Overweight, youth obesity have been well documented,

Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors, retrieved from: Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce G, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010, Volume 38, Issue 3, doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.038

The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. Although the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well documented, comparatively less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health-risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. This study aims to examine the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth.

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Childhood Obesity, retrieved from: Theodore, Lea A,
Psychology in the schools, 2009 Volume: 46 Issue: 8 Page: 693-694. doi: 10.1002/pits.20408

This article reports on the development of a systematic approach to assess for community readiness prior to implementation of a behavioural intervention for childhood obesity. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), we developed research tools to evaluate local community centres’ organisational readiness and their capacity to implement the intervention

Disparities in Childhood Obesity, retrieved from: Bethell, Christina, Journal: Health affairs (Millwood, Va.) 2010. Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Page: 347-356. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0762

New data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health show that the percentage of children ages 10-17 who are overweight (body mass index in the eighty-fifth to ninety-fourth percentiles) remained stable, while the national prevalence of obesity (BMI in the ninety-fifth percentile and higher) grew significantly, from 14.8 percent in 2003 to 16.4 percent in 2007. This increase in obesity accounted for the entire increase in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity between 2003 and 2007 (from 30.6 percent to 31.6 percent). An estimated 10.58 million children, or nearly one in three children ages 10-17, were overweight or obese in 2007

Risk Factors of Health Risk Behaviors in Intermediate Students, retrieved from: Tahera Anwar; Iram Fatima; Jamil A Malik Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 12/2016, Volume 31, Issue 2. ISSN: 1016-0604

Relationship of parental bonding, college connectedness, emotional intelligence, and academic stress with health risk behaviors was examined in 11 and 12 grade science and humanities group students (N = 225) with age range of 16 to 19 years. Mediating role of emotional intelligence, college connectedness, and academic stress was also tested for the relationship of parental care and control with health risk behaviors in students.
Results reveal that parental care was positively related to emotional intelligence and negatively related to health risk behaviors. Parental control was positively related to academic stress and health risk behaviors. Emotional intelligence was negatively related to academic stress and health risk behaviors; and academic stress was positively related to health risk behaviors.

Predictors of chronic disease at midlife and beyond – the health risks of obesity, retrieved from:
Nejat, Edward J Journal: Maturitas 2009. Volume: 65 Issue: 2 Page: 106-111 DOI:
10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.09.006

A burgeoning pandemic of obesity is well characterized. 41% of U.S. adults are projected to be obese by 2015 and obesity, a potentially modifiable risk, is emerging as a leading predictor of lifetime health. The wide spectrum of morbidities related to excess body mass includes risks for diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease and depression overall reduced quality of life.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 2003 Volume: 289 Issue: 1 Page: 76-9 Childhood Obesity, retrieved from: Miller, Janet The journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005. Vol: 89 Issue 1: Pg. 1871-8 DOI: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00196.x

Severe obesity has increased, yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared with those who did not report abuse. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity.

The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity, retrieved from: R, Daniels, Stephen R. Journal: The Future of children 2006 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Page: 47-67. doi: 10.1353/foc.2006.0004

Summary Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children’s health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation’s children. He explains that obesity can harm the cardiovascular system and that being overweight during childhood can accelerate the development of heart disease. The processes that lead to a heart attack or stroke start in childhood and often take decades to progress to the point of overt disease. Obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood may accelerate these processes.

Childhood Obesity Author: Stewart, Laura
Journal: Medicine (Abingdon. 1995, UK ed.) 2011 Volume: 39 Issue: 1 Page: 42-44
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2010.10.004

Obesity is now a common childhood disease and is widely acknowledged as having become a global epidemic. There are well-recognized health consequences of childhood obesity, both during childhood and adulthood, affecting health and psychological welfare. Clinicians working with obese children should have knowledge of the components of a healthy lifestyle and understand the importance of interacting with the child and family in a positive, empathetic and non-judgemental manner. Guidelines suggest that in the case of severe to extreme obesity in adolescents with co-morbidities, anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery may be considered as part of a treatment plan.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Childhood Obesity, Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/

States many facts that have occurred in our time related to childhood obesity. Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years. The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 20% in 2008. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 years who were obese increased from 5% to 18% over the same period. In 2008, more than one third of children and adolescents were overweight or obese. The CDC defines being overweightas having excess body weight for a particular height from fat, muscle, bone, water, or a combination of these factors. The agency defines obesity as having excess body fat. Overweight and obesity are the result of “caloric imbalance” too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. Much of our young generation is succumbing to these factors and falling within these unhealthy balances and standards.

National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality, Childhood Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.nichq.org/childhood_obesity/index.html

NICHQ is committed to childhood obesity prevention. They aim to eliminate the childhood obesity epidemic by working with policy makers, clinical improvement professionals, and healthcare professionals to ensure every child has access to high-quality care through a medical home. Even as early as conception, parents, healthcare providers and leaders can take steps during prenatal care to keep children fit and on track for a healthy future. It is organizations like these that we need. More involvement will create a wide spread and influence more people to commit towards fighting against obesity validating its importance.

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