P2 – Outline the structure of the four

P2 – Outline the structure of the four body Body tissues There are four main body tissue they are: Epithelial tissueConnective tissueMuscle tissueNerve tissueEpithelial tissue There are two groups of epithelial tissue simple and compound. Simple epithelial contains four types: squamous, cuboidal, columnar and ciliated. Compound epithelial contains two types: keratinised and non-keratinised.Squamous cellSquamous cells are found in many different parts of the body. Squamous cells can be found in the mouth, on the lips and on the cervix. The function of squamous in the kidneys is to allow filtration of the blood and small molecules, this allows the kidneys to get rid of waste products and water through urine.

The structure of squamous cell is a single layer of flat cells in contact with basal lamina.0200025Cuboidal cellCuboidal cells are found in organs that specialise in diffusion, absorption and secretion, this is the production and release of useful substances via glands or cells. The structure of a cuboidal epithelium is one layer thick it is joined tightly together with other cuboidal epithelium to form a sheet to act as a protective barrier.Columnar cellSimple Columnar Epithelium can be found lining the oviduct, gall bladder, renal collecting ducts and many other ducts of the body (Nansel B 2018). The function of columnar epithelium is to absorb and secretion. Columnar epithelium has a single layer of columnar cells that rest on the basement membrane, they have a greater height than width and are tightly packed together.Ciliated cellCiliated epithelial tissue is found in the respiratory tract and in the fallopian tubes of women to move the ovum to the uterus. Cilia is hair-like structure that sit on tissue and wave back and forth in order to help move things.

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Non-keratinised cells Non-keratinised cells are found on wet surfaces which are subject of wear and tear for example the vagina and mouth. These cells must be moist to prevent them from not drying out. They have many layers of cells of different shapes, they form at the deepest layer and as they slowly move to the surface they flatten.Keratinised cellKeratinised cells are found on dry surfaces that are subject to wear and tear for example the skin. These cells are very flat but they aren’t alive, they have no nucleus or organelles.They also many layers of cells of different shapes, they form at the deepest layer and as they slowly move to the surface they flatten. Inside the keratinised cell they have a protein called keratin which makes our skin waterproof..

Connective tissueThere are 5 types of of connective tissue: blood, cartilage, bone, areolar and adipose.Blood tissueBlood tissues are found in blood vessels such as arteries, veins and capillaries.inside blood tissue it contains 55% plasma and 45% of blood cell components such as platelets, white and red blood cells. The function of the red blood cell is to carry blood around the body, white blood cells protect the body from viruses and platelets help the blood clot.

Cartilage tissueCartilage is connective tissue that has dense matrix within the cartilage in a rubbery substance. Cartilage tissue is found in the nose, trachea and also found covering bones and joints. The function of cartilage is to provide smooth surfaces allowing tissues to move easily.Bone tissue Bone tissue is found in the skeletal system. The bone tissue has many functions, it is used for support of the skeletal system to maintain the framework and support softer tissue. It also protects the bodies internal organs for example the ribcage.

The bone tissue helps with movement, storage of minerals, production of red blood cells and storage of chemical energyAreolar tissue Areolar tissue is found in many places around the body it is found on the skin the tissue binds the outer layer of skin and connects it to the muscle. Areolar tissue is loose and has meshwork of collagen, elastic tissue and fibres. The function of it is to connect the muscle to the skin it also forms a link between organs.

Adipose tissueAdipose is forms a thick layer under the skin , near kidneys and in the buttocks. Adipose is loose connective tissue packed with cells that cells that store fats. The function of adipose tissue is to act a an insulator to help with heat loss, it also protects major organs and is an energy source.Muscle tissueThere are three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.Skeletal muscleSkeletal muscle is found when muscle is connected to the skeletal bones.

The function of skeletal muscle is to support, help with movement and to regulate temperature. Skeletal muscle are striated and are voluntary controlled.Cardiac muscleThey are found in the walls of the heart. Cardiac muscles are striated. The function of cardiac muscle is to contract the heart so the heart is able to pump blood around the rest of the body.

Smooth muscleThey are found in walls of hollow visceral organs but not the heart. Smooth muscle are spindle-shaped. The function of smooth muscle is to forms organs like the stomach and bladder changes shape to facilitate bodily function.Nerve tissueThere are two types of nerve tissue neurons and neurogliaNeurons A neuron cell conducts electrical impulses called nerve impulses or action potential. They are found in the central nervous system, the brain and along the spinal cord. The purpose of neurons is to send information across to the body.

Neuroglia These cells protect, support and maintain equilibrium in the nervous system. They are found in the nervous system. They provide nutrients for neurons, destroy pathogens and wraps around axons to speed up electric impulse conduction.Bibliography Boskey Elizabeth (published 2018) Title Squamous cells – potentially affected by HPV https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-are-squamous-cells-3132912 (date accessed 22/09/18) Mikesh Leann (published 2017) Title What Are the Functions of Simple Squamous Epithelial Cells? https://www.livestrong.com/article/192286-what-are-the-functions-of-simple-squamous-epithelial-cells/ (date accessed 22/09/18)https://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/lab_6/601cm-simplecu.html McDougal Wendy (published 2016) Title Simple Cuboidal Epithelium: Location, Structure ; Function https://study.com/academy/lesson/simple-cuboidal-epithelium-location-structure-function.html (date accssesd 22/09/18) Bongdap Nansel Nanzip (published 2018) Title Simple Columnar Epithelium: Function, Structure, Location and Simple Epithelial Tissue Slides http://www.jotscroll.com/forums/11/posts/192/simple-columnar-epithelium-function-epithelial-tissue-location-slide.html (date acsessed 22/09/18)Enzar laura Title Ciliated Epithelium: Function, Structure ; Diagram https://study.com/academy/lesson/ciliated-epithelium-function-structure-diagram.html (date acsessed 22/09/18)http://www.austincc.edu/histologyhelp/tissues/tg_stra_sq_ker_e.html (date acsessed 22/09/18)(Ibgyuvy roses) Title Structure and Functions of Blood Tissue http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Tissue/Tissue_Blood-Tissue.php (date acsessed 22/09/18)(Ivy roses) Title Structure and Functions of Cartilage Tissue http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Tissue/Tissue_Cartilage-Tissue.php (date acsessed 23/09/18)(Ivy roses) Title Structure and Functions of Bone Tissue http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Tissue/Tissue_Bone-Tissue.php (date acsessed 23/09/18)(Ivy roses) Title Structure and Functions of Areolar Tissue http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Tissue/Tissue_Areolar-Tissue.php (date acsessed 23/09/18)(Ivy roses) Title Structure and Functions of Adipose Tissue http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Tissue/Tissue_Adipose-Tissue.php (date acsessed 23/09/18)(Adam) Title Types of muscle tissue https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19841.htm ( date accessed 23/09/18) Simmons J Title Major Skeletal Muscle Functions https://study.com/academy/lesson/major-skeletal-muscle-functions.html (date acsessed 23/09/18)(Visible body) Title 3 Types of Muscle Tissue: The Function of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle https://www.visiblebody.com/learn/muscular/muscle-types (date acsessed 23/09/18)(biology) Title neurons http://www.biology-pages.info/N/Neurons.html (date accessed 23/09/18) Cheprasov A Title Neuroglia: Function ; Definition https://study.com/academy/lesson/neuroglia-function-definition.html (date accsessed 23/09/18)


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