PREFERRED comes from deviation in the scale and


SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY CDE-LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL CENTRAL BICOL STATE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE IN FULL FULFILLMENT TO THE SUBJECT RESEARCHCHAPTER 2Review of Related Literature and StudiesThe presentation of the following related literature and studies used by the researchers as means of developing deep understanding and improving the present study. The literature and studies were taken from the online media, books, similar documents and unpublished works such as thesis. The use of a variety of materials will lead to greater learning. There is some evidence that films arc excellent for initiating a study, that many kinds of materials help the development of a unit and that student-produced materials are effective as summaries and conclusions (W.C. Allen, 1954). Suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching English Language like pictures, diagrams, maps, film strips and models(Slavin, 2010).

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Review of Related Literature The following discussion presents related studies used by the researches as guide in developing deep understanding of the present study. Teacher styles of teaching have raised significant interest to the academic community. For this matter, the researchers conducted numerous investigation on the most commonly used instructional materials that they preferred to use .This chapter discusses the definition of preferred instructional materials and also related literature review from the previews corpus.According to Kolb (1984), learning refers to the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. There are numerous definitions of learning styles being used and redefined by researchers to suit purpose of their studies.

There is “perplexity that comes from deviation in the scale and scope of learning, school achievement and other behavior predicted by diverse learning style terms” (Nel, 2008). As stated by numerous researchers, the term ‘learning style’ has been defined differently by different people. For some, it is “congruent with ‘cognitive style’, and for others it denotes preferred approaches to learning based on modality strengths” (Nel, 2008). Lawrence (1984) stated that the term learning style is used to “incorporate four aspects of the person which include, cognitive style (preferred or habitual patterns of mental functioning), patterns of attitudes and interests that affect an individual’s focal point in a learning situation, a tendency to pursue situations attuned to one’s own learning patterns, and an inclination to use certain learning strategies and evade others”.Bennet (1979, p. 262) has defined learning styles as: “A constant pattern of behavior and performance by which an individual approaches educational experience. It is the composite of characteristics of cognitive, affective and physiological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with and responds to learning environment. It is formed in the deep structure of neural organization and personality which molds and is molded by human development and the cultural experience of home, school and society.

” (Bennet, 1979, p. 262)The VAK learning style model is based on three main sensory receivers: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic to determine the dominant learning style (Clark, 2008). Clark (2008) stated that: “VAK is derived from the accelerated learning world and seems to be about the most popular model as a result of its simplicity. While research has shown a connection with modalities and learning styles (University of Pennsylvania, 2009), however the research has so far been unable to prove the using one’s learning style provides the best means for learning a task or subject. This is probably because it is more of a preference, rather than a style.

“According to Clark, learners use all three modalities to receive and learn new information and experiences. Nonetheless, according to the VAK or modality theory, one or two of these receiving styles are normally dominant. This dominant style delineates the best way for a person to acquire new information by sifting what is to be learned. This style may not always be similar for some tasks. The learner may prefer one style of learning for one task, and a combination of others for a different task (Clark, 2008).Review of Related StudiesAccording to Charles and Coombs (2010) consists of two components.

He classified the two components into inputs and outputs. According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the education system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined.

Chang (2009) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students.Slavin (2010) also added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish aparthy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse student’s interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Balogun (1971) commented that “Audio-visual materials, as integral part of teaching-learning situations help to bring about permanent and meaningful experience.

He said that, they provide first-hand experience where possible or of vicarious one where only that is feasible. Coombs (1970), listed four important factors, including the acute scarcity of instructional resources which he said constrained educational systems from responding more fully to new demands. He claimed that, in order to do their part in meeting the crisis in education, educational systems will need real resources that money can buy, they will need a fuller share of the nations’ manpower, not merely to carry on the present work of education, but to raise its quality, efficiency and productivity. They will need buildings, equipment and more learning materials.Research HypothesisOne means of explaining further the purposes and contributions of instructional materials inside the classroom is the teachers were being a key to learning. The thinking of the way to expand the experiences and knowledge through instructional materials, modifies the action of students and teachers working in term of observation or evaluation.

Ho.1: If the use of a wide variety of instructional materials in teaching would appeal much to student to student probably to open too much approaches to learning.Ho.

2: If the use of instructional material will be acquainted with a number of new learning and set only several points, hence it will be much fun and that learning is pleasant congenial in classroom.Ho.3: If the use of a specific preference is actual and efficient in teaching would probably appeal to students and enhance their knowledge skill.DEFINITION OF TERMSTeacher.

A person whose job is to teach students the English subject (Merriam-Webster, 1828). In this study, teachers are the respondent of the study that is using the different Instructional Materials.Student.

A person who attends a school, college or university (Merriam-Webster, 1828). In this study, the students are the person whom to give information to the researchers the effectivity of Instructional Materials using by their teachers.Instructional Materials.

The tools and medium used by the teacher in educational lessons which includes active learning and assessment (Merriam-Webster, 1828). Instructional Materials are the primary resource for English Language teachers, they must be selected wisely (George, 2002).THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKThe theoretical paradigm served as the basis in conceptualizing the present study. This show the combination of Ramadevi (2000), Candlin and Edelhoff (1982), and Spicer (1968).

According to Ramadevi (2000), Instructional Materials act as support to teachers, by providing the language input which they can use in the classroom, to expose their learners to the language. They also supply to the teacher, the exercises and activities to give to their students for them to engage in, as practice material which will lead them to learn the language. They also supply the teachers with exercises and activities to be given to their students. They take on the responsibility of providing material for teaching which will realize the syllabus or objectives of teaching prescribed for the specific level.Candlin and Edelhoff (1982), emphasize the twin aims that materials are supposed to fulfill. According to them “Materials should have twin aims: on the one hand they offer information and data about the language being studied, and in particular about the social context- the culture within which communication takes place and derives much of its meaning and value. They need to be.

…authentic to communication and the world outside. At the same time, materials have a role to promote learning and language learning in particular. They fulfill this role in the way they offer activities and tasks and exercises which challenge the competence of the learner.”In Spicer’s view (1968), instructional materials should possesses the basic qualities: Authenticity: Whatever is presented to the pupils, whether linguistic or cultural material, should be an authentic representation of the language or civilization of the foreign country. Clarity: For the materials to function effectively as teaching aids, they must possess clarity of exposition which leaves the pupils in no doubt as to their meaning.

Intrinsic value: The materials, while retaining a predominantly functional role, should also possess an intrinsic artistic or aesthetic quality which makes them of value and interest in their own right as well as effective language-teaching instruments. Practicality: To provide the maximum help to the teacher , the materials must be practical in use, economic of the cost and time, robust, easy to store, and immediately accessible. Appropriateness: Teaching materials, if they are to fulfill the role of motivating the learner and sustaining his enthusiasm, must be appropriate to the age, interests, and abilities of the pupils and to the level of the teaching.

They must also be appropriate to the different functions required of them in the different parts of the lesson (presentation, development, re-exploitation, etc.-689956382385″ Instructional Materials act as a support to Teacher”(Ramadevi 2000)00″ Instructional Materials act as a support to Teacher”(Ramadevi 2000).98673326670289704310160Provide language input0Provide language input 99152492710289282957612Exercise and activities as practice material00Exercise and activities as practice material 330015320551Preferred Instructional Materials in Teaching English of SHS Teachers in CBSUA00Preferred Instructional Materials in Teaching English of SHS Teachers in CBSUA-689956383771″Material should have twin aims”(Candlin ; Edelhoff 1982)00″Material should have twin aims”(Candlin ; Edelhoff 1982)9892152088581537855298739Info and Data0Info and Data10074563210221554076260465Authentic communication00Authentic communication103788029244700153785571812Social Context00Social Context-689957283499″Instructional Materials should possess the following basic qualities”(Spicers 1968)0″Instructional Materials should possess the following basic qualities”(Spicers 1968)99158230208700150408415240Authenticity00Authenticity234678726104300152123010045Appropriateness00Appropriateness234263026629600152122910333Intrinsic value0Intrinsic value1504604251230Practically0Practically234644020331600Theoretical Framework Figure 1.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKINPUT: The following input of the study where the set of determining of instructional materials use in teaching in English. The data needed will come from the researcher made questionnaires that will be answer by respondents of the SHS teachers in English.PROCESS: In collecting data needed for the study.

The researcher will distribute questionnaires to the respondents to gather the data needed in the study.OUTPUT: This is the result of the study. After processing all input, the expected output is the Preferred Instructional Materials Teaching in English of SHS Teachers in CBSUA.INPUTPROCESSOUTPUT11623975175250*Determining of the instructional materials in teaching in English used.00*Determining of the instructional materials in teaching in English used.32732525202555*Questionnaire’s*Conducting a survey00*Questionnaire’s*Conducting a survey54679275201920*Result to the Preferred Instructional Materials in Teaching English of SHS Teachers in CBSUA00*Result to the Preferred Instructional Materials in Teaching English of SHS Teachers in CBSUA152065289535371763659055Conceptual Framework Figure 2.


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