It is an extremely useful material. Every household contains plastic in which it varies in sizes colors and uses. But plastics seemed to create a drastic effect. Because of the problem in supply in petroleum’s. Companies that makes plastic chairs tends to decrease the amount of resin in the mixture which result in low quality of the product Its strength is lessened and so thus the quality, leaving the customers seek for more durable and stronger plastic chair that can also help minimize the use of petroleum-based materials.In response to this problem, the researchers seek to develop hard plastics that as a component from natural resources, such as fish scales, which contains collagen and act as a glue for more stronger bind.
Fish and fish products are consumed as food all over the world. With other seafood, it provides the world’s prime source of high-quality protein: 14-16 percent of the animal protein consumed worldwide. Over one billion people rely on fish as their primary source of animal protein. Fish, along with reptiles, have hard protective scales on their skin for protection.The outer body of many fish is covered with scales, which are part of the fish’s integument system. The scales originate from the mesoderm (skin), and may be similar in structure to teeth.
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The squishy core of each scale is made from threads of a protein called collagen, and those threads are stacked on top of each other in a crisscross pattern. The fishing industry generates several circumstances where many tons of fish scales are leftover. Scales are usually discarded wherever fish are caught and dressed. It is simply for fish’s protection and substantially useless for people.A waste indeed, but if this can be a source of plastics, there will be a help for waste reduction at the same time to lessen the fossil fuel consumption, more trotter output and a cheaper alternative from the usual plastic.
In addition, people tends to buy plastic chair that is hard, firm and can support their weight. They also purpose to experience comparability that can last a long time. Biodegradable chair will never play its responsibility as a chair. Thus, maintaining its unpredictability and add the uniqueness of the product will have a stronger impact to the market.
In this research study, we proposed to use Bangui fish scales as a component in making a plastic chair that would be worthy for the community by being blue to produce a plastic chairs that has the same quality as the one being sold in the market. And also to reduce the water pollution by converting the fish scale waste into a useful product. Objective of the Study General Objective The primary objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of fish scales- based plastic chairs.
Specific Objectives Specifically our goal is to: 1 . Test the properties of the experimental fish scales-based plastic chair: a. Texture Test b.Flammability c. Compressive Strength 2. Determine the impact of the fish scale-based plastic chair as compared to standard commercial plastic chairs. . Minimize the amount of wastes that causes environmental destruction.
4. Provide additional source Of living to the community. 5. Teach the community on how to convert those waste of fish scales into a valuable plastic chair. Statement of the Problem The research study sought to determine the answers to the following questions: 1.
Is it possible to produce plastics from fish scales? 2. Is there any possibility to transformed those fish scale-based plastics into plastic chairs? . What is the primary effect of the fish scales in making the plastic chair? 4. How will this research help the community? Hypothesis The hypothesis of the study are the following: 1 . The fish scales can be used as a component in making plastics.
They are polymers which is macromolecular that is suitable to make a plastic. 2. The plastics out of fish scales can be mould and turned into plastic chairs by combining it in a right amount of polyester resin and its catalyst. 3. Milks contains much collagen that can be extracted and Can produce gelatin that is a polymer which can be process into plastics. 4.The fish scales will serve as the reinforcing medium which will give a hard effect on the plastic being produced.
5. This research will help the community reduce its fish scale waste and at the same time let the people of the community have an additional source of income. Significance of the Study Plastic changed our lives for many years, yet not our environment. Even plastic is the best material for almost everything it has also its negative side. The high demand for petroleum-based plastics like plastic bags has been a major contributor to the country and thus making its production decreased because of the shortage in supply of petroleum.Because plastics make our life more convenient, we should ensure its strength and that it will last long so e can make use of it for a longer time and thus avoid it being discarded and dumped as a trash when they are easily destroyed. Conducting this study can therefore minimize the problem due to plastics.
This study can be beneficial to the people because fish scales are considered as waste but then it can be utilize. Fish scales are known to be rich in collagen and can be made as plastics, thus the consumption of fossil fuels can be minimize.Therefore, the study of making plastics out of fish scales can be a learning paradigm in the people of the community and students to enhance their knowledge and improve their experimental skills as well. This may also provide valuable information about fish scales advantages and may come persuade people to have fishes in their plates. This research may also be an inspiration to pronounce further studies about the extraction of the collagen in fish scales and also to apply new methods in making plastics more effective and usable.Scope and Limitations The study will be operated to determine the possibility of making plastics out of fish scales.
The main product that the researchers would like to produce is a sample of plastic chair which is intended as an income generating project for the people of Barbarian North Bay South, Novas, Metro Manila Philippines. Raw materials of the product can be easily found but cleaning and maintaining it odorless is very difficult to do since adding a chemical may Vary and may affect the components of the fish scales and resin.This study only investigates the feasibility of Bangui fish scales ? based plastic chair. It does not inline any other types of scales. Also we will only test the compressive strength, texture preparation, flammability,and the quality of the experimental plastic chair to know if it is possible to go out in the market. This study is therefore designed to used the waste fish scales of the Bangui o be processed as a plastic and innovate it into plastic chairs.
The researches limited textiles to use other fish wastes like the fishes’ internal parts that is neglected and are thrown away in markets and households.In addition, the researchers also limits the use of chemicals involved in this research study. The researchers only made use of polyester resin and its catalyst, methyl ethyl ketene peroxide or the hardener. Conceptual Framework: FIGURE 1 The figure above shows the concept of the researchers of coming up with the study of the effectiveness of Bangui fish scale as a component in making elastic chair. The first table shows the input where in it involves the gathering of data about fish scales and its contribution in the making Of plastic chair.The next table shows the process where in the reinforcing medium which is the fish scales are combined with the cured polyester resin to substitute the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the process of making chair. The last table shows the output which is a small tool chair that made from fish scales and cured resin. This is the conceptual framework of the researchers in making fish scales a component in making plastic chair.
The fish scales waste will be eliminated and the source of income of the people in the community will increased.Definition of Terms The succeeding terms are all relevant to this research and are all defined in its direct usage in this study. 1 . Collagen – a group of naturally occurring proteins found in animals, especially in the flesh and connective tissues of vertebrates.
2. Fish – is any member of a paralytic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniates animals that lack limbs with digits. 3. Fish Scales – the skin of most bony and cartilaginous fishes. 4.
Gelatin – a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), derived from electioneered from various animal by-products. . Glycerin – a colorless liquid that is used as a plasticizer in the mixture of starch and water. 6. Methyl ethyl ketene peroxide(Hardener) – curing agent, makes the mixture dry and hardens faster depending on the amount put. 7.
Milks a large fork-tailed silvery herbivorous food fish (Chants chants) of warm parts of the Pacific and Indian oceans that is the sole living representative of its family (Cyanide). 8. Mould – a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw materials.
9.Molding – the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called pattern. 10. Plastics-a material that is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi- synthetic organic solids that are moldable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. 1 1 .
Polyester Resin – Any of numerous physically similar polymeric synthetics or chemically modified natural resins that are used with fillers, stabilizers, pigments, and other components to form plastics. 12.Polymer – a large molecule composed of many repeated subunits, known s monomers. 13. Starch – a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycoside bonds. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies which are significant and relevant to the study. These so recess of information provided the researchers a high background of the information regarding the main topic of this study. Related Literature Fish Scales The skin of most bony and cartilaginous fishes is covered by scales.
Scales vary enormously in size, shape, structure, and extent, ranging from rigid rumor plates in fishes such as skirmishes and fishes, to microscopic or absent in fishes such as eels and angelfishes. The morphology of a scale can be used to identify the species of fish it came from. Fish scales are produced from the mesoderm layer Of the dermis, which distinguishes them from reptile scales. The same genes involved in tooth and hair development in mammalians also involved in scale development. Fish, along with reptiles, have hard protective scales on their skin for protection.The outer body of many fish is covered with scales, which are part of the fish’s integument system. The scales originate from the mesoderm (skin), and may be similar in structure to teeth. Some species are covered instead by cutes.
Others have no outer covering on the skin. Most fish are covered in a protective layer of slime (mucus). (http://en.
Wisped. Org/wick/Fish_scale) Characteristics of Fish Scales Most fish have a covering of scales, which can be divided into a variety of types, over the outer surface of their bodies.These types include the plate- like placid scales of sharks; the diamond shaped gagging scales of the gars; the thin, smooth, disk-like cycloid scales of most freshwater fish and many ARIN species; and the cottoned scales (with actinic?small projections along the posterior margins) of perches and sunfish (Castle, 1976). Distinguishable scale characteristics include (1) overall scale shape; (2) position and shape of focus; (3) circus appearance; (4)the appearance of the lateral, anterior, and posterior fields; and (5) to some extent, thickness/robustness Of the scale.As there is considerable variation in scale shape even between different areas of the same individual fish, scale outline is not always the best indicator for identification (Figure 2; Castrate 1972; Chicken, 1968). Size is also generally not desirable characteristic, as scale size varies and overlap occurs not only between species and individuals, but also within a single specimen. Cycloid (Figure 3) and cottoned (Figure 4) scales show considerable variation in their forms, although not always at either the genus or species level, permittivity use for identification purposes.
Thessalonians and, to a lesser extent, the Plenipotentiary, display particularly consistent morphological characters. At this time identification of preserved scales to higher taxonomic levels (e. G. , Family) is straightforward providing that an adequate comparative reference collection is available.
While species identification is possible for some general,due to the lack of distinguishing characteristics, species-level assignments for many groups are not possible. Atlas of common campanological (fish scale) material in coastal British Columbia and an assessment of the utility of various types in paleographer’s reconstruction) Composition and Types of Fish Scales Fish scales are dermal derived, specifically in the mesoderm. This fact distinguishes them from reptile scales paleontologists. Genetically, the same genes involved in tooth and hair development in mammals are also involved in scale development. Complicates – can only be found on the extinct Cryptanalysis’s. The inner layer of the scale is made of lamellar bone.
On top of this lies a layer of spongy or vascular bone and then a layer of dentin-like material called cosine. The upper surface is keratin. Decathlons has modified cosmic scales that lack cosine and are thinner than true cosmic scales. Gagging scales – can be found on gars (family Lepidopterist) and bickers and reddish (family Polypeptides). Gagging scales are similar to cosmic scales, but a layer of gagging lies over the cosine layer and under the enamel. Gagging scales are diamond-shaped, shiny, and hard.Within the gagging are guanine compounds, iridescent derivatives of guanine found in a DNA molecule.
The iridescent property of these chemicals provide the gagging its SSH nine. Apalachicola – are found on cartilaginous fish including sharks. These scales, also called identities, are similar in structure to teeth, and have one median spine and two lateral spines. Leopardesses – are found on higher-order bony fish. As they grow they add concentric layers. They are arranged so as to overlap in a head-to-tail direction, like roof tiles, allowing a smoother flow of water over the body and therefore reducing drag.They come in two forms: (a) Cycloid scales have a smooth outer edge, and are most common on fish with soft fin rays, such as salmon and carp; and (b) Cottoned scales have a toothed outer edge, and are usually found on fish with spiny fin rays, such as bass and crappie.
(http:// en. Wisped. Org/wick/Scale_(anatomy)) Fish scales are an example of a bio-composite. A large part offish scales is made up of the protein collagen, a polymer. In fish scales the collagen in combined with a hard inorganic crystalline material to form a composite that is strong and waterproof..
The denatured (disordered) form of collagen is elating.Gelatin can be plasticized, for example with glycerol, and cast films of gelatin plus plasticizer form a plastic that has some good properties, including tensile strength. These films, however, are not water resistant; in time they would simply dissolve. (http://answers. Ask. Com/science/other/ Milks The milks (Chants chants) is the sole living species in the family Cyanide. (About seven extinct species in five additional genera have been reported. ) The Hawaiian name is awe, without initial glottal stop, not to be confused with ‘away, with initial glottal stop, the name for Kava (Piper metaphysics).
Milks have a generally symmetrical and streamlined appearance, With a sizable forked caudal fin. They can grow to 1. 70 m (5 Ft 7 in) but are most often about 1 meter (39 in) in length. They have no teeth and generally feed on algae and invertebrates. They occur in the Indian Ocean and across the Pacific Ocean, tending to school around coasts and islands with reefs. The young fry live at sea for two to three weeks and then migrate to mangrove swamps, estuaries, and sometimes lakes and return to sea to mature sexually and reproduce. He milks is an important seafood in Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands.
Because milks is notorious for being much bonier than other food fish, defined milks, called “boneless Bangui” (Bangui is the local name) in the Philippines, has become popular in stores and markets. Another popular presentation of milks in Indonesia is “banding presto” (akin “banding” is the Indonesian name for milks) from Central Java. Banding Presto is milks pressure cooked until the bones are rendered tender. (http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Milks) Farming Methods, Processing and Marketing of Milks Fry are raised in either sea cages, large saline ponds (Philippines) or concrete tanks (Indonesia, Taiwan).Misfits reach sexual maturity at 1. 5 kilograms (3.
3 lb), which takes 5 years in floating sea cages, but 8-10 years in ponds and tanks. Once 6 kilograms (13 lb) is reached (8 years) an average Of 3-4 million eggs will be produced each breeding cycle. This is mainly done using natural environmental cues. However, there have been attempts using configuration-releasing hormone analogue (Gnarl-A) to induce spawning. Some still use the traditional wild stock method. This involves capturing Wild fry using nets. Milks hatcheries, like most hatcheries, contain a variety of cultures, as well as the target species.
For example rotifer’s, green algae and brine shrimp. They can either be intensive or semi-intensive. Semi-intensive methods are more profitable with it costing $6. 67 US per 1000 fry in 1998, compared with $27.
40 per 1000 fry for intensive methods. However, the experience required by labor for semi-intensive hatcheries is higher than intensive. Milks nurseries in Taiwan are highly commercial and have densities of about 2000/tire. Indonesia achieves similar densities but has more backyard-type nurseries. The Philippines have integrated nurseries with grow-out facilities and have densities of about 1 000/tire.There are three methods of outgrowing: pond culture, pen culture and cage culture. Shallow ponds are found mainly in Indonesia and the Philippines.
These are shallow 30-40 centimeters (12-16 in), brackish ponds with benthic algae, usually used as feed. They are usually excavated from ‘nip’ or mangrove areas and produce ? keg/ha/yr. Deep ponds (2-mm) have a more stable environment and began in 1970. They so far have shown less susceptibility to disease than shallow ponds. In 1 979 pen culture was introduced in Laguna De Bay, which had high primary production.
This provided an excellent food source. Once this ran out, fertilizer was applied. They are susceptible to disease. Cages culture occurs in coastal bays.
These consist of large cages suspended in open water. These rely largely upon natural sources of food. Most food supply is natural food (known as ‘lab-lab’) or a combination of phytoplankton and macrophage. Traditionally this was made on site; food is now made commercially to order. Harvest occurs when the individuals are between 20-CACM (250-egg). Partial harvests remove uniform sized individuals with seine nets or gill nets.
Total harvest removes all individuals and leads to a variety of sizes. Forced harvest happens when there is an environmental problem, such as depleted oxygen due to algal blooms and all stock is removed. Possible parasites include parasitic nematodes, copes, protozoa and hilliness.
Many of these are treatable with chemicals and antibiotics. (http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Milks) Milks (Bangui)Ash Scales Milks is a type of fish that belongs to the Cyanide family. Their diets usually consist of algae and all sorts of invertebrates.
One of the uses of Milks scales includes an ingredient in some lotions.Biological features of milks includes body fusion, elongated, deteriorated compressed, smooth and streamlined. Body color silvery on belly and sides grading to olive-green or blue on back. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins pale or yellowish with dark margins. Single dorsal fin with 2 spines and 13-17 soft rays. Short anal fin with 2 spines and 8-10 soft rays, close to caudal fin.
Caudal fin large and deeply forked with large scale flaps at base in adults. Pectoral fins low on body with auxiliary (inner basal) scales. Pelvic fins abdominal with auxiliary scales and 11 or 12 rays. Scales cycloid, small and smooth, 75-91 on lateral line.