Origin 0.1 mm (+/- 0.0039 in) •

Origin A Danish Manufacturer
Industry Automation( industrial collaborative robot arms)
Year of Foundation 2005
Creators The engineers:
Esben Ostergaard,
Kasper Stoy
Kristian Kassow
Concept Making the robot technology accessible to small and medium sized enterprises as the robotic market is dominated by heavy , expensive and unwieldy robots
Products Variety UR3, UR5, UR10, E-Series(in 2018)
Revenue USD 170 million
Parent Teradyne since 2015

3.1.3. Products
We have three main products of UR; the first generation UR3, the second generation is UR5 and finally UR10. The three products as explained in the table 2.2 below

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Table 2.2: UR products
Cobot Figure Common points Weight Lifting ability Working Radius
UR3 • Low weight
• Highly Flexible
• Collaborative
• 6 jointed robot arms
• Joints can rotate through +/- 360) and up to 180degrees per seconds
• The Accuracy of the cobot’s repetitions is +/- 0.1 mm
(+/- 0.0039 in)
• Safety setting adjusted for each specific task
• Two operating modes:
Normal and reduced one.
11Kg 3kg 500mm
18Kg 5Kg 850mm
UR10 28Kg 10kg 1300mm

3.2. Features
Programming skills it is not really needed with this patented technology as 3D visualization has made it even easier for works to operate. All it requires is to simply move the robot arm to the desired waypoints or through the arrows on the easy-to-use touch screen tablet.

Typically the robot deployment takes weeks, but with this cobot it was reduced to only hours to be specific the average is half a day and less than an hour to unpack the cobot and program the first simple task.
“Lightweight, space-saving, easy to re-deploy to multiple applications without changing the production layout”. Moving the cobot to new processes is fast and easy, giving you the possibility to automate almost any manual task. The cobot is able to re-use programs for recurrent tasks.
The use of UR in work place will eliminate dangerous, dull jobs in order to reduce physical strains and accidents. UR can operate with no safety guarding thanks to its unique features (about 80% of 1000 of UR worldwide).
In case the UR runs into an obstacles or experience too much resistance the robot makes a protective stop. To get the cobot to move again we need to make sure that we get rid of all obstacles and then we press the protective stop icon presented in the figure 2.4 below:

Figure 2.4: Protective stop

3.3. Terminology
3.3.1. Components
Universal robot kit is composed of three parts: robot arm, teach pendant and a control box as shown in the figure 2.5 below:
Figure 2.5: UR different Parts
a. Universal Robot Arm:
Universal robot has 6 jointed robot arm composed of wrist1, Wrist2, Wrist3, Elbow Shoulder, and a Base as shown in the following figure 2.6.

Figure 2.6: UR arm’s different joints
b. Control Box
It is composed of three different parts: mother board, USB stick, safety control board as presented in the figure 2.7 below

Figure 2.7: Control Box
? Safety Control Board
Handle all the output and input from the control box and Connectivity to temporary equipment such as sensors safety devices, machine interfaces …etc.
• Yellow connectors are for Safety devices such as external emergency issues.
• Grey connectors are for digital signals.
• Green connectors are for Analog signals.
? Mother board
mother board is a micro pc with a fast computer power, Ethernet and USB connectivity.
? USB stick
It contains all Softwares including Linux operating system.
c. Teach pendant:
A teach pendant is where we can power up the robot and program it to execute specific tasks and control signals from different devices such as sensors.
3.3.2. Free drive mode
If we want to move the robot by hand and guide it we need to: Keep the button pressed (free drive button as shown in the figure 2.8 below, then move the robot to our specific waypoint and save it.

Figure 2.8: Free drive button
3.3.3. Robot Set Up
To set up the robot, we are required to go through four important steps.
1) Select end –of-arm Tool
A tool is any attachment placed on the tool flange of the robot example for pick and place task we have a gripper here in the following figures 2.9 and 2.10:

Figure 2.9: Gripper tool for pick and place task

Figure 2.10: Tool and Tool Flange of UR
2) Inputting information about the end-of-arm tool on the teach pendant
In order for UR to accurately operate the tool, it needs some information about the tool
? Tool centre point which is the part of the tool that is in contact with the work piece.
? Centre of gravity is the point on the tool where the weight is distributed evenly on each side (of the point).
As shown in the figure 2.11 below

Figure 2.11: Centre of gravity and tool centre point
? the tool payload which is the weight attached to the tool presented in the following figure 2.12


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