P essay

Councils children’s services and his mother Tracey Connelly, his step-father Steven Barker and his step-fathers brother Jason Owen were all convicted of ‘causing or allowing a child’s death’ (Cross-referenced from Unit 10, task 1). Abraham Moscow (1908-1970) was a humanistic psychologist who (1954) developed a hierarchy of complex human needs (1954) that an individual must satisfy in a process called self-fulfillment- satisfaction of all needs results in self-actualization. The hierarchy was divided into seven tiers and when each set of needs were satisfied, the individual would move up another level o fulfill more needs.

Physiological needs like food and water are essential for survival. If those most basic needs are being neglected, the individual will instinctively focus everything on meeting those needs first. Once satisfied, safety needs like warmth and shelter also become important. After the safety needs have been met, social needs including love and a sense of belonging become important. When those have been satisfied, esteem needs must be satisfied. Cognitive needs must be satisfied before aesthetic needs including beauty and symmetry can be satisfied.

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Only when all of the needs in the research have been satisfied, can an individual finally realism and reach their full potential through the process of self-actualization (Hayes, 2000) (cross- referenced from Unit 7, task 1). Measles first stage refers to basic biological and physiological needs, it includes thing like food, drink, shelter, warmth, and sleep and it can be argued that Baby p didn’t even have those needs met. The reason that it was imperative for Baby Up’s needs to be met at this stage was that without food, drink and warmth, people can only act instinctively.

There were reports of Baby P being malnourished although it is difficult to determine. Baby P did have shelter in the most simple of terms, although disagree with this because a shelter is meant to be a place of safety where no harm will come; that wasn’t the case for Baby Peter. Baby Peter couldn’t move onto the safety needs stage, but if he would have had a constant supply of food, sleep, warmth and shelter he would have been able to move up a stage. Baby Peter didn’t move onto the Stage of safety needs where protection, security, law, and freedom from fear.

This was because he wasn’t protected from his abusers by his family or society. A doctor didn’t notice a broken spine, or raised, social worker did notice bruises but no action was taken to protect him, and all attempts to question his mother proved futile. Baby Peter could have met those needs in a number of ways with or without abuse, this is because if he was taken into care by social services he would have been protected and in turn all the needs from Mason’s first stage would have been met by the Local Authority.

Mason’s third stage refers to social needs and the instinct to crave love, attention and have a sense of belongingness from family and later in like colleagues. Baby Peter did have a family but there was o mention of weather she showed him low and affection, although it can be argued that without protection and shelter, he couldn’t have felt a sense of love and affection. To meet the third stage, Baby Peter would have had to have felt loved and a sense of belonging.

It is difficult to determine how in his situation he would have met this need because not all children in care or foster families feel a sense of love and belonging- but at his age it is unlikely that love would have needed to come from family, so successful interventions could have helped him meet this stage Mason’s fourth stage, esteem needs, offers to the need for a sense Of achievement, independence, Status and responsibility. Baby Peter didn’t meet this stage because he wasn’t yet old enough to feel achievement, responsibly and status.

Arguably, baby peter could have been independent if he wasn’t abused. Simple things like walking and being able to feed himself would be classed as independence, but his independence was taken away from him when he broke his spine because he couldn’t do things like walk which made him independent. Later in life, Baby Peter would have been able to meet this stage through things like creating his win family, starting school and little aspects of freedoms in childhood like being able to go to the shop on his own the first time. This would have given him a sense of achievement and independence.

Working through this stage builds self-esteem and worth and eventually the final stage, self-actualization, occurs on its own. According to the main principles of Measles hierarchy, Baby Peter would have moved into self-actualization where personal growth and fulfillment takes place, but Moscow noted that very few people actually get to that stage because not enough people see their potential to meet it- it is often governed weather somebody will meet this stage when they finish secondary school and meet their ‘true’ potential.

To meet this stage Baby peter would have had to of met all of Measles other stages and go through a process of refection and growth in his life. There are a number of processes involved in the initiation integration and concluding a helping relationship and it is important that things like ethical considerations and referrals are taken into account. Ethical concerns in a counseling relationship can range from the need to disclose information and professional boundaries. It is important that the client is shown a level Of respect and decisions are left down to them without any interferences or disapproval.

It is also important that client’s autonomy is respected and they are not deceived into any other forms of support on the basis of ‘they need it’. When in a helping relationship the relationship needs to be ethical and have appropriate boundaries that both the professional and the client adhere to. In a helping relationship it is important that the client does not enter a non-professional relationship and it is the professionals job to make sure that the relationship would stand up to scrutiny.

This would be overstepping the boundary for the professional. Because of the sensitive nature of helping relationship the client is regularly in a very vulnerable position, it is important that the professional recognizes this and does not take advantage of the client when they are vulnerable and that includes confidentiality. Skilled helpers and counselors should never get into an argument with a client as it can be disastrous for their recovery/ care. All helpers should demonstrate professionalism, warmth and empathy.

It is also very important that the counselor recognizes when they can no longer alp the individual effectively and the individual is referred on to someone who is better trained In caring for their individual. A skilled helper should never try to work above their limitations or provide a service they are not qualified to provide. Communicating limitations of the helping relationship is another aspect to consider when initiating contact and beginning a working relationship because it allows the client to understand that they may need to seek support in another place.

And it lets them know what to expect in terms of what the support is for and what can and can’t be done, a skilled helper irking above their limitations as acting as a barrier to another service. Equal opportunities in a counseling relationship is important because it is part of the care value base and the law. Equal opportunities refers to allowing all service users the same chances to do things, even if it means putting extra support in place to give them the same opportunities (e. G. A ramp). Treating all clients the same is not equal opportunities and can actually lead to some clients not having the same opportunities.

By providing equal opportunities it enables all staff members and service users to feel safe and within a safe environment also ensuring no individual is or feels discriminated against. Before the start of any counseling session, the counselor needs to prepare their counseling room. The room should be comfortable temperature, make sure seating arrangements are appropriate and confrontational. The room should be an appropriate light and there should be no physical barriers between the helper and client (desks, high tables) to allow the helper to observe body language and facial expressions.

An atmosphere should be created that feels informal al relaxing, but professional at the same time. This s seen with ‘rape rooms’ for rape victims in police stations that are designed to be soothing and relax a victim. Background noises can put a stress on the environment because in silence, the client forgets about the outside world and doesn’t have to worry about other people. The arrangement Of first contact should focus on introductions and building a therapeutic relationship. This can be done by talking about things that are nothing to do with the intended purpose of the session for the first 5 minutes to build trust.

A client should be allowed to sit how they feel comfortable and the counselor should adjust their position appropriately. When introductions are over and the client feels comfortable initiating a contract that then begin. This is where terms are set up between the professional and the client so both parties understand how long the sessions are going to go on for and what is going to be gained from the sessions and the limitations of the session. This protects both parties and also helps in developing boundaries and the client should be told ay costs they may incur.

Confidentiality is one of the most important parts of a counseling relationship because if it is ever compromised, building new sense of trust is unlikely. The helper should make it clear that they will only break confidentiality if they are at risk of harm or other people are at risk of significant harm. When breaking confidentiality, the helper should have a second opinion. The counselor should start to build an empathetic relationship, where they don’t condescend their client by being sympathetic.

The client should constantly be supported and should never be pushed by the helper So they can go at their own speed. A skilled helper should always put support in place for the client and should never appear dismissive or unsupported. Early referrals are part of this process and they can be used to move a client into another service just before they need it, so the sessions are never ineffectual or unproductive. The client should always be consulted about an early referral and they can be used to patch and potential gaps in support or provision.

Integrating and using a range of helping skills in a structured and coherent way means that no time is wasted in a session, putting the service user at the centre of their care. Using skills like empathy, communication, body language, and investigative skills can help a helper get ore information from a client in a way that isn’t detrimental to the relationship or that feels too pressured. It can be difficult for a helper to learn these skills and they often come with experience and vary with personality. When a session is ending, it is important that the helper provided unbiased and accurate information.

This extends the clients autonomy and puts them in control of their care so that they can make an informed decision about what to do next and promoting recovery and independence. Giving clients information that is unbiased means that they can reflect on their current progress and make a decision that suits them most. It can be difficult for a helper to learn how to explain something in a way that it isn’t biased when recommending or talking about other services because they need to bear in mind that everybody has different needs and services don’t suit everybody.

Referrals can be used by a helper when their service is no longer beneficial to the client and there are other services that are, or the client is interested in. This is part Of the helper accepting their limitations or striving to put the best support in place. A client should always be told exactly where they are being referred to, whom, what information will be passed on and how long it will aka. A helper should then look at what support the client will be receiving in the time between the referral and provide and necessary support.

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