PARTIAL OF CONCRETE. GENNA GEORGE1, 1Research Scholar, Department

PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF NATURAL AGGREGATES BY GEO-POLYMER FLYASH AGGREGATES IN M30, M35, M40 GRADES OF CONCRETE.GENNA GEORGE1, 1Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, East Point College of Engineering, and Technology, (MTech.) IndiaEmail: [email protected], Abstract: Geopolymer is a new invention in the world of concrete in which Natural aggregate is partially replaced by Geopolymer fly ash Aggregate. Fly Ash and GGBS are the Industrial bioproducts and their disposal is creating an environmental issue.

Natural aggregates production also causes environmental impact. Considering the above two issues we are trying to give an alternate solution by developing artificial aggregates using fly ash and ggbs with alkaline activators by geopolymerisation method. Experimental Investigation has been carried out to study the workability, compressive strength, Split Tensile Test, Flexural Strength of concrete made with partial replacement of coarse aggregate by Geopolymer fly ash coarse aggregate for M30, M35 and M40 grade of concrete mix. An attempt has been made to compare the results with that of the conventional concrete.Keywords – Fly ash, GGBS, partial replacement with Geopolymer fly ash Aggregate, eco-friendly, alkaline solution, compressive strength, Geopolymerisation, Split Tensile Test, Flexural Strength. I. INTRODUCTIONThe need of Electricity is growing fast because of population and Industrial demand and its advantages and uses.

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Fly ash is a by-product of power generation with coal. As per the present India statistics, Coal based power generation holds about 72% of India’s power generation capacity. There are around 151 thermal power plant. They are Generating about 176.744 Million-Ton.

In future, thermal generation capacity in India will increase significantly in the coming decades. Ash disposal can have adverse impacts on the environment due to land use diversion, resettlement, water resources allocation and air pollution. Construction of large ash disposal areas results in resettlement issues, loss of agriculture/grazing land/ habitat. When the ash gets dried in the absence of water or vegetation cover, fugitive dust from ash pond pollutes the air thereby increasing local concentration of respirable particulate.

Once-through slurry disposal systems place additional strain on scarce fresh water resources. Stone quarrying causes a significant impact on the environment. In particular, it is often necessary to blast rocks with explosives in order to extract material for processing but this method of extraction gives rise to including noise pollution, air pollution, damage to biodiversity and habitat destruction. Air Pollution Dust from quarry sites is a major source of air pollution, although the severity will depend on factors like the local microclimate conditions, the concentration of dust particles in the ambient air, the size of the dust particles and their chemistry, for example limestone quarries produce highly alkaline (and reactive) dusts, whereas coal mines produce acidic dust. Damage to Biodiversity One of the biggest negative impacts of quarrying on the environment is the damage to biodiversity. Biodiversity essentially refers to the range of living species, including fish, insects, invertebrates, reptiles, birds, mammals, plants, fungi and even micro-organisms. Biodiversity conservation is important as all species are interlinked, even if this is not immediately visible or even known, and our survival depends on this fine balance that exists within nature.

Quarry Waste Again, like many other man-made activities, quarrying involves the production of significant amounts of waste. Some types of quarries do not produce large amounts of permanent waste, such as sand and gravel quarries, whereas others will produce significant amounts of waste material such as clay and silt. The good news is that they are generally inert and non-hazardous, unlike the waste from many other processes. However, there is still potential for damage to the environment, particularly with water contamination. Our Project mainly concern in reducing Environmental effect and Utilisation of by-product Material like Fly Ash by making artificial aggregate with the help of geopolymerisation. Geopolymerisation is a geosynthesis, a reaction that chemically integrates minerals. The exposure of Aluminosilicate materials such as FLY ASH, GGBS, or thermally activated substances to high-alkaline environments (hydroxides, silicates) gives rise to the formation of a geopolymer. Geopolymers are characterized by a two- to three-dimensional Si-O-Al structure.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW1. M. A Mohammed Arshad Ibrahim, M. Nidhin , R. Sudhakar , M.

Jothilakshmi , R. Srinivasa Raghavan , “Experimental Study on Concrete with Fly Ash Pellets Replacing by Coarse Aggregate”, International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol.1 No. 3, 2012, pp. 20 – 26.

doi: 10.5923/j.ijcem.20120103.02 The Compressive of the Class F fly ash pellets concrete has surpassed the minimum strength that a M20 concrete must have and Class F fly ash pellets is coat effective than conventional aggregate. the abrasion value of the fly ash aggregate is less when compared to conventional aggregate so they are good in abrasion.2. Kushal Ghosh and Dr.

Partha Ghosh, “Experimental Study on effect of %Na2O and %SiO2 on apparent porosity and sorptivity of fly ash based geopolymer mortar” IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) ISSN: 2250-3021 Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2012), PP 96-101.The study revealed that the apparent porosity and sorptivity as well as microstructure depended basically on alkali content and silica content. Strong alkali solutions are needed to dissolve fly ash during the process of geopolymerisation. There is no direct relationship between compressive strength and sorptivity.

However, generally there is decrease in water sorptivity and water absorption with increase in compressive strength and bulk density.3. Dr. M. Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Dr. M.C. Nataraja, K.

Sindhu, V. Harani and K. Madhuralalasa, “Experimental Study on Performance of Light Weight Concrete using Fly Ash Pellets as Coarse Aggregate Replacement” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology.

ISSN 0974-3154 Volume 9, Number 2 (2016), pp. 95-104 They prepared fly ash light weight aggregate using pelletizer and curing has done in cold bonded technique. The rounded shape of fly ash pellet gives better workability compared to the angular natural gravel. In conventional concrete, weight of concrete is one of the parameters to compare with weight of fly ash aggregate concrete. Normally density of concrete is in the order of 2200 to 2600 kg/m3.4. Benny Joseph, George Mathew, “Influence of aggregate content on the behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer concrete” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DOI: 10.1016/j.

scient.2012.07.006 ISSN: 10263098.

The compressive strength of geopolymer concrete increases with increase in curing temperature up to a value of 100 °C and beyond which it decreases. An early strength development in geopolymer concrete could be achieved by the proper selection of curing temperature and the period of curing. With 24 h of curing at 100 °C, 96.4 % of 28th day cube compressive strength could be achieved in 7 days’ time. Modulus of elasticity as well as the Poisson’s ratio of geopolymer concrete can be brought equal to or even higher than that of the corresponding ordinary cement concrete, by the proper selection of total aggregate content and ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate content.II. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVEThe scope of the research is to study the workability, compressive strength, Split Tensile Test, Flexural Strength of concrete made with partial replacement of coarse aggregate by Geopolymer fly ash coarse aggregate for M30, M35 and M40 grade of concrete mix.

An attempt has been made to compare the results with that of the conventional concrete and to reduce pollution caused by Stone Quarrying, Cement Production, and Fly Ash.The objectives of the project are following:• Fly Ash and GGBS are the Industrial bioproducts and their disposal is creating an environmental issue.• Natural aggregates production also causes environmental impact.• Considering the above two issues we are trying to give an alternate solution by developing artificial aggregates using fly ash and ggbs with alkaline activators by geopolymerisation method.

• To procure and characterize materials required for concrete mix.• To design the mix for M30, M35 and M40 grade concrete.• To study the workability of plain concrete and Geopolymer fly ash aggregate concrete.• To determine the mechanical properties of plain concrete and Geopolymer fly ash aggregate concrete like compressive strength.• Partial replacement of natural aggregates by geopolymer fly ash aggregate.III. METHODOLGY3.

0 GEOPOLYMER FLY ASH COARSE AGGREGATESThe Geopolymer Fly ash coarse aggregates obtained from GGBS-fly ash proportion 10:90 along with NaoH 10M ; Na2SiO3 solutions were prepared and the best proportion was finalized based on aggregate impact and aggregate crushing values. The aggregates that are produced using finalized ratio was used in concrete.3.1 PROPORTIONS FOR GEOPOLYMER FLY ASH COARSE AGGREGATESFrom the previous study, we got 10:90 and 10M is best out of 10:90, 25:75 and 50:50 and molarity of NaoH (5M, 10M ; 15M) ; Na2SiO3 solutions respectively. GGBS and fly ash are constituents for preparation of the aggregates.

NaoH ; Na2SiO3 solutions acts as binding agent. 3.2 PREPERATIONS OF GEOPOLYMER FLY ASH COARSE AGGREGATESGGBS and fly ash were mixed in above proportions with NaoH ; Na2SiO3 in a concrete mixer in which the aggregates are manufactured. Water was added to the mix by adopting a water cement ratio of 0.3. The contents were thoroughly mixed in the drum until the complete formation of geopolymer fly ash aggregates.

This method of formation of geopolymer fly ash aggregates is known as pelletization. The geopolymer fly ash aggregates and the pelletiser are shown in figure1 and figure2 respectively.3.3 DRYING AND CURING OF GEOPOLYMER FLY ASH AGGREGATEThe Geopolymer fly ash aggregates were taken out from the mixer and allowed to dry for 2 hour. The dried aggregates were thermal cured in the oven for 1 days at 60 degree Celsius.

3.4 GEOPOLYMER AGGREGATEBatching was done by weight using the mix proportion. The cement and fine aggregate were first dry mix separately thoroughly so that a uniform mix of cement and fine aggregates is obtained. Coarse aggregates and Geopolymer Fly ash coarse aggregate were added together in different proportions such as 75:25, 70:30, 65:35 and 60:40. The water-cement Ratio was taken as 0.

4. The mixture of coarse aggregate and fly ash coarse aggregate was then added. The concrete was mixed with all ingredients with addition of remaining quantity of water ; super plasticiser as per water binder ratio obtained by mix design.IV. RESULTS4.0 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH4.0.

1 Compressive Strength of Cubes for M30:Title % of replacement Avg. Compressive strength (N/mm2)Compressive strength of cubes 0 33.03 25 35.

5 30 33.36 35 26.80 40 22.48Table – 4.

0.1Avg. compressive strength of cubes4.

0.2 Compressive Strength of Cubes for M35:Title % of replacement Avg. Compressive strength (N/mm2)Compressive strength of cubes 0 37.92 25 36.

4 30 35.88 35 28.66 40 25.18Table – 4.0.

2Avg. compressive strength of cubes4.0.3 Compressive Strength of Cubes for M40:Title % of replacement Avg.

Compressive strength (N/mm2)Compressive strength of cubes 0 42.22 25 42.88 30 40.

59 35 32.54 40 27.4Table – 4.0.3Avg. compressive strength of cubesCompressive strength of cubes was tested using compression testing machine.

Three cubes were casted for each % replacement of coarse aggregate with geopolymer fly ash aggregate as per the procedure explained in IS: 516-1959. The mould shall be of 150 mm x 150 mm size confirming to IS: 10086-1982. Fig.

4.1: Average Compressive Strength Vs % replacement of coarse aggregateThe compressive strength of each percentage replacement was determined. Replacement of coarse aggregate with Geopolymer fly ash aggregate also showed significant increase in compressive strength compared to normal coarse aggregate with maximum value at 25%. However, Compressive Strength is more economical at 30%.4.1 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH OF CYLINDERS:Title Grade of Concrete (N/mm2) % of Replacement Avg. Split tensile strength (N/mm2)Split tensile strength of cylinders M30 30 6.

71 M35 30 7.75 M40 30 8.40Table – 4.1Avg. split tensile strength of cylindersSplitting tensile strength of cylinders was tested using compression testing machine. The bearing faces of both platens of the compression testing machine shall provide a minimum loading area of (12 mm x length of cylinder), so that the load is applied over the entire length of the specimen. The cylindrical mould shall be of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height confirming to IS: 5816-1999.

Fig. 4.1: Average split tensile strength Vs % replacement of coarse aggregateFrom the compressive test, we got to know that 30% replacement is more economical. The Split tensile of 30% percentage replacement was determined. Replacement of coarse aggregate with Geopolymer fly ash aggregate showed increase in split tensile strength.4.2 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF BEAMSTitle Grade of Concrete (N/mm2) % of Replacement Avg.

Split tensile strength (N/mm2)Flexural strength of beams M30 30 5.4 M35 30 7.05 M40 30 7.65Table – 4.2Avg.

flexural strength of beamsFlexural strength test was conducted on Three beams for 30% replacement of coarse aggregate with Geopolymer fly ash aggregate. Flexural strength is considered as an index of tensile strength of concrete. Beam tests are found to be dependable to measure flexural strength property of concrete. In a flexure test on a beam the theoretical maximum tensile stress reached in the bottom fibre of the test beam is known as Modulus of Rupture. Fig. 43: Average flexural strength Vs % replacement of Coarse aggregateThe flexural strength of 30% percentage replacement was determined. Replacement of coarse aggregate with Geopolymer fly ash aggregate showed increase in flexural strength compared to normal coarse aggregate with maximum value at 25%.

The compressive strength at 25% replacement is increased by 12.82% than initial strength with 0% replacement. There is a decremented decrease in strength from 37.

5% to 50%. V. CONCLUSION? From the experimental investigation, it was found that the weight of concrete cubes was decreased for Geopolymer fly ash aggregate concrete cubes, when compared to the conventional concrete cubes.

? The environmental impacts of crushed stone aggregates become a source of increasing concern in most parts of the Country. Pollution hazards, noise, dust, blasting vibrations, loss of forests and spoiling of natural environment are the bad impacts caused due to extraction of aggregates. Landslides of weak and steep hill slopes are induced due to unplanned exploitation of rocks.

? Considering the depletion of natural sources and the effect on environment, the disposal problems involved in disposing fly ash, light weight characteristics of Geopolymer fly ash aggregates with good mechanical properties.? Based on the aggregate crushing value and impact value, the Geopolymer fly ash aggregate obtained from the GGBS-fly ash ratio of 10:90 with 10M NaoH solution is the best proportion.? In this study, the replacement of coarse aggregate with Geopolymer fly ash aggregate will range from 30% to 60%. From this the maximum strength is achieved in the range of 30-35% replacement of coarse aggregate with Geopolymer fly ash coarse aggregate at all the ages of curing.? From the experimental investigation, it was found that the compressive strength was increased for Geopolymer fly ash aggregate concrete cubes containing Geopolymer fly ash aggregate range between 30-35%when compared to the conventional concrete cubes at all the ages of curing.? From the experimental investigation, it was found that the weight of concrete cubes was decreased for Geopolymer fly ash aggregate concrete cubes, when compared to the conventional concrete cubes.? The environmental impacts of crushed stone aggregates become a source of increasing concern in most parts of the Country.

Pollution hazards, noise, dust, blasting vibrations, loss of forests and spoiling of natural environment are the bad impacts caused due to extraction of aggregates. Landslides of weak and steep hill slopes are induced due to unplanned exploitation of rocks.? Considering the depletion of natural sources and the effect on environment, the disposal problems involved in disposing fly ash, light weight characteristics of Geopolymer fly ash aggregates with good mechanical properties (Compression strength) as seen in the above investigation, a particular attention may be focused on the usage of Geopolymer fly ash aggregates in concrete.? Compressive strength test is a one of destructive test. The test conducted on M30, M35 and M40 grades for 7 days and 28 days. The good result obtained for 30% on each grade and graphs are shown as per result obtained.

? Flexural strength test and Split tensile strength test are one of destructive tests. These tests conducted on M30, M35 and M40 grades for 28 days. The good result obtained for 30% on each grade and graphs are shown as per result obtained.VI. REFERENCES1). M.

A Mohammed Arshad Ibrahim, M. Nidhin, R. Sudhakar, M. Jothilakshmi , R. Srinivasa Raghavan , “Experimental Study on Concrete with Fly Ash Pellets Replacing by Coarse Aggregate”, International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol.1 No. 3, 2012, pp.

20-26. doi: 10.5923/j.ijcem.20120103.02.

2). Kushal Ghosh and Dr. Partha Ghosh, “Experimental Study on effect of %Na2O and %SiO2 on apparent porosity and sorptivity of fly ash based geopolymer mortar” IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) ISSN: 2250-3021 Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2012), PP 96-101.3). Dr. M. Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Dr.

M.C. Nataraja, K. Sindhu, V. Harani and K. Madhuralalasa, “Experimental Study on Performance of Light Weight Concrete using Fly Ash Pellets as Coarse Aggregate Replacement” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology.

ISSN 0974-3154 Volume 9, Number 2 (2016), pp. 95-104.4). Priyadharshini.P, Mohan Ganesh.G, Santhi.

A.S, “Experimental study on Cold Bonded Fly Ash Aggregates” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Volume 2, No 2, 2011. ISSN 0976 – 4399.5). Benny Joseph, George Mathew, “Influence of aggregate content on the behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer concrete” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DOI: 10.1016/j.scient.

2012.07.006 ISSN: 10263098.

6). Rajamani N.P, Annie peter J., Sabitha D. and Gopalakrishanan S. (2004). ” Studies on development on bonded fly ash aggregates for use as coarse aggregate in structural grade concretes” New building materials and construction world Vol 10, issue 4, Oct (pp 60 to 70).7).

Dr. J.P.

Behera, Dr. H.S.

Ray, Dr. B.D. Nayak and Dr.

B. Sarangi. (2004). “Light weight concrete with sintered fly ash aggregates”. A study on partial replacement to normal granite aggregate.

Institution of Engineers, India (IE(I)) Journal – CV Vol 85 August?2004, PP 84 to 87.8). Rajamani N.P, Annie peter J., Sabitha D.

and Gopalakrishanan S. (2004). ” Studies on development on bonded fly ash aggregates for use as coarse aggregate in structural grade concretes” New building materials andconstruction world Vol 10,issue 4, Oct (pp 60 to 70).

9). Dr. J.P. Behera, Dr. H.S.

Ray, Dr. B.D. Nayak and Dr. B.

Sarangi. (2004). “Light weight concrete with sintered fly ash aggregates”. A study on partial replacement to normal granite aggregate.

Institution of Engineers, India (IE(I)) Journal – CV Vol 85 August?2004, PP 84 to 87.10). Gao Li-Xiang, Yao Yan and Wang Ling.

“Research on sintered fly ash aggregate of high strength and low absorption of water”, Proceedings of International workshop on Sustainable development and Concrete Technology, PP 151 to 157.11). Mehmet Gesoglu, TurenOztumn and Guneyisi(2006), “Effects of cold bonded fly ash aggregate properties on the shrinkage cracking of light weight concretes”, cement and concrete composites 28(2006) PP 592 – 605.12).

GokhanBanjkal, Ata GurhanDoren. (2000). “Utilisation of fly ash by pelletizationprcess”, application of areas and research results, resources, conservation and recycling 30 (2000), PP 59 to 77.

13). Byung-Wan Jo, Seung-Kook Park and Jang-Bin Park. (2006). “Properties of concrete made with alkali activated fly ash light weight aggregate”, Cement and Concrete composites (2006), PP 1 to 8.14). P.

Kumar Mehta and Paulo J.M.Monteiro. “Concrete Miscrostructure, Properties and Materials” pp 226 to 230.15) .M.

S.Shetty. (2005). “Concrete Technology”, S.Chand and Co Publishing Company, pp 53 to 62.

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