatments can be taken to reduce discomfort and symptoms associated with polio. Cures (if there is one) There are no treatments to polio but treatments can be taken to reduce the discomfort. These treatments include: pain killers, antibiotics, physiotherapy, moderate exercise and in the worst case, defibrillators to control breathing. 6. What is a protozoan? Identify three diseases caused by protozoan.Protozoa are a diverse range of single celled organism that shows characteristics of animal-like behavior such as movement.

Diseases caused by Protozoa include: Malaria, African sleeping sickness and Bossiness 7. Why is the animal or plant in which a parasite causes disease, called the host The organism lives off the animal/parasite, from which it gains nutrients off and reproduces and matures off it. The parasite depends on the host and gives it a place to survive and thrive on. It is a host in which it can do all these things on. 8. What is ringworm? What causes it?Is it an internal or external parasite? Ringworm is an infection caused by a type of fungus.

It is a highly contagious and it can affect the scalp, ace, body, feet or nails. Caused by fungal germs (fungi) and it is an Internal Parasite because it attacks the digestive system once it gets inside, through the mouth. 9. List three ways; disease can be spread by direct contact Disease can be spread through physical contact, through oral secretions or sexual contact 10. Name two vectors of disease Vectors include: People and Bugs, organisms which transport 11.

How is salmonella (A type of food poisoning) spread? It can be spread through fecal matter (usually of pets) if hands are not sanitized properly. Person to person such as: breathing in, contact, saliva etc. When it is food is inadequately cooked and it is contaminated on other surfaces. 12. Why should people serving food in shops and restaurants where gloves or use tongs? So other surfaces and equipment aren’t contaminated with this disease, which is created by raw and inadequately cooked foods. 13.

Life expectancy for Australians (1901-93) Year fife expectancy Males Females 1901 55 years 59 years 1983 72 years 79 years 1993 75 years 81 years a. Suggest what major factors have influenced the changes in life expectancy between 1901 – 1993 Food supply and Nutrition – In 1993 more food was available to everyone. Fruits and vegetables were available to us at affordable prices. , could provide the nutrients to make us healthy and to give our bodies, nutrients, which it requires to grow and keep it healthy from, body impairing bacteria, which can cause disease.Health – Breakthroughs scientific research antibiotics, and widespread vaccination for people, neutralized many long-leading causes of death. Life expectancy skyrocketed. Advances into knowledge of medical sciences, provided doctors, with effective treatments of disease causing death. This meant that many diseases could be treated effectively through medicines, which were also made, to counteract these diseases.

Hygiene ? Nowadays is considered really sanitized, compared to 1 901. We as a society have become more hygiene aware in our practices.Now we are more aware of the risk and dangers of how quickly bacteria can spread and how, we can stop it. Research has found out new ways to remain hygienic by washing our hands with soap and using gloves and tongs, when handling meat and foods. B.

Why do females have a higher Life expectancy? Female hormones are naturally protective against heart diseases, which is a common reason to why people usually pass away from. Illnesses related to mooing and alcohol consumption also kill more men than Women in this age group. But heart disease is the main cause of the gender gap here.

Men experience a very high rise in the risk of heart disease beginning in their ass; in comparison, women’s risk of dying from heart disease does not begin to increase until after menopause, and it approaches the male risk only in extreme old age. C. Represent this in a Column Graph Life Expectancy 14. Immunization Of children in Australia (six years or less, 1990) Type of condition Proportion of children unmissed (%) Diphtheria/Tetanus 86. 3 Whooping cough 70.

9 polio 72. 1 Measles 86. 0 Mumps 80. 5 a. Against what disease where more most children most unmissed Diaphanousness (86. 3%) b.

What might be the difference in the percentage of children unmissed for each disease There might be a difference in how each disease may cost, at what age the vaccine, when it may be given to he child and how important the parents may think the disease may be to vaccinate. The awareness taken: by advertisements, to tell parents what the vaccine is, what it does and where you can get the vaccine. C. What is the ADD vaccine given to 15 to 19 year olds The ADD vaccine is a combination vaccine that contains the Adult Diphtheria ND tetanus vaccine, to treat the Diphtheria and Tetanus Polio diseases. D.

Give two reasons why people might not want to immunes their children Parents may feel, that the vaccine may cost too much, from their doctor or for religious reasons, which tells them not to inflict pain on children (causes by the injection of needles) 15. Edward Jennet was the first to use a vaccine. What did he do? A dairymaid consulted Edward Jennet in 1796 about a rash on her hand He diagnosed. Sarah confirmed that one of her cows, a cow, had recently had cowpox.

Edward Jennet realized that this was his opportunity to test the retroactive properties of cowpox by giving it to someone who had not yet suffered smallpox in their life.He chose James Phipps, the eight-year old son of his gardener to try and treat. On 14th May, he made a few scratches on one of James’ arms and rubbed some material from one of the pocks on Sarah’s hand. A few days later, James became mildly ill with cowpox, but was well again a week later. So Jennet knew that cowpox could pass from person to person as well as from cow to person.

Essentially, The disease, cowpox was used as a vaccine by Edward Jennet, to effectively, treat and cure smallpox. 16. Choose one of the following scientists Sir. Howard Floret Sir.Frank McFarland Burnet professor Peter Doherty Find out: Outline their life The area of science they specializes in What their major achievement was Sir Howard Walter Floret Sir Howard Walter Floret was born on September 24, 1898, at Adelaide, South Australia. His early education was at SST. Pewter’s Collegiate School, Adelaide, following which he went on to Adelaide University where he graduated M.

B. B. S. In 1921. He was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist. This is a mixture of medicine and biology, which analyses the effects of a drug on a cell, tissue, organ or organism.A pathologist is what Sir Howard Floret did, in studying diseases, learning about it and diagnosing the disease.

His best-known work dates from his collaboration with chain, which began in 1938 when they conducted investigation of the properties of naturally occurring antibacterial substances. Loosely, an antibacterial substance found in saliva and human tears, was their original research, but their interest moved to substances now known as antibiotics. The work on penicillin (one of the first types of anti-biotic) was a result of their experiments.He had been warded honorary degrees by seventeen universities and is a member or honorary member of many learned societies and academies in the field of medicine and biology. In 1944 he was sighted as a Knight Bachelor.

On 4 February 1965 Sir Howard was appointed a life peer and became Baron Floret of Adelaide in the State of South Australia and Commonwealth Of Australia. This was a higher honor than the knighthood awarded to penicillin’s discoverer and it recognized the monumental work Floret did in making penicillin available in sufficient quantities to save millions of lives in the war.

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