Nursing is old as human life itself. The profession is said to have long suffered from public stereotyping and from being closely associated with femininity and powerlessness. The time has never been better for nurses to reach out to the public to change certain perceptions about nursing. Various people have different understandings of the nursing profession based on prior events in their lives since perceptions are subjective.(Kiwanuka, 2010)
To attract! more individuals to the profession, a positive image of nursing needs to be engendered by nurse education and general community. Attitudes, beliefs and clues are highly subjective areas, usually based upon perception and not fact. Perception held by public about the nursing profession greatly influence the personal and public image of nursing.(Kiwanuka, 2010) Image and the perception of the profession impact recruitment of students, the view of the public, finding for nursing education and research, relationship with healthcare administrators and other healthcare professionals, government agencies and legislators at all levels of government, and ultimately, the profession’s self-identity.(Finkelman ; Kenner, 2013)
The loss of professional pride and self- esteem can lead to a more serious professional problem: Nurses feels like victims and then act like victims. Victims do not take controls but rather see others in controls, they abdicate.(Finkelman ; Kenner, 2013)
2. PROBLEM STATEMENT
Being a male in a female dominated profession, male nurses face many problems.(Wang et al., 2011) Barriers for a male students entering nursing were summarised by literature (O’lynn, 2014: Roth and Coleman, 2016). Some negative images of nurses were from the public ( Lusk, 2011) reported that nurses were depicted as subordinate to doctors. Takase et al. (2012) reported that there was pervasive perception associating femininity and powerlessness to nursing in the public.(Wang et al., 2011) Male students who are already engaged in nursing study report psychological stresses. Fears of being perceived as a gay or being feminine are main negative perceptions to male students.(Wang et al., 2011) The perception of nurses being not as profession as the other professions should be fought by all members of the profession with the aim of establishment of the professional uniqueness.(Kiwanuka, 2010)(Wang et al., 2011)
The role of gender in the choice of the career is an extremely important concept, because men constitute nearly half of the potential recruitment pool. Noticing a male nurse being ridiculed would deter boys to think of a nursing career.
Perception: Is defined as an individual’s interpretation of statements concerning actions and non- verbal behaviours toward him/ her( Rogers 1961).
Attitudes: Are expression of all overt and covert statements, actions and non-verbal behaviours exhibited by one individual toward another (Rogers 1961).
3. BROAD OBJECTIVE
To compare attitudes or perceptions of both male and female nurses (including nursing students) toward men in nursing.
4. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
a). To compare number of males and females who are studying nursing at all levels.
b). To describe the extent of perceptions/ attitudes difference between male and female toward men in nursing.
c). To identify factors associated with the difference in perception between males and females in nursing studies.
d). To determine the general image of nursing to the public.
5. SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a). Is the number of males who are studying nursing differ to that of females who are also studying nursing?
b). To what extent the perception differs between males and females nurses toward men in nursing?
c). What are the factors which causes the presence of the difference in perception/ attitudes to male and female nurses toward men in nursing?
d). What is the image of the male nurse to public?
6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research suggests the presence of relationship between dependent and independent variables, which results into the prediction of the alternative hypothesis which states that;
“There is a significant attitude/perception difference of both male and female nurses ( including nursing students) toward men in nursing”
7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
A conceptual framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It is used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.
The aim of this approach is to best describethe lived experiences ofthese men from their perspective in nursing studies (Creswell, 2009). It is important to gather subjective data regarding how these men interpret their lived experiences and the reasons they have chosen to become and continue to be full-time nursing faculty. A qualitative method was chosen for this study in order to allow the stories of the participants to direct the emergentresearch design. Qualitative research allowed the researcher to hear the voices of the participantsas they described their experience in nursing studies.
There is a need in nursing to understand and describe accurately this lived experience. Developing a better understanding of their lived experience can assist in determining interventions, which can better recruit and retain men as nursing faculty,
Men who are studying nursing must have competency, commitment and knowledge on how to take care for clients.
8. LITERATURE REVIEW
There is substantial literature available related to men in nursing generally. However, there is a lack of literature that offers insight into the issues facedby men in nursing in Australia. The gapwidens when considering literature thathighlights the perceptions of the peersof men in nursing view them, as wellas how men view themselves and whatthey feel are the major issues that affectthe recruitment and the retention of thecurrent male nursing workforce. Froma historical perspective men have had along relationship with nursing, althoughthis has been largely overlooked byhistorical texts that in the main focus onthe achievements of women in nursing(Evans, 2004).
Further examination byBrown (2009) indicates that even thoughthe numbers of men in nursing are lowerthan women, the level of achievement bymen is growing as they manage to createsuccessful careers and are promotedto leadership positions. In fact, the evidence suggests that male nurses are twice as likely to hold a key managementposition within the UK, than their femalecounter-parts (Santry, Gainsbury; Ford,2010).(Stanley et al., 2016)
Using Colaizzi’s framework, this qualitative study explored perceptions of the nursing profession and
learning experiences of male students in a baccalaureate nursing program in Changsha, China. Data were collected through in-depth interviews on 14 subjects and analyzed with software Nvivo 8.0. Six theme clusters emerged as the following: (1) entering nursing field, (2) perceptions of nursing profession, (3) difficulties in studying nursing, (4) inner feelings, (5) impact of being a nursing student, and (6) career plans.The experiences and perceptions of nursing and studying nursing were mainly negative, revealing issuesstemming from the method of student recruitment for the baccalaureate nursing program, gender bias innursing teaching, and social views on nursing work. In addition, psychological pressure on male nursingstudents is significant factor and should not be ignored. The implications for nurse educators are outlined,withsuggestions to facilitate the recruitment and retention of more male nursing students.(Wang et al., 2011)
The role of nursing has experienced many changes, and many more will occur. How has nursing responded to these changes and communicated them to the public and other healthcare professionals? Suzanne Gordon, a journalist who has written a lot about the nursing profession, noted that often it is the media that is accused of representing nursing poorly, when in reality, the media is reflecting the public image of nursing (Buresh& Gordon, 2006). Nurses have not taken the lead in standing up and discussing their own image of nursing—what it is and what it is not. It is not uncommon for a nurse to refuse to talk to the press because the nurse feels no need to do this or sometimes because of the fear of reprisal from the nurse’s employer. When nurses do speak to the press, often when being praised for an action, they say, “Oh, I was just doing my job.” This statement undervalues the reality that critical quick thinking on the part of nurses daily saves lives. What is wrong with taking that credit? Because of these types of responses in the media, nursing is not directing the image, but rather accepting how nursing is described by those outside the profession.(Finkelman ; Kenner, 2013)
The aim of this study was to determine what female and male undergraduate nursing students think of males in nursing. Senior nursing students (n=90) at an undergraduate program in School of Health located in the Northwestern Region of Turkey were included in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection which received a response rate of 97 %. ResultsClose to half of the female nursing students (45.3 %) want to see males as staff nurses while most of the male nursing students wanted to occupy administrative or administrative/instructor positions after graduation. Female and male students’ perceptions about effects of males on image and status of nursing (p