1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 ORIGIN OF THE REPORT This term paper has been prepared as a part of partial fulfillment of the course “Business Law’ (BUSSES ) of Business Administration Department of East West University. Our course instructor Ms. Famish Has has assigned us a report on “Political unrest and Impact on Local Business”. She has authorized the task of writing this term paper on a group basis. 1. 2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY There are some objectives behind every study and our work is not an exception. So we also have some objectives. The relevant objectives are listed below. Primary
The primary objective of the study is to analyze the political unrest and its impact on local business of Bangladesh. Secondary The secondary objective of the study is to enlighten the readers about the consequences of political unrests in Bangladesh. The readers can have a better idea and know more about the deterioration that occurs in the local business sectors due to political instabilities in the country. 1. 3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY For our report we have selected five sectors to determine the impact of political unrest on our local business as well as the total impact it has on the overall economy.
The sectors that have been chosen are: transportation, small business, textile clothing business, revenue collection. 1. 4 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Methodology of the study means the sources of collecting data to conduct the term paper. While doing the term paper secondary type of data were used. For this term prepare have collected Political Unrest and Impact on Local Business Page 1 data and information from various sources such as websites, journals, electronic newspapers etc. Secondary data source comprised of websites, articles, online newspaper, reports etc. 1. 5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is quite impossible to prepare a report without limitations. Similarly, the limitations that we faced while creating the term paper are Firstly, the report has been prepared solely based on secondary data for the study. Lack of appropriate information was a big factor. Lack of intellectual thought and analytical ability to make it the most perfect one was also a drawback. The current political instability of the country was a major reason for which primary data could not be collected while preparing the report. There was a time constraint, as the report had to be prepared within a short span of time due to the current political situation. 0 POLITICAL UNREST: According to Francesco Appeasable and Guide Tableland; Political unrest is defined as the sum of riots, general strikes and anti-government that is as lawful or unlawful collective action aimed against the national political authority and not en-tailing any military violence. This definition excludes episodes of individual violence, such as terrorism, political assassination and civil wars, as well as protests not aimed against national political authority. Political unrest can be referred to social unrest. It is a state of disconnect or trouble among a group of people with the problem lying in political manner.
Again we can say when the public protest against the government or where an uprising might take place in the form of a coup by the military in a country is political unrest. Political unrest is not a new subject to Bangladesh. What has changed is their frequency and destructiveness. More than 100 years have passed the worldћs first harass, strikes, blockade were staged. It took place in South Africa and was lead by the person who conceived the idea, Mohammad K. Gandhi, to protest the Black Act in 1906. The history of Bangladesh as a nation state began in 1971.
In the past time politics was used for the welfare of country. In those dayћs Political Unrest and Impact on Local Business Page 2 there was no quarrel among the politicians for money and power but as today most of the politicians are interest is grown for money and power not for welfare of country. The phenomenon of hart is contain souse with persistent regularity in present day at Bangladesh. On the other hand a stable political situation is strong prerequisite for achieving the targeted economic growth and creating employment opportunity. Hart and blockades are used for political approach.
Hart, strikes, blockade were not everyday matter in hose days but at present time Bangladeshћs political system is feeble. For this purpose opposite party called harass, strikes and blockades frequently. 2. 1 TYPES OF POLITICAL UNREST: Political unrest can be divided into following types: Hart: Hart is the extreme form of expression of protest in a democratic society. Strike: A strike directed towards securing the satisfaction of demands of a political nature. Like all issues connected with the objectives or motives of strike action, the lawfulness of political strikes the subject considerable controversy. Towpath. Rebound. Europe. Empire/PORTUGAL/Polycrystalline- APT. Tm] O Blockade: Blockade means the isolation of a nation, area, city, or harbor by hostile ships or forces in order to prevent the entrance and exit of traffic and commerce. [http://definitions. Useless. Com/b/blockade/] 3. 0 POLITICAL UNREST IN BANGLADESH: The most common form of political unrest is Hart. Hart is originally a Guajarati expression, which signifies closing down of shops and warehouses with the object of realizing a demand.
Essentially a mercantile practice, it acquired political significance in the 1 sass and asses when Mahatma Gandhi institutionalized it by organizing a series of anti-British general strikes by the name ‘hart’. After that, hart became a way to protest throughout the Indian sub-continent. During the period beјen the 1 sass and asses, there were many harass called against the British rule. From the asses, political activists were increasingly organizing hart, which by then appeared to them to be a stronger political weapon. There had been hart for days together Page 3 on the eve of the Bangladesh War of Liberation.
Indeed, politics of hart had played decisive role in monopolizing people on behalf of the Liberation War. In independent Bangladesh, hart has become a very frequently used political LOL for agitations since the asses. In the face of recurring hart, called mostly on the issue of legality, the regime of Hussein Mohammad Rehash (1982-1991 ) collapsed. After the restoration of democracy in 1 991 , both Miami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BAN)-led opposition have used the weapon of hart to put pressure on the government.
The crisis escalated in October 2006 and a state of emergency was declared, elections were postponed and a military backed caretaker government was appointed. Dry Backhanding Aimed, a former head of the central bank, took over as head of the interim government in January 2007. The ongoing political unrest in Bangladesh in 2013 has created a lot of problem for countries economic growth. There are lots of harass and blockades called by the opposition parties as the government has not fulfilled the demand of opposition. BAN wants to do election under Caretaker gobo. UT gobo. Is unwilling to resign and choose a caretaker gobo. Not only that but also the recent decisions of Supreme courts against the Gamma leaders and BAN leaders have created a great problem which turns out in face of harass and blockades. Thus, hart, blockades which once emerged to ventilate grievances to the rulers or overspent or to the concerned authority regarding the democratic rights and the legitimate claims, has turned to an absolute political weapon used sometimes to gain even a petty political interest.
From the history and culture of hart, we see the actual character of hart is that during hart citizens are prevented from attending to their avocations and traders are prevented from keeping their shops open or from carrying out their business activities. Also, workers are prevented from attending to their duties in the factories and other manufacturing establishments leading to loss in production and bequest loss in the national economy.
Hart, in recent years, has become violent as well, resulting in wanton acts of vandalism like destruction of government and private properties, vehicles which include private cars, engine-run three wheelers as well as rickshaws, and sometimes injuries and killings. Hence, to the citizenry, hart is another name for ‘anxiety, ‘insecurity’, ‘uncertainty’, ‘threat’ ‘intimidation’, etc. Accordingly, because of the way it is exercised, hart, a political right, is clashing with some other fundamental rights such as right to liberty, movement, work, conduct business, etc.
These individual human rights and hart as a political right cannot coexist peacefully. Either hart or other individual rights have to do away with the other or others. Page 4 [http://www. Idealists. Net/forum/2013/January/IA. HTML] 4. 0 ACTS RELATED TO POLITICAL UNREST f a person does something illegal in roads and railways he or she may be punished under the following acts of Bangladesh. 4. 1 THE EXPLOSIVES ACT 1884 The Explosives Act IV of 1884, under section 13, with criteria of power to arrest without warrant persons committing dangerous offences, states that whoever is found committing any act for which he is punishable under this
Act or the rules under this Act, and which tends to cause explosion or fire in or about any place where an explosive is manufactured or stored, or any railway or port, or any carriage, ship or boat, may be apprehended without warrant by a Fluorescence, or by the occupier of, or the agent or servant of, or other person authorized by the occupier of, that place, or by any agent or servant of, or other person authorized by, the railway administration or conservator of the port, and be removed from the place where he is arrested and conveyed as soon as conveniently may be before a Magistrate. 4. 2 THE EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES ACT 1908
The Explosives Substances Act VI of 1 908, under section 3, with criteria of Punishment for causing explosion likely to endanger life, person or property, states that any person who unlawfully or maliciously causes by any explosive substance an explosion Of a nature likely to endanger life or to cause serious injury to person or property shall, whether any injury to person or property has been actually caused or not, be punishable with death, or with imprisonment for life, to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and shall not be less than five years, to which fine may be added.
The same act, under section AAA, with criteria of punishment for causing explosion with intent to commit offence, states that any person who causes by any explosion substance an explosion with intent to commit or, to enable any other person to commit, an offence pun useable under any law for the time being in force shall, whether any offence has been actually committed or not, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and shall not be less than three years, to which fine may be added.
Page 5 This act also has, under section 4, with criteria punishment for attempt to cause explosive or for making or keeping explosive with intent to endanger life or property, that any person who unlawfully or maliciously (a) does any act with intent to cause by an explosive substance, or conspires to cause by an explosive substance, an explosion in Bangladesh of a nature likely to endanger life or to cause serious injury to person or property or (b) makes or has in his possession or under his control any explosive substance with intent by means thereof to endanger life, or cause serious injury to person or property in Bangladesh, or to enable any other person by means thereof to endanger life or cause serious injury to person or property in Bangladesh; shall, whether any explosion does or does not take place and whether any injury to person or property has been actually caused or not, be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to twenty years and shall not be less than three years], to which fine may be added.
The explosives substances Act VI of 1 908, under section 5, with criteria of punishment for exploding, making or possessing explosives under suspicious circumstances, also states that any person who explodes or makes or knowingly has in his possession or under his control any explosive substances, under such circumstances as to give rise to a reasonable suspicion that he has exploded it for committing an offence or is not making it or does not have it in his possession or under his control for a lawful object, shall, unless he can show that he exploded it or made it or had it in his possession or under his control for a lawful object, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years and shall not be less than two years to which fine may be added. 4. THE POLICE ACT, 1861 The police Act V Of 1861, under section 31 , with criteria Of police to keep order in public roads, etc, states that it shall be the duty of the police to keep order on the public roads, and in the public streets, thoroughfares, Ghats and landing-places, and at all other places of public resort, and to prevent obstructions on the occasions of assemblies and processions on the public roads and in the public streets, or in the neighborhood of places of worship, during the time of public Page 6 worship, and in any case when any road, street, thoroughfare, chat or landing-place may be thronged or may be liable to be obstructed.
This act also in it, under section 34, with criteria of punishment for certain offences on roads, etc power of police officers, that any person who, on any road or in any open place or street or thoroughfare within the limits of any town to which this section shall be specially extended by the Government, commits any of the following offences, to the obstruction, inconvenience, annoyance, risk, danger or damage of the residents or passengers shall, on conviction before a Magistrate, be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty take, or to imprisonment with or without hard labor not exceeding eight days; and it hall be lawful for any police-officer to take into custody, without a warrant, any person who within his view commits any of such offences, namely: 4. THE RAILWAYS ACT, 1890 The Railways Act IX 1890 from chapter IX, under section 128, with criteria of endangering safety of persons traveling by the railway by willful act or omission, states that if a person, by any unlawful act or by any willful omission or neglect, endangers or causes to be endangered the safety of any person traveling or being upon any railway, or obstructs or causes to be obstructed or attempts to obstruct any rolling-stock upon any railway, he hall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years. This act also says, under section 129, with criteria of endangering safety or persons traveling by the railway by rash or negligent act or omission, that if a person rashly or negligently does any act, or omits to do what he is legally bound to do, and the act or omission is likely to endanger the safety of any person traveling or being upon the railway, he shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.
Lastly, this section also includes under section 131, with criteria of rest for offences against certain sections, that (1) If a person commits any offence mentioned in section or 129 or in section 130, sub-section (1), he may be arrested without warrant or other written Page 7 authority by any railway servant or police-officer or by any other person whom such servant or officer may call to his aid. (2) A person so arrested shall, with the least possible delay, be taken before a Magistrate having authority to try him or commit him for trial. 5. 0 IMPACT ON LOCAL BUSINESS: 5. 1 Impact on Transportation Sector: The transport sector of Bangladesh consists of a variety of modes. As the entry is essentially a flat plain all three modes of surface transport, I. . Road, railway and water, are widely used in carrying both passengers and cargo. The airline network is also extensive and effective. But due to political unrest like harass transportation sector is hampering a lot. Specially the transportation on roads and railways. There is a great loss in transport sector due to recent hart and political instability since November. Hart activist burnt down about 400 vehicles from November, 2012 to 19th March, 2013. They also set aflame railway 92 times. They burned down the vehicle of Fire Brigade also. According to the calculation of fire service and civil defense, 356 vehicles have been set afire.
Quantity of Vehicles Burnt: Month Number of Transport Burnt November 201 2 34 December 201 2 83 January 2013 February 201 3 71 March 2013 124 Total 356 Table-I Source: Fire service and civil defense Page 8 Impact on Transportation Sector 150 50 Number of Transport Burnt Figure-I : Impact on transportation sector Loss of Government Transportation Service Provider: Source BRACT Bangladesh Railway Period December 201 2 to 3rd March 2013 November 2012 to March Table-2 Loss (Take) 33900000 joss per Day (TX) 364516 93900000 776033 Loss per Day (TX) 900000 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 Figure-2: Loss per Day of Gobo. Transportation Provider According to fire service and civil defense, 356 bus-truck have been set alight from November to 18th March and the loss in money amount is about TX to another reliable source of bus-truck ownerћs association and BRAT, from 28th February to 5th March, a loss money amount is about 18 core in transport sector. (Promo All,27th March,201 3) page 9 The transport sector suffered a total loss of TX 700 core as owners faced a loss of TX 250 core while the workers were deprived of TX 450 core wages,