Parental involvement can be school-based or home-based (Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014, p. 2). The home environment involves other correlations affect student achievement levels. Communication about school, supervision, and parental expectations are important components to research in order to identify the levels of parental involvement to support student achievement (Marzano, 2003).
School-based involvement includes parent–teacher communication, attendance at school events, and volunteering at school. Home-based involvement includes the provision of structure for homework time and leisure time. The type of involvement or amount of time parents spend with the child can change as the child matures. These changes can occur between the elementary and secondary school years partly because of adolescents’ growing needs for autonomy and independence (Wang ; Sheikh-Khalil, 2014). Developing a plan to remain an involved and increasing form of involvement can enhance learning capabilities.