Psychological and Vlahov (2007) defined resilience as

Psychological resilience is defined as an individual’s ability to successfully adapt to life tasks in the face of social disadvantage or highly adverse conditions (Windle, 1999). People who demonstrate resilience have optimistic attitude and positive emotionality and are, by practice, able to effectively balance negative emotions with positive ones in any adverse condition (American Psychological Association, 2014).

Resilience is described as an internal characteristic, which is influenced by external factors, and assists in adjusting or modifying the effects of adversity (Holmes, 2006). Das Chaitali (2010) considered resilience in individuals and communities needs to be considered as a process that is influenced by the interaction of the ecological systems. Bonanno, Galea, Bucciarelli and Vlahov (2007) defined resilience as having stumpy range of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and as being associated with low levels of depression and substance use. The prevalence of resilience is uniquely predicted by various factors like gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, level of trauma exposure, income change, social support, frequency of chronic disease, and recent and past life stressors. Wasonga, Christman and Kilmer (2003) suggested that ethnicity, gender, and age determine resilience and academic achievement.

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