Q1:1 – Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years old
Children and young people develop at different rates; however, the sequences in which they develop follow the same pattern. There are five fundamental stages of human development in which children and young people are measured on, all of which are vital as each other and impacts a child’s future potential considerably.
Social development
Social development is the ability to interact with others effectively in order to coexist. This means that one needs to develop an understanding of the social norms in which they live – acquiring a sense of right and wrong (moral principles), forming relationships, independency and caring for others, all of which will enable children and young people to build a sense of who they are and where they fit in society.
Physical development
Physical development depends on genetic makeup as well external factors such as exercise, diet and environmental factors which include effects of family, society and culture of physical growth. It also included the ability to use body parts and muscles for a particular skill (gross and fine motor skills).

Intellectual development
Intellectual development refers to the ability of processing and understanding information, thus utilising this information enabling the individual to make sense of a world they live in. In addition, it involves imagination (i.e. storytelling), memorisation (i.e. repetition of a song), creativity (i.e. making music) and also concentration and problem solving skills.
Communication development
Communication is a vital skill which allows a person to adequately exchange information, whether it is spoken, written or gestures. It is such an important skill that a young child begins to develop communication skills even before being able to use words, i.e. a baby crying to due hunger. Hence, it is essential that children meet their milestones in order to build personal and social relations as a delay in this development can cause frustration and miscommunication.
Emotional development
Emotional development refers to the psychological state associated with feelings, thoughts and behaviour which can be influenced by many factors such as temperament, mood and even personality and culture differences. Therefore, managing these skills and being able to recognise and deal with emotions is essential to the individual’s wellbeing.
These five aspects of development will be looked at through the stages of age and how each category is important as each other.
0-3 months
Physical development
The growth development of a baby during this stage is very rapid. Babies will be able to move their legs and arms, despite being quite jerky. They will also have a number of inbuilt reflexes like blinking in response to a flash of light or a puff of air. By three months, babies may bob their heads in a rocking movement, their legs are arms are no longer tucked under body, but are more straightened with coordinating kicking movement. They will gradually learn to roll over onto their backs when lying on their side (gross motor skills).
They will be developing their fine motor skills, for example, babies will be able to clench their fists and loosen their grasp. They will turn their heads towards lights or moving objects. They will be fascinated by faces and will wave their arms in excitement. They will be able to hold objects in their hands such as a rattle, but then drop it in a short time.
Social development
As early as four to six weeks, babies will begin to social smile, becoming more frequent as they grow, and is in response to a person or people with whom they have formed a bond. They are predisposed to be social from birth as they will communicate by crying to have their needs met, or to seek comfort from their career if they are upset.
Intellectual development
Babies become interested in new objects and they will recognise faces which in turn they will turn their gaze towards that. They will start to focus and gaze on complex objects and may respond to bright and bold colours.
By three months, they will begin to anticipate coming events, for example, they may start to make a cry or become excited when in very close proximity of a bottle/breast or start yawning when placed in a front carrier (as babies find comfort when being physically close to their carer).
Communication development
Before babies can speak, they vocalise. They will do this to attract attention, for example, crying to signal distress or even cooing to signal pleasure. They will also begin to recognise familiar voices and will start to feel comfort upon hearing the familiar voice (they may stop crying). They may also show that they are hungry by turn their cheek and opening their mouth when their cheek is stroked.
Emotional development
The primary way a baby less than 5-6 weeks expresses emotion is by crying. After 6 weeks, they will begin to social smile and may begin to express excitement and surprise. They may also experience feeling emotional when not held, or having a change in their routine.
3-9 months
Physical development
Babies at this age will start to put everything into their mouth. This will give them information about the object, for example texture, shape and taste.
Their eye colour will be fixed and their posterior fontanelle will start to close. At 3-4 months, they will automatically suck objects when places in their mouth, start stepping if their feet are placed on a flat surface, and will even fan out their toes in reflex if the sole of their feet are stroked.
They will develop the ability to sit up on their own at 6 months, and may pull their knees up in an attempt to crawl. They may demonstrate the parachute reflex when held in the air and then whooshed down.

At 9 months, they may move backwards in the crawling position before forwards. They can sit for 15 minutes or more without support and can put out arms to prevent falling. With the help of furniture, they can pull themselves up from a kneeling position and can step around, but cannot lower themselves down so will fall heavily back on their bottom. They will use inferior princer grasp with their index finger and thumb.

Social development
Babies at this age will start to respond to their name and will attempt to communicate through voice and gestures. They will have a desire of their own, for example, wanting to be held or wanting a particular toy, and will start to see themselves separate to others. Despite the enjoyment of being talked to and played with familiar people, they will become sensitive to strangers and will become aware of unfamiliar surroundings.
Intellectual development
Babies at this age will start to think, increase recognition and even development judgement, although this happens gradually. They will notice sizes of objects, using their fine motor skills, for example, using their index finger and thumb for smaller objects, and both hands for larger objects.
They will begin to repeat actions that have not originated from reflexes, for example, grabbing toys hanging from a toy mobile. They will begin to understand the concept of ‘in’ and ‘out’ by putting toys into a pot and dumping them out. They will enjoy learning through exploring with toys, for example, textures of different toys, shapes, sound and colours. Furthermore, they will begin to imitate through games, for example, clapping and dancing.

Communication development
Babies at this age will start to make distinct sounds despite not being distinct words. They will begin by making single-syllable sounds, for example, ma, da, ga, trying to imitate words or sounds they recognise. They will respond to words such as ‘mummy’ or ‘daddy’ and will look at the person calling their name. They may even throw their bottle on the floor to show that they have finished drinking. They will experiment with their voice, using high and low pitches.
Emotional development
At this age, babies will be shy with strangers, but will show affection to their carer and people who they are familiar with. They will show strong feelings of likes and dislikes, and will communicate these feelings by voice, gestures and facial expressions.
They may also be teething, so will be feeling irritated and restless. They may experience distress if they are separated from their carer, and excitement when reunited.
9-18 months
Physical development
As early at 12 months, toddlers at this age will be able to sit alone indefinitely and can get into a sitting position when lying down. If they are able to pull themselves up stand, they will begin to walk around furniture and can return to sitting without falling. They will attempt to crawl up stairs and come down backwards (still unsafe) and will start throwing objects deliberately. They will be able to hold spoons in a palmer grasp and may even show preference to using a specific hand, even though they will continue to still use both. Their anterior fontanlle will continue to close and will start to lose the baby fat when they start walking.

At 15 months, they will begin to walk alone whilst keeping their feet wide apart for balance, although they will not be able to easily avoid obstacles and will bumps into things. They will enjoy being read to and will even point to familiar objects from a book.

At 18 months, they will be able to walk around confidently and will start to show independency as they will start to feed themselves and will begin to be toilet trained. Furthermore, they will be able to build a tower of bricks and gesture what he/she wants with words aswell, even though they won’t be sentences.
Social development
At this stage, toddlers will still enjoy playing with their carer whilst continuing to show affection, as well as playing with others. They will be much more independent and can play simple games, will respond to simple instructions.

Intellectual development
Toddlers will continue to explore objects with hands and fingers, and will begin to be aware of the daily routines, for example, feeling exciting when a bib is placed around them as they know they will be fed. By 18 months, they will know what familiar objects are called and will begin to learn by trial and error, for example, learning about objects that are heavy and light. They will have little recognition of threats or danger.

Communication development
At this stage, toddlers will to understand many words before speaking them and then first words will be spoken which usually include the names of familiar people or objects, for example, ‘mummy’ or ‘juice’. These words are used to express several meanings for them. They will gradually start to use two words, for example, ‘me hungry’ and will use gestures alongside.
Emotional development
Children at this age will have a variety of strong emotions, for example, refusing to go to bed and staying in bed and may have temper tantrums and rapid mood swings. They will be emotionally less stable that around 15 months and will start to show separation anxiety and will be very upset if not in care of the primary carer. Even though this shows that they are very dependent on their carer, they will show signs of independency by refusing to listen, for example, refusing to finish food and will or refusing to share toys with other children.
18-24 months
Physical development
Toddlers at this age will be able to walk confidently and can stop without falling. They will enjoy push/pull toys and will attempt to kick a ball, throwing a ball but will find it difficult to catch one. They will be able to climb onto things, for example, an adult’s chair and carry objects from one place to another confidently. They will start to scribble while holding a crayon in their whole hand (tripod grasp), and will try to thread large beads, and hold them using a fine princer grasp by 3.
Social development
Toddlers at this stage will enjoy playing with other children or alongside other children (parallel playing) and may to imitate what they have seen, for example, a toddler can see another child pulling someone’s hair, and then will copy that child by doing the same thing the next day. They will begin to show willingness to help adults, for example, tidying up after playing, and will follow simple household chores.
Intellectual development
Toddlers at this age will have a longer memory and will be able to concentrate for longer; however, will still find it difficult to process long sentences, for example, ‘Can you go to the kitchen after dinner and get me the ball’ so it is important that sentences are kept short and simple. They will be able to use symbols to correspond to things, for example, using blocks and sliding it across the floor to represent a car. As their memory expands, they will be able to play simple games, for example, fit an animal jigsaw puzzle and knowing the sounds that each animal makes.

Communication development
Toddlers will begin to use quickly produce new words (vocabulary spurt) and will be understable despite being 2 word utterances. They will repeat words and begin to talk about objects or people that are not in their view, for example, ‘where daddy?’. They will use gesture alongside words, for example, pointing to their knee and saying ‘bump if their knee has been bumped.
Emotional development
Toddlers at this stage will continue to have rapid mood swings; however, they will be willing to show affection, for example sharing their toys with their primary carer or giving them hugs. They will continue trying to be independent but can quickly shift to wanting help. They will continue to show fear, for example being around strangers, but once reassured, they will observe other adults and explore unfamiliar environments. They may display signs of jealousy if another child is receiving attention.

2-3 years
Physical development
At 2 years, toddlers will be able to run and can easily stop and start. They will be able to squat in order to pick up objects from the floor and will be able to come down the stairs using two feet at a step. They will show that they have a preferred hand to use when holding a crayon, and will use fine princer grasp to do more difficult tasks, for example, turning a page in a book.
At 2 and a half, they will be able to jump with both feet and can stand on tiptoes when demonstrated how to do so. They will continue to push and pull toys and can imitate horizontal lines as well as drawing circles. Their milk teeth would have started to appear.

At 3, toddlers will be able to walk around obstacles and corners, whilst being able to walk backwards and sideways. They will start to be able to hold a pencil between the first two fingers and their thumb and can push pedals on a bike. Toilet training is usually concluded at this stage.
Social development
Toddlers at this stage will try to become more independent but will become irritated when unable to do something without help. They will imitate others but still mainly parallel play, being reluctant to share toys. They may watch others play with interest, and may join in for a few minutes, for example, engaging in role play. They will engage in routine activities, for example, singing a ‘good morning’ song with other toddlers, but will often play alone in tasks they find interesting.

Intellectual development
Toddlers will imitate at this stage. They will engage in sustained role play, and will become creative, for example, using a block as a phone or playing with tea cups pretending to serve tea. The memory will start to expand, especially things that are constantly repeated to them, for example, doing phonics with a toddler every day, they will see be able to recognise the letter and the sound it makes. They will start to understand colours such as yellow and red, and will begin to understand the concept of number at 3. They will understand the concept of something happening in the past, but will use the words ‘yesterday’ in reference to something that happened a couple of days ago.

Communication development
At this stage, toddlers will be constantly asking questions and use a wider range of words. They will start to enjoy complicated stores and ask to be read their favourites. By 3, most children can pronounce the phonic sounds of their home language, and will begin to understand the concept that if you want to make something plural, you ass an ‘s’ or if you want to say something in the past tense, you add ‘ed’ at the end of a word, but may make mistakes, for example, ‘I doned it’.
Emotional development
As toddlers will find it easier to communicate and their vocabulary expands, the will become less frustrated as they will be able to communicate in how they are feeling. On the other hand, children who are behind on their speech will become frustrated as they cannot express how they are feeling. Toddlers may also be going through the ‘terrible twos’ and may have tantrums and outburst. They will begin to be aware of others’ feelings, for example, a toddler seeing another child ill.
3-5 years
Physical development
By this stage, toddlers will be able to turn sharp corners and play on playground apparatus. They will be able to run, walk backwards and walk on their tiptoes, and can hop on a preferred foot. They will gain the ability to hold a pencil with good control and copy letters aswell as threading beads utilising their find motor skills. They will show increasing skills, for example, catching, throwing, riding a balance bike and swiftly being able to ride a bike by 5 (if practised regularly). By 5, they will be able to write simple words with good control, draw recognisable pictures, for example, a man or a house, and can draw certain shapes like a triangle or square.
Social development
From the age of 3, toddlers are able to understand what is sharing and taking turns, as well as cooperating with adults and peers. They will develop companionship with their peers and will alternate between playing and fighting as these friendships are quite transient.
From 4, toddlers will understand between right and wrong, and realise that fighting will not resolves an issue, for example, fighting over a toy, and they need to sort it out verbally.
They tend to be self confident, but still seeks recognition and approval for their achievements. They will begin to make new friends and has more of a control over their emotions.
Intellectual development
Toddlers at this stage will begin to dress and undress themselves whilst recognising different body parts. They will be able to count up to 20, recognise shapes and colours, understand the concept of cause and effect, for example, if they push another child, that child will be in pain. The will begin to understand simple calculations, especially with the aid of objects and a story, for example, using the story of the Hungry Caterpillar and calculating 2 strawberries and 2 strawberries. They will continue to role play and use different voices to be different characters, whilst communicating with other using sentences and gestures. They will develop awareness of cultural backgrounds and differences, for example, what Christmas is, or different places around the world.

Communication development
At this stage, toddlers’ vocabulary and speech is intelligible, even to strangers, and will continue to develop rapidly, using the different tenses, whilst still making some mistakes, for example, ‘I doned it.’ They will be able to follow instructions and be able to ask many questions to satisfy their growing interests. Their speech will start to match the subject matter, for example, they will speak differently to their teacher compared to the way they talk to their peers. They will be able to tell stories in sequence if they particularly enjoy a story with or without the book, as well as being able to read words with regular spelling. They will be able to read most 3-letter words, for example, cat, dog, man, cat etc.
Emotional development
At this age, toddlers will be able to express their emotions verbally, for example, if they are upset, instead of acting them out. If they are behind on communicating, they may become easily frustrated, for example, when they are unable to complete a task. They will develop a good and understanding of moral justice and will realise that emotional regulation is required to meet social standards as they realise that their actions have an effect on others. They may become frustrated and have tantrums if they are tired or over stimulated. Furthermore, they will become less attached to their carer as they start to explore new child-friendly environments, for example, a nursery.
5-7 years
Physical development
Children at this age should be confident using the toilet; however, they may still have unexpected accidents, for example, bed wetting. They should be able to dress themselves and using their motor skills, for example, when doing their zip or button. They will be able to colour pictures neatly and write sentences, as well as using cutlery competently. They will be more active and enjoy certain games or sports, for example, football or gymnastics. They should have a dominant hand or ambidexterity, and may start losing their milk teeth.

Social development
They will be able to follow rules of a game efficiently and be able to take turns. Children will learn social norms through experience, for example, witnessing a child being told off for using a bad word, and a teacher’s standard are often acknowledged over the mothers. Furthermore, they may be able to anticipate others people’s emotions when observing and engaging with them.
Intellectual development
Children will be well organised in their communication through language, body gestures and facial expressions. They will be able to consider a situation from another person’s perspective, for example, being told ‘How would Tim felt when he was pushed?’ They will be learning to understand the concepts of weight, height, times, and will be able to complete jigsaws, learning about money and will be gaining knowledge about the world, for example, the different seasons and why we have them.
Communication development
At this stage, children will begin to speak with confidence and fluency, using complex language to express their thoughts and feelings more accurately. They will use different forms of language in different situations, for example, they may speak more politely to their teacher compares to how they would speak to their younger sibling. Whilst their reading and writing is continuously progressing, they may still make mistakes, for example, writing the letter ‘d’ and ‘b’ backwards. In addition, they will be able to retell a story and create stories from their imagination. They will ask questions presenting marked curiosity, for example, ‘how do plants grow?’ and would be able to apply irregular verbs more correctly, for example, instead of saying ‘I growed that’ they would say, ‘I grew that.’
Emotional development
Children will continue to show self confidence and will wants to things on their own, for example, brushing their teeth, but may still experience difficulty and disappointment so reassurance is essential. Their strong sense of justice will continue to grow as they will tell their peers when rules are broken, but approval is still vital as they may blame others for their wrongdoings to avoid dissatisfaction. As they learn to control their emotions, they will seek to comfort others if they see that they are upset. They will be more comfortable spending time away from the primary carer, and may begin to experience new emotions, for example, embarrassment.
7-12 years
Physical development
Children during this stage will be very active and will enjoy being active, getting involved in sports and hobbies, for example, learning a musical instrument, dancing, karate, football etc. They will be able to ride a two-wheeled bike without stabilisers, will be able to catch and throw a ball and their handwriting is more controlled and uniformly spaced. Girls can begin showing first signs of puberty at 8 yr, and boys at 10. By 12, sexual characteristics will develop in both boys and girls, and they may produce sweat due to stress or emotions.
Social development
Children at this stage will make more friends and will see things from other people’s point of view, whilst still struggling to understand the needs of others. At the latter part of this stage, they will become very sensitive to criticism and may fall into peer pressure, for example, imitating how their peers are dressed, wanting to fit in. In addition, bullying may takes place and adult intervention is vital.

Intellectual development
At this stage, children will develop their reading and writing skills. They will learn to use comparatives, for example, the plant that was near the window grew faster compared to the plant that was inside a cupboards. They will be able to write stories using their imagination, and will learn to use grammar appropriately. Their knowledge on Math will expand, for example, learning about fractions, and will be using different sources to aid their learning, like the internet, electronic media and textbooks. They will be able to plan ahead and are able to focus on activities for a longer period of time.
Communication development
During this stage, children will be able to form complex and complicated sentences with the use of adverbs, adjectives and conjunctions in a fluent manner with their vocabulary continuing to progress. They will gain knowledge of how form debates, and they will gain an understanding of how to use pragmatics (when to use particular style of language and how to use it appropriately).
Emotional development
Children at this stage will enjoy their own company and have a strong sense of personal space. Despite having a clear understanding of what is right and wrong, they will seek approval from their peers (usually of the same sex), whilst understanding the consequences of their own behaviour. During the later period of this age, they will experience a change and puberty begins. They may experience heightened emotions and will respond negatively to criticism.
12-19 years
Physical development
Physical development differs between every child as some may already be physically mature and others are just beginning this process as it doesn’t come all at once, but stages and may take many years.
In males, their voices get deeper and lower and may ‘break’ while its changing but will in time disappear. Their penis and testicles get larger, whilst their chest and shoulders become broader as their muscles start to grow. They will also develop body hair and they will generally be bigger than females at the end of this period.
In females, their breasts develop and begin to swell; their hips become wider and body become curvy. Their labia may change colour and they will start to grow pubic hair.
Social development
Teenagers will be spending more time with their friends and may start having intimate relationships. They will be able to build stringer relationships than those in the past as they will begin to see their future. During this progress, tensions between themselves and family may grow with peer pressure and independency playing a vital role.
Intellectual development
Teenagers will begin to think abstractly and critically and will be able to come to conclusions about events that they have not experience personally. They will be able to debate both formally and informally, as well as reason about right and wrong. They will begin to think about their future, and will be able to realise the consequences of the actions. Due to being in education, they will learn to be able to handle time management; their language will become more primitive and will be able to grasp concepts such as politics, religion, moral concepts etc. Despite teens knowing what is right and wrong, they may start to become arrogant and not always make the wise choices, giving little though to certain actions.

Communication development
As teenager become more independent from their family, they will start establishing their own identity, gaining the ability to think logically and abstractly, all of which will affect how they communicate. They will be able to solve conflicts, although. They may start talking a certain way to their peers, but a complete different way to their family, for example, speaking in slang or street talk with friends. Their vocabulary will continuously be expanding and will therefore gain the skills to present arguments, whilst still be able to see things from another perspective.
Emotional development
They need reassurance during their teenage years. They are going through physical and emotional changes. Not only will they become self conscious, they will be spending more times with their peers and may give into peer pressure, for example, smoking, despite having a good understand of what is right and wrong. Teenager will become more independent as they start to define personal roles in society whilst dealing with issues such as parental beliefs, college and politics. They may begin to question values of society and push the boundaries, for example, this is often seen in the family which can cause a lot of conflict and tension, as they expect to be treated like ‘grown ups.’
Q1:2 – Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important
Sequence of development refers to the normal order that a child develops and learns different skills, although this can vary with every child. For example, the majority of babies will first learn to gain strength in the neck which enables them to lift their head before they can roll over. Children will generally progress from one milestone to the next, but if a child find a milestone difficult, it can cause a delay in other areas.

The rate of development refers to the speed in which a child develops; however, this will vary as it depends on the individual and the factors that could influence them such as learning difficulties, child’s background etc. An example of this is that some babies will start teething at 6 months, and others may start at 10 months, or some babies will start social smiling from 6 weeks, whilst other babies who don’t have playful interactions with an adult may start social smiling a lot later. Some babies will start to walk after learning to crawl from very early on, for example, crawling at 7 months, and then walking by 9 months, and another child will follow the same sequence by crawling forst at 6 months, but then could have a different rate of physical development and start walking by their first birthday.
This will cover the five areas of development (Physical, social, intellectual, communication and emotional). It is essential to understand the difference between the sequence and rate of development to ensure that a child’s needs are met and it will also help us indentify their needs during their development to identify what milestones have been met and when.
This will help carers or schools spot any concerns, and then to plan and arrange that children to have the right support that they require for the areas that are challenging. For example, a child may have a stammer, and will find it difficult to communicate or even find it difficult to join in activities and make friends. The child would then be referred to a Speech & Language therapist, who would liaise with the family or school in order to support the child’s communication skills, developing self confidence and working on feelings associated with stammering, for example, fear.

Q2:2 – Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors
Children and young people’s development can be affected by personal factors. These factors are specific to that individual.
Genetics
Our cells contain out genetic code in order to create the person we are. The nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes which are made up of DNA. They include all the hereditary information about an individual, for example personal factors that can influence children and young people’s development such as cystic fibrosis.
With cystic fibrosis, individuals will produce a high amount of sticky and thick music that accumulates around organs, such as the lung which cause them to have breathing difficulty, exercise intolerance, poor weigh gain and growth. Not only does it affect their physical development, it will affect them socially as they won’t be involved in many activities, such as sports, and as they may be out if school for long periods, they will miss out on cognitive and social learning. They may feel embarrassed due to their symptoms (coughing phlegm) and could possibly end up isolating themselves. In addition, they may experience emotional distress, for example becoming depressed, or being to dependant on someone else, especially during the teenage years when normal individuals become more independent.
There are also genetic factors that are not hereditary, for example, Klinefelter’s syndrome. This occurs when males have an extra X chromosome (XXY instead of XY). Males with this syndrome have physical development and intellectual difficulties. They tend to be very tall with and undeveloped penis and testes, which results to infertility. Due to the lower production of testosterone, they will have reduced facial and body hair and enlarging breast tissue. Male babies may possible take longer than average to sit up, crawl and walk. In addition, there is a frequent communication and intellectual impairment. There may be a delay in learning to talk; some may find putting their thoughts and ideas into words and therefore would have trouble using speech and language to express their thoughts, feelings and needs.
Health issues
There are various amounts of health issues that can affect children and young people’s development.
These may include parental behaviour during pregnancy, for example, a woman consuming alcohol during pregnancy (foetal alcohol syndrome) can have a devastating effect on the child. Effects can vary from child to child, but it will mean children will find it difficult reaching their milestones, affecting their physical and intellectual development. This includes physical abnormalities such as small eye openings, thin upper lip; babies may have a smaller head than average, heart defects, limb defects. Other problems include intellectual issues, such as an individual having a below-average IQ and having severe learning difficulties including impaired memory functioning, poor problem-solving skills and deficits in focussing attention.

Furthermore, they may have academic problems, for example, difficulty in maths. They are prone to having behavioural problems, for example, ADHD, poor attention which can affect their social development. They may find it difficult making friends or relating to others and become depressed, which in turn will affect their emotional development. A large portion of these individuals grow up to become unemployed and unable to live independently (Spohr, Williams and Steinhausen 2007).
Other factors include maternal age, for example, women over the age of 35 are at risk at having babies with a low birth rate, as well as having a baby with Down’s syndrome. Children and young people affected with this syndrome often have physical characteristic, for example, a small mouth, large tongue, slanted eyes and extra skin folds on the upper and lower lids. They will have intellectual disabilities as well as health issues like chest infections. This all will lead to a lack of self confidence as they may have to rely on adults.

Maternal stress can also influence a child. There is an increase in the stress hormone, cortisol, when a pregnant woman is overly stressed, which can then pass to the amniotic fluid. Some studies (Glover et al. 2005) show that mothers who experience intense stress give birth to babies who then have lower IQ than average, anxiety and attention problems which will affect them socially and intellectually.
Other health issues that can affects children and young people’s development are Asthma, which may lead to a child miss his/her school days which will affect not only their intellectual development, but their social development as they will miss the social contact the school provides. Another issue health issue is Eczema; this may affect a child’s self-esteem and may lead to social anxiety, affecting both their social and emotional development. I know this first hand as my sister grew up with eczema, and was self conscious, to the point where she avoided certain activities, such as PE, as she didn’t want anyone seeing her arms which lead her to have less social involvement than others.
Learning difficulties
Sensory impairment