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0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}span.s1 {font-kerning: none}span.Apple-tab-span {white-space:pre} In Edward Glaeser’s Triumph of the City, he argues that the influx of diverse immigrants and national policies that encourage free trade are a direct correlation between the growth of global cities. Since the birth of Rome, London, Constantinople and Alexandria, cities attracted some of the world’s greatest and brightest minds. The newest technological advances and economic achievements have all been a by-product of the ideas, beliefs and principles of intellectually diverse people. Globalization continues to spawn and strengthen the world’s most urban areas such as San Jose, the technological hub of the United States.

    Contrary to popular belief, immigrants are one of the key contributors to the success of global cities. The United States has benefitted dramatically from unskilled and talented individuals that have traveled overseas searching for a better life. Glaeser states,”The growth of New York and Chicago over the past two decades is largely due to the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who have come to those cities. Cities are good for immigrants and immigrants are good for cities”(Glaeser 2011, 252). New technologies and the expansion of globalization attract people to metropolitan areas by the ability to interact, collaborate and share within proximity of each other. The technological hub of Northern California known as Silicon Valley entices aspiring entrepreneurs, engineers and programmers to become part of the forefront of the next technological revolution.

One of the important reasons why the Valley can survive is that it welcomes people from all cities across the globe. Foreigners are capable of connecting urban areas to other countries while incorporating their traditions, values and beliefs into Western culture. Instead of sitting behind a computer in Mumbai attempting to communicate your ideas to an individual in San Jose, the technological metropolitan area draws in the best and brightest minds. The diversification of thoughts and beliefs from around the globe cultivate new products and services that greatly benefit the range of global customers most companies wish to reach. According to the article “America’s Leading Immigrant Cities” the researcher Vivek Wadhwa declares that “…more than 40 percent of Silicon Valley’s tech companies founded in recent years have at least one immigrant on their founding team”(CityLab 2015). San Jose is one of America’s most economically stimulating and energetic metros with a large immigrant population. Immigrants are the backbone of innovation and have started some of the largest and most popular companies with such examples as Sergey Brin, the co-founder of Google and Pierre Omidyar, founder of eBay.

Globalization depends on foreign policies that do not just encourage revolutionary individuals to immigrate to the United States, but cultivate a culture where new ideas are welcomed. Immigration continues to be a positive vehicle for economic growth and makes America more ethnically diverse. The relationship between skilled immigrants and the United States has connected the world by providing opportunities such as jobs in the tech industry, startup ventures and overall good wages. Immigrants are more willing to take a chances that many native-born citizens are not prone to pursue. Adam Bluesmen from Inc Magazine states that “From 1996 to 2011, the business startup rate of immigrants increased by more than 50 percent, while the native-born startup rate declined by 10 percent, to a 30-year low”(Inc 2015). Immigrants, in general, overcome immense challenges that most native citizens cannot comprehend, such as leaving their home country to start a new life in a foreign land.

The growth of San Jose, one of the largest and fastest growing tech hubs, is due to the entrepreneurial drive of creative immigrants. The innovation and growth of the Valley over the past twenty years can be attributed to the technological advances created by the efforts of skilled migrants.    The free flow of resources and goods across borders is not just beneficial for the American economy, but for global trade as a whole. In San Jose, technological progress can grow steadily when the United States embraces free trade policies.

Restrictions on producing products in a foreign country, such as China, would have hindered the growth of a U.S.-based company like Apple. There are millions of people around the world that can purchase the iPhone for its (relatively) low price. Inexpensive articles of clothing that are produced in China can provide warmth to hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Glaeser believes that “We’re far better off allowing our consumers to take advantage of inexpensive foreign products and our producers to adapt than we would be hiding behind tariff walls”(Glaeser 2011, 252).

Free trade accelerates improvements in technology allowing for specialization and efficiency overseas. Most companies ranging from Google, Apple, Tesla, Oracle and HP all rely upon overseas production for lower costs and higher efficiency for continuing to grow some of the largest companies in the world. With high tariffs and regulations, companies will be forced to cut costs in other areas of the business such as employees and wages. Marcus Noland, the senior vice president at the Peterson Institute for International Economics states “A trade war that started with products could spill into things like visas and immigration issues, which would disadvantage the entire high tech sector.

“(The Mercury News 2017). In the twenty-first century, free and global trade has allowed some of the most innovative companies to create the best products and services in our history. The ability to have a supercomputer in your pocket that can access any and all information in seconds could not be possible without the immigrants and free trade policies of the United States. Technological development would be even more difficult to create without the minds and experiences of immigrants across the globe. Global markets allow for talented individuals from all around the globe to interact, share and build some of the most amazing inventions in history. San Jose is a melting pot of ethnically and intellectually diverse individuals.

Without their contributions to the tech industry, we would not be living in the same technologically advanced society we see today. The City of San Jose is a more vibrant and ambitious community because of the range of ideas, beliefs, and backgrounds. The impact of the inclusive and creative city of San Jose will continue to influence not just the American economic landscape, but also cities around the world.

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