Public libraries can be differentiated from academic, school, and special libraries because they function to serve the needs of a diverse service population including small children, students, professionals, and the elderly. In contrast, academic libraries serve college and university faculty and students; school libraries serve elementary, middle, and high school students and faculty; and special libraries (such as Presidential Libraries) serve scholars and experts within narrowly defined fields.
Although public libraries serve the public at large, including those who are also served by other types of libraries, they are used primarily by members of the local community in which they are constructed and secondarily by members in communities in immediately outlying areas. The members of those communities are the service population of public libraries and their needs affect the design and planning of public library spaces. For example, if a community has a large population of young children, which can result from a community with a high-quality elementary school system, the public library design must address the needs of children and how they use libraries, i.e., story-telling spaces, books within easy reach for children, nap areas, etc. Whereas, a public library that serves the needs of a community with a large population of elderly people will included design criteria to meet their needs, i.e., easy access into the building, adequate lighting, large-print media, etc.
A. Types of Spaces
There are seven broad types of public library space:
Collection space (including public electronic workstation space)
User seating space
Staff work spaceMeeting spaceSpecial use space
Non-assignable space (including mechanical space)
Careful analysis of the following will allow designers to determine the space needs for the seven general spaces listed above, which are common to public libraries:
Identification of the library’s population of users
Estimation of the collections provided by the library and the space needed to accommodate those provisions to meet the future needs of its users
Estimation of floor space needed to accommodate seating areas
Estimation of floor space needed by staff
Estimation of floor space needed for meeting rooms
Estimation of miscellaneous public- and staff-use space (special use space)
Estimation of space needed for entry halls, mechanical rooms, bathrooms, etc. (non-assignable space).
The following spaces will be provided in the design of a Public Library
Reading area for Children
Reading area for adults
Reading area for young adults/teens
Reading area for elites
Assessing the Impacts and Benefits of Natural (Day) Lighting over Artificial Lighting in a Public Library.
Background of Study
Library is a repository for various forms of recorded information. Although the word library is derived from the Latin liber, meaning “book”, the term now refers to collections of data in many other formats: microforms, magazines, phonorecordings, Films, magnetic tapes, slides, videotapes, and electronic media. A library is more than just stacks of materials on shelves; it is also highly trained people that provide valuable services. These services include such things as organization and cataloguing, research, notification of new publications
Etc. These high-valued services are one of the greatest assets of libraries. The World -wide Web (WWW), while it probably contains more information than any single traditional library, is arguably not as useful as a traditional library because it lacks these services (particularly organization and sophisticated search support).
Libraries, as repositories for written records, began where writing itself began— in the Middle East between 000 and 2000 be.
Library buildings have changed over the centuries in response to five major influences:
The form in which information is recorded;
The nature of the library’s use and readership;
Technological developments in both architecture and librarianship;
Availability of funds;
Recognition of traditional architecture as part of the cultural heritage.
This study presents summary information from a noncritical literature review on daylighting in a Public Library building. It is by no means exhaustive, and no attempt has been made to determine the scientific nature of the studies that are cited. Many building owners and architects have reported energy savings received from daylighting. Looking at the energy consumption of commercial buildings in Nigeria demonstrates the importance of saving energy. Not only is electrical lighting responsible for a significant amount of the electrical load on a commercial building, but it can also cause excessive cooling loads. Utility costs for a building can be decreased when daylighting is properly designed to replace electrical lighting. Along with the importance of energy, studies have demonstrated the non-energy related benefits of daylighting. Quantitative studies and qualitative statements are used to summarize the use of daylighting in buildings, its effects on occupants, and its potential economic benefits. Data have been compiled from books, periodicals, Internet articles, and interviews. The books, periodicals and Internet articles provided the background information necessary to identify the main subjects of the paper. Interviews provided details related to specific buildings and companies that have integrated daylighting into their building.
Before the 1940s, daylight was the primary light source in buildings; artificial lights supplemented the natural light. In the short span of 20 years, electric lighting had transformed the workplace by meeting most or all of the occupants’ lighting requirements. Recently, energy and environmental concerns have made daylighting a rediscovered aspect of building lighting design. The physics of daylighting has not changed since its original use, but the building design to use it has. Daylighting is often integrated into a building as an architectural statement and for energy savings. However, benefits from daylighting extend beyond architecture and energy. The psychological and physiological aspects of natural light should also be considered. The comforting space and connection to the environment provided to building occupants provide benefits as significant as the energy savings to building owners and managers.
1.1.2 CONTEMPORARY LIBRARY DESIGN
Today, library buildings are constructed so that they can be easily expanded or modified to accommodate changes in collections, formats, and user needs, including those of users with disabilities. The rapid expansion of information technology since World War II has forced libraries to consider new methods of storage such as compact movable shelving, the microfilming of bulky or deteriorating materials, and the relegation of less-used materials to storage.
The issue of lighting and acoustics has become a major design consideration factor in library design. The décor of modern libraries is determined largely by practical considerations. Lighting is bright, furnishings are sturdy, and structural elements are designed to conserve energy. In the future, libraries may see space once given over to bookshelves cleared to make way for extra computer terminals as Internet access supersedes access to books as the primary function of the institution.
This paper summarizes the benefits that different wavelengths of light have on building occupants. Daylighting has been associated with higher productivity, lower absenteeism, fewer errors or defects in products, positive attitudes, reduced fatigue, and reduced eyestrain.
1.2 Statement of Problem
City and county public libraries experience a growth of demand for more reader space with good lighting, noise control, shelving, technology infrastructure and staff areas. At the same time, buildings constructed for library services appropriate to a period twenty or more years ago become inadequate beyond just space or built-in infrastructure. There comes need for expansion where important design considerations such as lighting and acoustics are ignored.
The older buildings are typically less flexible for spatial change, have poor lighting for contemporary uses, consume too much energy, are not universally accessible, have relatively high maintenance costs and often have become physically degraded.
In learning institutions we have seen classrooms being converted to libraries and the two have different design criteria, one as teaching space and the other as reading space with different light requirements.
Public halls have also been converted to public libraries without any design considerations. Inevitably, the idea arises of providing a modern facility by building a new library or renovating and expanding the existing library emphasizing on design for natural and artificial lighting within the active library space.
1.3Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to critically examine natural lighting (daylighting) and artificial lighting and put forward the benefits of natural lighting over artificial lighting in a Public Library.
The objectives of the study are the following
To critically examine a Library and the need for daylighting.
To compare the advantages of both the artificial and natural lighting.
To determine the type of lighting with least adverse effect on human comfort and the environment.
To prove that natural lighting is more beneficial in a Public Library.
1.4 Research Questions
Is there any need for natural lighting in a Public Library?
What advantages does natural and artificial lighting have in a Public Library?
What are the adverse effects of both natural and artificial lighting on occupants’ comfort and building environment?
Does natural lighting pose more adverse effects than natural lighting?
1.5 Justification of the Study
The following are the significance of the study
The study will help to enlighten Library users on the advantages and disadvantages of the types of lighting and their effects on them.
At the end of the study, it will help designers create library designs that are naturally lighted more than the artificial lighting because of the imposing benefits it has.
1.6. Scope and Limitations
This research will look at the salient design issues pertaining light to be taken into consideration when designing a new library for public or institutional use.
Each functional space within a library building will be analyzed and the standards established will be used to evaluate some existing library buildings. The fundamental design issues to be looked at will be daylighting in libraries in tropical upland climate.
Being a rather broad topic, lack of enough resources like literature, time and finance will limit the depth to which this study could have been carried out.
Peon. Edward Energy Management Strategies in Public Libraries. A Publication of the California State Library. Los Angeles: Balcony Press, 2002
Ernst, Peter Neufert. Architects’ Data, Third Edition; Oxford Brookes University, 2000.
Rossini. John. Library Lighting: A Bibliography of Periodical Literature and Monographs. Vance Bibliographies. 1987.
Scherer. Jeffrey. Light and Libraries. Library Hi Tech. Volume 17: Number 4.1999.
Steffey.Gory R. Architectural Lighting Design. New York. John Wiley 6 Sons, 1997.
http://www.pcfandp.com San Francisco images
http://www.buildingfutures.org.ukWang, N. ; Boubekri, M. (2010). Design recommendations based on cognitive, mood and preference assessments in a sunlit workspace. Lighting Research and Technology, 43(1), 55-72.
http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/en/energy-saving-lamps/l-2/1-light-electromagnetic-spectrum.htm#0Fontoynont, M. ; Escuyer, S. (2001). Lighting controls: A Field study of Office Workers reaction Lighting Research and Technology, 33(2).
Hasirci, D. K. K. (2011). Daylighting Concepts for University Libraries and Their Influences on Users’ Satisfaction. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(6), 471 479.
Carla Balocco, R. C. (2008). Natural light design for an ancient building: A case study. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 9, 172-178.
Dean, E. T. (2005). Daylighting Design in Libraries (pp. 3-23). Libris Design Project.
Bryan, H. (1998). “Justifying Daylighting in an Era of Extremely Efficient Lighting Technologies.” 23rd National Passive Solar Conference. Albuquerque, NM; pp. 203–208.
Collins, B.L. (1975). Windows and People: A Literature Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
DayStar Sunlighting Systems. (1998). “Benefits of Natural Daylighting.” http://www.daystarsunlighting.com/benefits.htm. Accessed June 11, 1998.
Heerwagen, J.H. (1986). “The Role of Nature in the View from the Window.” 1986 International Daylighting Conference Proceedings II. November 4–7, 1986; Long Beach, CA; pp.430–437.
A Fire Station (also called a fire house or a fire hall) is a structure or other area for storing firefighting apparatus such as fire engines, and related vehicles, personal protective equipment, fire hoses and other specialized equipment. Fire stations frequently contain working and living space for the fighters and support staff.
A Fire Station will at a minimum have a garage for at least one fire engine. Most firefighting equipment will be stored in the fire engine itself. The approaches to a fire station are usually posted with warning signs and there may be a traffic signal to stop or warn traffic when apparatus are leaving or returning to the station.
Activities at a fire station include regular inspection and cleaning of the apparatus and equipment and continuing education in the fire service. Weekly or bi-weekly routine typically includes various drills in which firefighters practice their skills; some fire stations have a drill tower for practicing high rise rescue. Some fire companies also host public activities at the fire station during events such as “fire prevention week”, and the facility may also be used for fund-raising by the firemen association or “fire auxiliary”. In a single storey station, a tower-like structure is sometimes used for hose hanging.
If the station is occupied full-time by career firefighters, it will contain living quarters and work areas where they wait until a dispatch is called. Career firefighters are usually able to sleep during a night shift, so these stations will also have dormitories. Many fire stations were built with living quarters above the garage; this arrangement is common for fire stations built in a crowded city and also allows for a raised area to hang hoses to dry to prevent damage. An occupied station will usually have a station alarm systems to alert the firefighters of an emergency call and to give some indication of where and what the emergency is. In some small fire departments, the only alarm may be a telephone for receiving calls.
Some fire stations are not regularly occupied, with the firefighting carried out by volunteer or retained firefighters. In this case, the firefighters are summoned to the fire station by siren, radio or pagers, where they will deploy the fire engine. These fire stations may still have office space for the firefighters, a library of reference and other materials and a “trophy wall” or case where the firefighters display memorabilia. Some stations are staffed by a mix of full-time and on-call firefighters.
The following are the spaces to be provided in the design
Mixed-mode ventilation in a Fire Station
“Mixed-mode” refers to a hybrid approach to space conditioning that uses a combination of natural ventilation from operable windows (either manually or automatically controlled), and mechanical systems that provide air distribution and some form of cooling. A well-designed mixed-mode building allows spaces to be naturally ventilated during periods of the day or year when it is feasible or desirable, and uses mechanical cooling only as necessary for supplemental cooling when natural ventilation is not sufficient. The goal is to maximize comfort while minimizing the significant energy use and operating costs of air conditioning. A well-designed mixed-mode building begins with intelligent facade design to minimize cooling loads. It then integrates the use of air conditioning when and where it is necessary, with the use of natural ventilation whenever it is feasible or desirable, to maximize comfort while avoiding the significant energy use and operating costs of year-round air conditioning.
Natural ventilation or mixed-mode strategies may not be suitable for all situations, perhaps least so for climates with very high humidity, or sites with excessive levels of outside noise or pollution. However, there is a wide range of climates and sites for which it is feasible and worthy of consideration. Even in the more extreme climates, an examination of the number of swing season days may conclude that operable windows will provide a net benefit.
Mixed-mode buildings are typically classified in terms of their operation strategies, which describe whether the natural ventilation and mechanical cooling are operating in the same or different spaces, or at the same or different times. Some of the most common categories are “concurrent” (where mechanical cooling and natural ventilation can operate in the same space at the same time), “change-over” (where the building switches between mechanical cooling and natural ventilation on a seasonal or daily basis), or “zoned” (where mechanical cooling and natural ventilation operate in different areas of the building).
Benefits of Mixed-Mode
Naturally ventilated or mixed-mode buildings will be most successful if they have been properly designed to incorporate other climate-responsive strategies as well. Particular attention should be paid to shading and daylighting to reduce cooling loads, as well as thermal mass so that direct ventilative cooling during the day might be combined with nighttime cooling. A well designed and properly operated mixed-mode building can scale back or eliminate the use of mechanical cooling and ventilation systems throughout much of the year, with associated reductions in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and operating costs. Mixed-mode buildings also offer potential benefits in occupant impacts including thermal comfort, health and productivity Energy savings.
The most common goal of well-designed mixed-mode buildings is to reduce or eliminate the fan and cooling plant energy consumption whenever conditions are moderate enough for natural ventilation to maintain comfort. When the outside weather is appropriate, operable windows are essentially acting like a distributed economizer cycle, allowing for reduced chiller use. There is also the potential for reduced fan energy consumption during the day. However, mechanical night ventilation might offset the energy savings albeit at off-peak utility rates. If the need for mechanical ventilation is eliminated entirely, such as in a radiant cooling system, one can also reduce the first costs associated with the fans and ducts that are no longer needed. A radiant mixed-mode system also offers the potential for reducing peak demand in addition to overall energy use.
A broadcasting Station is a station equipped to broadcast radio or television programs. A broadcasting Station can house either a Television station or a Radio station or both. For the purpose of this design, a broadcasting station comprising of the Radio and Television station is applicable.
Radio Station Overview
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves. Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter, an antenna, and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them. Radio stations play a vital role in communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer data and information across the world.
More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such a station may include several “radio stations” defined above (i.e. several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station, and transmission facility or transmitting station.
The International Telecommunications Union, defines a radio (communication) station as – «one or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radio communication service, or the radio astronomy service. Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.
Equipment for a radio station
Transmitter – Takes the electrical output of a microphone and then modulates a higher-frequency carrier signal and transmits it as radio waves.
Receiver – The broadcast message is received by the receiver and decodes the radio sine waves.
Antenna – An antenna is required for transmission; it is also required to receive radio waves. The main use of an antenna is to send radio signals. Aerial feeder – system of feeding HF-Energy (power) in the antenna
Transmission lines – Transmission lines are used to transfer the radio signals from one location to another. For example, a transmission line was used in Luftwaffe, Germany during WW II to send information from camps back to their base.
Connectors Interface panel remote control – This is used to connect various different types of the equipment used in a radio station. To input broadcast data into a transmitter an interface panel will need to be used.
Cable – A cable can be used to connect the various devices.
Equipment Rack – To hold all equipment in a secure and logical manner, an equipment rack will be used.
Power protection equipment – For holding equipment’s in a stable, secure and logical manner.
UPS – For uninterrupted power supply.
These are the most used/important devices and items for most radio stations.
A microphone is used to capture the input of sound waves created by people speaking into the device. The sounds are then turned into electrical energy; this energy then flows along a metal antenna. As the electrons in the electric current move back and forth up the antenna, the current creates an invisible electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio waves. The waves travel at the speed of light, taking the radio program (voices recorded) with them.4
A compound of both a transmitter and a receiver is called a transceiver, they are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between the transmit and receive functions, the device becomes a transmitter-receiver.
Technically transceivers must combine a significant amount of the transmitter and receiver handling the circuitry.
Types of broadcasting stations
In line to ITU Radio Regulations (article1.61) each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.
FM broadcasting stations operate in the frequency band allocated to the Broadcasting service in the range of 88 to 108 MHz on primary basis. The particular broadcasting channels are in line to the regional or national frequency allotment plans and subject to frequency coordination. The interference criteria, established by the ITU Radio Regulations, are mandatory, so the highest quality reception might be achieved. Any frequency assignment is within the responsibility of the competent national Frequency assignment authority.
Low power FM broadcasting
A low power FM broadcasting station (also low power FM radio) is operated at a power of 500mW to 100W and can cover a service radius of 3 to 10 miles (geographical). Normally it broadcasts educational content; and is not allowed to undertake any commercial operations.
The lower the transmission frequency of AM sound broadcasting stations (also: AM radio), the greater is the geographical area covered, and lower is the quality of AM reception. Typical AM radio stations broadcast at frequencies between 525 kHz and 1605 kHz.
AM radio reception faces high interference from other radio communication services, allocated to the particular frequency band, or local broadcasts at similar frequencies, usually originating from other countries. To set up an AM broadcasting transmitter needs a massive infrastructure investment, usually including the cost of hiring more than one cross-border frequency coordination to comply with each country’s regulations.
Internet (sound or television) broadcasting (short: Internet radio) is one of the least expensive methods to provide sound or television programs to a worldwide audience. The only thing that is required is a computer with a large storage capacity. A high speed internet connection may also be needed and funds to purchase software.
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organization or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth’s surface to a receiver on earth. Most often the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves.
Because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments often claim authority to regulate them. Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were typically limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via sub channels as well. Television stations usually require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. A television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station’s transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages.
Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational (NCE) and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries generally limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably. Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer’s point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news.
To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, which is often located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link (STL) is used. The link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link (TSL) may also send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may simply pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite. The license usually specifies which other station it is allowed to carry.
VHF stations often have very tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power (ERP), and therefore use much less transmitter power output, also saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators.
UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, and thus requires a shorter antenna, but also higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 kW ERP for video and 500 kW audio, or 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background “noise” as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is taking another large portion of this band (channels 52 to 69) away, in contrast to the rest of the world, which has been taking VHF instead. This means that some stations left on VHF are harder to receive after the analog shutdown. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes.
The design will comprise of the following spaces and more
Main Control Room
Video Encoding Room
Audio Encoding Room
Audio Processing Room
Identification and Promotion of Locally Sustainable Building Materials for a Broadcasting Station Design.
Sustainable building is an essential aspect of widening efforts to conceive an ecologically responsible world. A building that is sustainable must, by nature, be constructed using locally sustainable materials: i.e. materials that can be used without any adverse effect on the environment, and which are produced locally, reducing the need to travel. There are key criteria that can be used to judge whether a material is sustainable or not:
To what extent will the materials used in this building cause damage to the environment? When using locally sustainable materials it is essential that those materials are renewable, non-toxic and, therefore, safe for the environment. Ideally, they will be recycled, as well as recyclable.
To what extent will a building material contribute to the maintenance of the environment in years to come? Alloys and metals will be more damaging to the environment over a period of years as they are not biodegradable, and are not easily recyclable, unlike wood, for example.
To what extent is the material used locally replenishable? If the material is locally sourced and can be found locally for the foreseeable future, travelling will be kept to a minimum, reducing harmful fuel emissions.
In order to source the right materials it will be necessary to research the possibilities in the area local to you. It may be necessary to make your needs very clear to building suppliers, who are not generally used to dealing with clients who require locally sustainable materials. Once you have done this they should be happy to help.
Silence is golden, or at least pretty expensive. Commercial recording studios cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to build because they must allow absolutely no sound to enter from a usually noisy urban environment. Double and triple walls, isolated concrete slabs, custom steel doors are all standard but high priced items used in their construction. A studio’s sound is its number one asset and most owners will go to any lengths to get it right.
Sound can travel through any medium– in fact it passes through solids better than through air. Sound intensity is reduced in the transition from one material to another, as from the air to a wall and back. The amount of reduction (called the transmission loss) is related to the density of the wall– as long as it doesn’t move in response to the sound. Unfortunately, all walls are somewhat flexible. Any motion caused by sound striking one side of the wall will result in sound radiated by the other side, an effect called coupling. If the sound hits a resonant frequency, the wall will boom like a drum. Most isolation techniques are really ways to reduce coupling and prevent resonances.
Traditional building materials are resources that are found readily in large quantity across Nigeria. The availability may largely be dependent on geographical location of the area as well as the chemical and physical components of such materials. The paper critically appraises some major local building material available in Nigeria such as adobe, bamboo, thatch, stones, timber, coconut tree, grasses etc.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In recent times, there seems to be a rush for contemporary building materials and even imported ones that seemingly makes building construction faster and easier with technology but little is known of the adverse effects some (or most) and some of these materials are not easily gotten and when got they are expensive and only few types of construction can afford such. Traditional or indigenous also have lesser adverse effects on the building occupant comfort and the building environment generally as compared to the contemporary materials. This study is therefore out to suggest equally soundproof building materials locally sourced and easily accessible for broadcasting stations in Nigeria.
Aim and Objectives
The aim of the study is to examine and put forward traditional or indigenous and locally available building materials
To gather some locally available building materials already
To assess the advantages of these locally available building materials over the contemporary ones.
Are traditional building materials sustainable?
What are the advantages of the locally available materials?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will at the end enlighten designers and building owners of the great benefits in using locally sourced building materials and will also help each locality to celebrate their own indigenous materials.
Scope of study
The study focuses mainly on building materials available within the localities of Nigeria and these materials in relation with their soundproof characteristics as relating to their use in a broadcasting station.
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DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN
PROJECT PROPOSALS FOR M.Sc ARCHITECTURE
ADELEKE O. NOAH
TO BE SUBMITTED TO
ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN