Psychology field, along with having an understanding

Psychology is the basic foundation into most scientificfields.

The use of psychological concepts can be applied into many fieldsincluding the ones in which I am most interested in, neuroscience and surgery. Withevidence using a literature review, I will analyze different psychological concepts(memory and the principles of learning), and how they relate back to theneuroscience field along my surgical career path. I will also examine theimportance of basic knowledge in psychology as a contributing member ofsociety.

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CareerGoals and the Roles I Play.                Out of thenumerous career paths available to me, the one I find most interesting is to bea trauma surgery abroad. A trauma surgeon treats traumatic injuries using bothoperative and non-operative techniques. My goal is to work with unprivilegedpatients with life-changing medical conditions. To reach these goals, I have tocomplete four years of undergraduate school, four years of medical school, andresidency with a fellowship in my specialty. Pursuing this career path, I have chosen to major in neuroscience and politicalscience with a concentration in comparative politics; the two majors allow meto have a wider range in the medical field, along with having an understandingof international government and politics.

I have always enjoyed learning howthe brain works and the different theories in the neurological field;Neuroscience gives me the ability to conduct research while being a traumasurgeon, not to mention, I am to gain the skillset of neurosurgery as well. Ifound neuroscience to be an interesting field. With it still being new, thefield allows me to grow and develop while being innovative and an edge formedical school. However, political Science was a little different. Before myjunior year in high school, I was not a big fan of politics or government, infact I hated it. When my junior year arrived, I participated in Girls State,which is a program that selects three girls from every high school in Tennesseeto participate in a week-long program that focus on government and policy, suchas electoral process and voting. After attending, I became very intrigued bypolitics and government so much that I decided to study it in college and makeit a part of my career path. I play a number of roles in my career path.

Among them, Iplay as colleague, a teacher of medical teachings, an advocate for my patientsand community, a leader, a doctor, a researcher, and possibly even a friend. I willhave colleagues around me to ask for assistance and feedback, and therefore,will also ask for their assistance as needed. I play a teacher for those belowme and sometimes even above me. In surgery, you are always inventing newtechniques to use in the field; you are always researching disease and discoveringnew scientific findings. You have to present these finding and teach the newinformation. I play an advocate for my patients, when they cannot do so forthemselves, and speak up for them, so they may gain the necessary treatment. Iam leader as I lead different medical teams into different countries andvillages.

Finally, I play the role of a friend. Sometimes, in healthcare, itcan be very scary and my patients may just someone to understand what they aregoing through. I could also be a friend to my colleagues as they go through difficultand easy cases.

 In my career path, Iplay an endless number of roles. Psychological Concepts and How They CanApplied.  Neuroscience has shared avery intimate path and close relationship with psychology. In fact, the fieldof neuroscience actually derived from the discipline of psychology. It onlymakes sense that many of the psychological concepts of psychology can beapplied to neuroscience and to surgery.

For me and my chosen career path, Ifind that the principles of learning and memory can be very affective andhelpful in the development of my career. To be a trauma surgeon with backgroundin neuroscience, I will have many important and critical concepts to learn and remember.I will have to know many procedures and perform them with no errors. The conceptof memory and the principles of learning will allow me to, not only learn andperform those skills without difficulty, but to find different techniques tostore them in my memory.  Memory is aset of process used to encode, store, and retrieve data over a period of time(Powers, 2017).

Memory is known to be stored in the hippocampus,which is a part of the limbic system of the brain. There are three types ofmemory: sensory, short (working), and long-term memory. In the developmentalprocess of my career, I will mainly be using long-term memory. Long-term memoryis the retention of information regarding facts, experiences, and skills. Underthe umbrella of long-term memory, I can have explicit memories that I canintentionally and purposely call on, or I can have implicit memories that Idon’t recall intentionally.

Explicit memories can be episodic or semantic. Episodicmemory is a memory of something that was right in front of you such as, a firstkiss or my making my first cut in surgery. On the other hand,Semantic memory is a memory of a fact of the world. For example, the fact that2+2=4, or the fact that Barack Obama was the 44TH president. Thesetypes of memory can be very affective in my field as I study the differentparts of the body and learn the basic facts of the brain.

The other part tolong-term memory is implicit memory. This type of memory is the memory that Idon’t intentionally recall. Implicit memory includes procedural, priming,conditioning, and habituation. Procedural stores any steps that I don’t have tofully remember, like how to drive and eventually different routine proceduresin the OR (i.

e. how to scrub in, or checking vital signs). Priming isidentifying a stimulus quicker after enduring another stimulus; Conditioning refersto classical conditioning. This can be applied to my development in surgery,particularly with attitudes and discrimination. Within some professional environments that I have observedin the medical field, certain professions (surgery, radiology, nursing) therewill be a priming, attitude, that one profession is more important than theother. Hopefully, this can be reversed. Lastly, the last type of long-termmemory can be habituation.

Habitation can be as simple as cracking my knucklesor singing the birthday song to time how long a scrub in. All types of memorywill be useful as I move through my career, but most of the information, in myopinion, I will have to store long-term. But as we all know, before you can memorize something, youmust learn it first. The principles of learning are very useful and vital to mydevelopment as I move along in my career path. The principles of learning canallow me to use different techniques to learn the information and skillsnecessary to my profession. Learning is defined as the change in an organism’s behaviorand thought due to an experience (Powers, 2017). As a student, I am required tolearn a large amount of information in order to succeed, and therefore, I willmostly learn, as a medical student and resident, through observationallearning. I personally have always learned better when I can see the conceptbeing applied and not from hearing the subject being taught.

These concepts oflearning allow me to see the information in real life and learn the proceduresthat I will perform in the future. That is not the only principle of learningthat can be applied to my career path. Operant Conditioning- a method that grantslearning through the system of rewards and punishment – shows me (and otherstudents) the reality of our fields. For example, if I give the wrongmedication because I didn’t not check my work or read the patient history, mypatient’s condition could possibly worsen as a result and punishment.

But if Idid a procedure correctly, my patient’s health could get better as a reward. Classical conditioning can be a part of the learning processas well. Classic conditioning is the process of when two stimuli are repeatedlypaired. One might argue that when a trauma occurs certain stimulus might bepaired together, such as a screaming spouse of a patient and a traumaticincident or the smell of chemicals and a deceased body. The two were once notpair to me but after encountering them quite often, I may begin to see onestimulus and automatically look for the other. My career path development encounters many things. I have touse the principles of learning and memory as well as other concepts in order tobe successful.

Therefore, the concepts of psychology are vital and veryimportant to possess. Knowing the background information on memory and theprinciples of learning, I now have sense of different techniques and ways tolearn and memorizes my skills and the abundance of knowledge that will be givento me. Literature AnalysisWhen researchingmemory and learning within the neuroscience (on the surgical path) in thepsychology discipline, I became overwhelmed with all the studies conducted.However, several stood out and were even found quite interesting. These studieshave showed how memory and the principle of learning have not only establisheda relationship with in the field and can be useful, but expanded as well.

Memory is importantfor anyone. However, to a surgeon, it is very important, not just for us, butfor our patients as well. In surgery, sometimes a patient’s memory can bealtered. This is shown in a study conducted my several researchers that saw howmemory was altered after a postoperative mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(mTLE) surgery. The experiment had 30 patients total; 13 of them were thecontrol study, while the other 12 had surgery. The 12 patients were eachevaluated before and after surgery, and all patients had a verbal memoryencoding that related to the fMRI study. It was concluded that a patient whohad left hippocampus sclerosis was different from the normal subjects, andtherefore, had a distribution of memory after surgery (Richardson, Strange, Duncan& Raymond, 2006).

In addition to that study, other scientists have foundthat the hippocampus could only be a temporary stop for a memory where it ispieced together (Squires, 1992). This study was conducted on rats, monkeys, andhumans where they went under a series of test. In another article, patient’smemory for medical information is analyzed. We often require the patient’s helpwhen it comes to their medical history. It is very important to access theirmedical history and have the knowledge of the patient’s condition when decidingon a course of action. The article states that there are three main reasons asto why a patient might have a hard time recalling or forgetting their medicalinformation. It goes on to say that if the doctor use easier medical terminology,the mode of the information (such as writing the information down or speakingit to the patient), and the patient themselves.

The authors suggested thatpatient may have a hard time recalling due to age, anxiety, outcome expectations,and distress among other things. Patients forget 40-80% of the information a doctortells them (Kessels, 2003).  The researchconducted by Dr. Craik and Lockhart in 1972 could also support why patientsforget the information that is told to them.

 The research suggest that verbal information is last up to 30 secondsbefore it is forgetter, unless it is stored in the encoded to long-term memory,where it could last a long time and not be forgotten (Craik & Schacter,1972). This article is relevant because it shows how memory is not only affectby operations, but by the patient themselves. Relating back to explicitand implicit memory, Dr. Graft and Dr. Schacter performed an experiment thattested implicit and explicit memory in amnesic patients. The purpose of theexperiment was to examine repetition priming effects on word completion taskthat are influenced by unrelated word pairs. They performed 2 experiments onein college students and the other in amnesic patients; both were tested ontheir memory with priming. The subjects had to respond with the correct wordsfrom a study list presented to them after being shown the initials letters fromthe study list.

It was concluded that there was a larger priming effect in same-contextcondition than different-context condition, however that only applied if thestudy process was elaborated and was required (Graft & Schacter, 1985). Thisexperiment provided more information in the neuroscience field as more researchwas done. When researching differentstudies on learning, I became overwhelmed and stressed because the studies wereeach different in their own way. Ranging from research on cognitive styles inrelation to learning disabilities to learning progression in science education,the research articles all offer some type of insight in the learning process,and therefore, back my claim the use of the learning (and the principles) arerelevant to the study of neuroscience and in the medical field.In an articlediscussing learning processions in the scientific field, Duncan and Rivetanalyze the learning process and discover different approaches to gaining theinformation in the scientific world. The article suggested that educators focuson main ideas in the sciences and provide a sense of consistency over the yearsof schooling. It was also suggested that a practice-orientated approach bepursued, so students may succeed in science education.

 This will provide students with a basicfoundation as they move into higher education (Duncan & Rivet, 2013).  This could also be backed by the researchedconducted by Benton in 2010. This researched showed how brain technology couldactually improve learning and education in the classrooms., The purpose of the experimentwas to see how using brain-imagining could detect underlying neural processes involvedin learning and motivation. It was found that the low-level brain region, thatwere responsible for basic life regulation, was associated with admiration andvirtue. It went to pull other experiments that were conducted that proved howbrain-imaging can prove the principles of learning and apply them to classroom.Another study focuseson overcoming learning difficulties with different cognitive styles.

The study used66 students ranging from the age of 18 to 50 years old. The study was conductedfrom their first to seventh semester; the purpose of the experiment was to findout preferred strategies used to overcome learning disabilities. It wasconcluded that there were four types of students that each used one of the fourstrategies: Consulting, Isolation, and low or high activity in findingsolutions to a problem. The conclusion of the study was the more impulsive astudent was the more the student used a communication strategy (Consulting) tolearn.

The significance in this study was the learning styles discover with thelearning disabilities in the students. The Importance ofPsychology as a Member of Society. As a member of society, itis important to have some type of psychology background, whether it be a highschool class or a college course. Psychology allows you to see and analyze differentconcepts of life. It also aids you in being a better student. The concepts onmemory and problem-solving helps you view education information in a way thatallows you to learn easier. Not to mention, the concepts of relationships andparent-styles also helps be a better member of society, because if we have betterrelationships and parent-styles, we can contribute more to society.

Psychologygives people insight in how the mind works along with the body. With thisknowledge, people can learn to avoid stressful situations and can achievepersonal, and professional goals.   In conclusion, psychology has played an influential role inmany scientific fields. Personally, psychology has given me the basicinformation to assess my roles in my chosen career path, use psychologicalconcepts to further improve my career development as I move forward, andexcelled my role has a member of society. After researching, I have showed howmemory has sparked many studies in the field of neuroscience and surgery, andshed light on how the different principles of learning have open education psychologyand proven learning techniques in the classroom. Psychology has proven to be apart of many scientific and non-scientific fields.

 

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