New Urbanism also has fundamental approaches with guidelines, as phrased by “The Philosophies/Principles of Intelligent Urbanism” (PIU) prepared by Prof. Christopher Charles Benninger. The PIU is a philosophy of urban development poised of a set of ten (10) ‘laws’ intended to guide the preparation of city plans and urban design.
These guidelines/’laws’ intend to reunite and incorporate various urban development and management concerns. According to Prof. C.C. Benninger, some of these ‘laws’ are:i. A balance with nature (C.C. Benninger, 2001)Once a point of no return is reached, anthropogenic use of natural assets will outdo the natural capability of the ecosystem to regenerate.
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This value encourages environmental valuations to recognize delicate zones, helpless habitats and bionetworks that are able to be improved through protection, density regulation, land-use development and open-space design.ii. A balance with tradition (C.C. Benninger, 2001)This urban planning value stresses respect for the traditional and historical heritage and ethics of a place.
Development resolutions must function within the stability of tradition (supporting, shielding and stabilising generic works and fundamentals of the urban outline) while concerning the cultural and social badge of regions, distinctive local knowledge, their signs and symbols that are articulated through art, urban space and architecture.iii. Conviviality (C.C. Benninger, 2001)Exciting societies are communal, publicly engaging and offer their inhabitants plentiful opportunities for congregation and meeting one another, which are space specific – therefore it is achieved through design. The hierarchies can be theorised as an organism of social layers, with each layer having a matching physical place in the settlement structure. This consist of a place for individuals, for friendships, for householders, for the neighbourhood, for societies, and for the city territory.iv.
Efficiency (C.C. Benninger, 2001)A key concern of this value is transportation.
While understanding and recognising the suitability of personal vehicles, it tries to put expenditures (such as energy consumption, large paved areas, parking, accidents and pollution) on the users of private vehicles. Respectable city planning values encourage alternate modes of public transport, other than a dependence on personal vehicles.v.
Human scale (C.C. Benninger, 2001)The human scale value is in support of eliminating artificial obstacles and endorses face-to-face contact, providing sociable places, pedestrian paths and community areas where people can socialise. These can be parks, gardens, arcades, courtyards, street cafés as well as a selection of inside-outside spaces.