Psychology as a discipline has a large attribute for the causes of aggression, especially in extreme or long standing criminal violence. The pathways to violence is considered to be at an individual level that includes internal characteristics of the person committing the violent behavior, their immediate situations, and the type of violent behavior committed. The book “Violence and Culture” in chapter 2, provides an overview of different theoretical models for understanding violence, which can facilitate the integration of multiple psychological constructs from varying schools of thought.
From that general overview, theories of violence were separated into categories such as psychoanalysis, behaviorism, frustration aggression hypothesis, social learning theory, and rational choice theory. Firstly psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud and he believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences. Secondly behaviorism also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.
Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions. Thirdly Frustration aggression hypothesis is basically view that frustration, or failure to reach a certain desired goal due to circumstance, often leads to aggression, or behavior which intends harm.
Fourthly Social learning theory is the view that people learn by observing others. Associated with Albert Social learning theory explains how people learn new behaviors, values, and attitudes. For example, a teenager might learn slang by observing peers.
Lastly Rational choice theory is the view that people behave as they do because they believe that performing their chosen actions has more benefits than costs. That is, people make rational choices based on their goals, and those choices govern their behavior. From this we can see the issue of human violence is also a major topic within the academic discipline of psychology. As biosocial scholars do, analysts revolve around how singular attributes may interface with the social condition to deliver a savage occasion. Be that as it may, as opposed to center around the organic premise of wrongdoing, clinicians center around how mental procedures affect singular penchants for viciousness.
We can clearly see there is a relationship between learning, knowledge, and identity and forceful conduct. In this section of the chapter, we briefly review some of the major psychological perspectives that have attempted to explain violent behavior. These viewpoints incorporate the psychodynamic point of view, conduct hypothesis, intellectual hypothesis and identity hypothesis.
We will likewise be able to investigate the conceivable connection between psychological maladjustment and brutality. From the reading we constantly see that there is a connection. Criminology is a complex subject chock-full of theories that attempt to explain crime and criminal behavior.
Each base theory has several branches of theory which expand upon and compliment their predecessors. Even some of the sub-theories have branches of theories. When we talked prior about psychological theories we spoke about the internal factor that cause or promote violence. What I will discuss now is the external factors which cause or promote violence also known as social factors.
In contrast to psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists have attempted a more a thorough going description on human behavior in terms of the systems and structures that surround and influence individuals. Instead of focusing on mind and personality like psychologists, they focus more on society and culture, the behavioral structures, and the “webs of significance” that exist before we are born and that persist after we die. Social theories can be branched into categories such as functionalism, functional conflict, conflict and cultural integration, conflict theory, and lastly the value of violence. Functionalism is the perspective in sociology according to which society consists of different but related parts, each of which serves a particular purpose. According to functionalism, society is a system of interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and social equilibrium for the whole.
Georg Simmel was an early German sociologist known for creating social theories that fostered an approach to studying society that broke with the scientific methods used to study the natural world. He is also considered a structural theorist and was focused on urban life and the form of the metropolis. While Coser was the first sociologist to try to bring together structural functionalism and conflict theory; his work was focused on finding the functions of social conflict. Coser argued with Georg Simmel that conflict might serve to solidify a loosely structured group. Culture conflict theory is also known as cultural deviance theory. This theory suggests that crime is caused due to the clash of values that arises when different social groups have different ideas of acceptable behavior.
In other words, different social groups have different cultural beliefs and ideas that conflict, and this conflict sometimes leads to crime. Cultural Integration is important because it maintains a unity and a certain balance in a particular society. Also, cultural integration helps keep a society together, so all can share the same beliefs and values in a social system.
Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus. More powerful groups will tend to use their power in order to retain power and exploit groups with less power. Lastly value of violence section we learn about George Sorel. In his book “Reflections on violence,” he recommends violence as the course, outlined by Marx, that would lead immediately to the reconstitution of society and he trumps of the workers. Even more empathically, he makes the case that not only is violence of this sort ethical and moral but its alternative is unethical and immoral.
From all this we can intake that social structure theorists believe that the key elements to criminal behavior are the dominance of social and economic influencesEach of these three sub-theories attempt to explain what causes people to join violent antics. Although each of these theories deviates in some aspects from the thought of each other they all share the common ground of the social structure theory. These are all linked to types of economic production. Which is how people produce their environment, the kinds of work they do, the way they divide their labor, the way they form groups to perform this work, the way they produce and share wealth, the kinds of relationships and dependencies and inequalities that result.