Psychology is a scientific way of studying humans and animals behaviour. Psychology is an approach which helps to understand behaviours with scientific methods. In psychology the teachers use different types of methods such as: lab experiments, fields, and research experiments to analyse different types behaviour from animals and humans. There are different types of approaches such as the biological perspective which talks about our brain, hormones, and genes. The cognitive perspective which says that the mind is equal to the computer.
In psychology they test what make us humans having behaviours that we normally have. Behaviourism is the theory that the human and animal behaviour can be explained by having a significant influence on thoughts or feelings and those physical disorders are best treated by behaviour patterns. Behaviourism looks to identify laws that can be noticed and able to be measured to be able to explain the human’s behaviour.The physical behaviourism is a form of behaviourism that is a big theory in psychology, that sustains the behaviours are learned by the positive and negative reinforcements. Developed by john b. Watson, the behaviourists said that the science of behaviour should be psychology. Behaviourism offers an alternative view that often times were different than the traditional views which weren’t scientific. Most behaviourists have come to call the science of behaviour “behaviour analysis”.
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Behaviourism also known as behavioural psychology is a theory of learning based on the idea that every behaviour are acquired through the condition that occurs through the influence with the environment. Behaviourists believe that their response to environmental stimuli make than action. Behaviourists believe that the humans being are molded by their external environment. If you alter a persons environment, you will automatically alter their feelings, thoughts, and behaviours because they are not used to the new one. Behaviourists believe that if a teacher give the students rewards and punishments everything they behave well, they will learn how to behave on their own.
For example: when a teacher rewards the students with treatments (sweets for example) or even a party at the end of the week for good behaviour throughout the week. Another example is: a dog was held in a harness so that no movement was possible and was connected to a machine that collected saliva. A Bell was rung to check that the dog did not produce saliva when the bell was rung. Pavlov called this a neutral stimulus (NS) because there wasn’t an automatic response to it. The experimenter fang the bell and then presented food to the dog several times over a period of time. Finally the bell was rung on its own.
From this I can see that the dog behaviour is being influenced by the environment, and is being tested by classical condition where behaviour is being learned through association. So we know that the dog associated the bell to the food.The biological approach believes that all behaviour is covered by physical processes such as genetics, brain structure and chemistry hormones. Is the only approach in psychology that analyses our thoughts, feelings and behaviours from a biological and thus physical point of view. Behaviours and thoughts are connected to the brain which means that everything we think and how we behave is because our brain is communicating with them.
Behaviours can be explained by understanding areas of the brain. The brain is divided into 4 parts, this means that each behaviour is responsible for each part of our brain. Each of them has a name: the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and the parietal lobe and each of these lines carry a variety of different behaviours. Humans behaviour are influenced by genetics. This means that you can be genetically liable to your family, for example: you can start acting in a particular way because the genes of your family. The influence of genetics have been studied in twins which showed that if a twin has psychological disorder the chance of the other twin having the same disorder is high and that because genes are shred the most by twins than the rest of the family.
The biological approach believes that without our brain and all different areas of it, neutrons, and neurotransmitters and also the presence of hormones, oesmogen and testrogen make up what our body runs, and without these we wouldn’t be alive. And the things that I mentioned above can explain the intercity of human behaviours. Depression is a illness that now a days is affecting most of our population, it’s a silent disease reaching self esteem, the feeling of inferiority, sadness and other feelings. There isn’t a specific cause, we can consider the stress everyday one of the main causes. Depression comes without knowing, we feel desmotivared, sad and you can lose the interest of doing something, also you can start to do everything with a lot of effort. You can lose the power of concentration, you lose your appetite, you get difficulties when sleeping, and sometimes you feel you’re life doesn’t make any sense no more.
Each person has a symptom , for example: some people don’t sleep, some people exceed the time of sleeping, your thoughts start to get negative, you lose the appetite or you exceed the amount of food your eating . Loss of energy and loss of patience are common causes. Must ask the clinic for help and accept that you are not ok, specially when the person starts to get negative thoughts and don’t believe in themselves, thinks that nobody likes her/him and can’t do anything. The most frequent thoughts are suicide.
The factors that most often lead to depression are loneliness, family history of depression, stress, financial problems, health problems. It is essential to look for support, antidepressants also helps but the person needs to have the strength and believe in themselves. If the depression is moderated or severe, medication can really help,, there are about 30 different kinds of antidepressants available. Behaviourism approach believes that depression is about your positive reinforcements which is something that you would like to gain in future. They think that depression has a cure, that the person just have to have positive reinforcements (which leads to working, studying which are behaviours that are motivated by money, benefits and good grades) and the depression will go. Lewinsohn believes that people who are depressed, are those people who do not know to deal with the negative reinforcements, for example if they were receiving positive reinforcements, and now they are no longer receiving those positives reinforcements as before, they will get depressed. People who are depressed in this type of approach they have a greater idea that they do not have the ability to confront the world or do other types of things.
Unlike, in the 1960’s people suggested that depressed people had depression because of the disorder of the neurotransmitter which at that was called the “catecholamine hypothesis”. That was the best explanation for them. The biological approach also tells that if a person has depression is because they are genetically liable to be in depression which for them can explain depression mode. They believe that of the ways to investigate the genetics are by twins, from the Swedish twin 42, 161 were used to do the experiment. The study that conducted the correlational research in depression was Wender et al. It was the study of adoption that analysed if the environment or genetics seemed to be associated with the depression in adopted adults. The biological approach to depression refers to 2 factors: the neurotransmitter dysfunction and inherited genes. The researchers used a sample of 71 adults that have been adopted and who present d mood disorder.
All of them were taken away by their mothers. In terms of genes, the family studies and the twin studies showed that there were a genetic connection to depression, which says that some people carry genes that predisposed them to depression an other mood disorders. So, depression could be explained in terms of genetic predisposition.