Name: Hafiz Muhammad Abdullah
Roll No: BBA-F15-LC-076
Subject: Advertising Management
Subject instructor: Luqman touheed
Assignment No 3
University of Sargodha Lahore campus
Topic: Different types of Advertisement
An advertisement is a process that makes your company’s product and services famous and makes you more powerful in the market and in the consumer’s eye. Without advertising, your product and services have no value because no one knows about the product and services of the company. There are a lot of types of advertisement currently companies and organizations used for the making value of their products and services. Some types of advertisement are Emotional Appeal (personal appeal, social appeal, fear appeal) Humor appeal, Sex appeal, music appeal, Music appeal, scarcity appeal, Rational appeal, Brand appeal, Adventure Appeal, Emotional Appeal, Romance appeal, Play on words, statistic.

Emotional Appeals
Emotional appeals related to the consumer psychology and perceptions than common sense and reason to initial movement. An emotional appeal depends on sentiments and perception. Emotional appeal can create loyalty between consumer and brand.

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Personal appeal
The power of attraction and holding someone attention because it is unusual and or exciting. Some personal emotions that can drive individuals to purchase that product which includes safety, love, joy happiness etc.

Social appeal
Social appeal force individuals to make purchases and include such aspects E.g. respect, rejection, acceptance, approval and status.

Fear appeal
Advertising that tries to creates anxiety on the idea of worry, in order that the consumer is advocated to clear up this worry via bought the services and product. For example, promotion for flame protection that photos a family crushed by the fire that has decimated their home.

Humor Appeal
Humor is a factor that is use minimum of 30% for the brand advertisement. Humor is a brilliant instrument to catch the watcher attentiveness and source to attain immediate recall which can work better for the sale of any goods and services.

Sex Appeal
Sex and nakedness have continuously sold well. Companies and organizations utilize hot and sexy models “provocative” item shoots that will make the watcher emotionally excited. for example slice juice advertisement.

Music Appeal
Music can be utilized as a sort of commercial interest as it has a specific inborn esteem and can expand to the draw of the Ad. it can also help to increase in capturing consumer attention.

Brand Appeal
The factor directed towards people who is brand conscious and want that product that fulfills brand statement.

Romance Appeal
This type of advertisement is the passion between couples showed in Ads. The interest is utilized to mean that purchasing a specific item will positively affect the opposite sex and enhance your sentimental and or love life. For example fragrance ( Ads of perfume), Automobiles and other product use these type of advertisement appeals.

Statistics
Promotions also use statistic and figure to show part of the items and its prevalence specifically.

Play on words
Promotions also use effective use of viable utilization of catchphrases to pass on the message. such appeal in the brand picture making towards in the brain of others.

Name: Kamau David Kariuki
Student Id: 656629
Major: Finance
Unit: Overview of Management Practices
Unit Code: MGT 3010C
Lecturer: Prof.Veronicah Kaluyu
Term Paper
FALL 2018
Submission Date: 15th November 2018
You have been identified as a consultant to train new managers about principles and practices of management; prepare a training syllabi including the content you would deliver and case scenarios you would use as illustrations.

Programme Outcomes
This training syllabi intends to have the following programme outcomes:
Provide the new managers an understanding of what management entails
Enable the managers gain sufficient working knowledge of what is expected of them in today’s world.

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Develop the managers’ capacity to appreciate the Fayol’s 14 Universal Principles of Management and how to effectively implement them in their day to day activities as managers.

Enable the new managers appreciate and understand the top management practises of effective leaders.

Introduction
Management can simply be defined as the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources. There are five components of this definition:
Working with and through others
Achieving organizational objectives
Balancing effectiveness and efficiency
Making the most of limited resources
Coping with a changing environment
Management is, above all else, a social process. Managers are responsible for getting things done by working with and through others. Aspiring managers who don’t interact well with others hamper their careers. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being swept along or caught unprepared. “The next generation of corporate leaders will need the charm of a debutante, the flexibility of a gymnast, and the quickness of panther. A few foreign languages and a keen understanding of technology won’t hurt either. Also in the mix are a sense of humour, passion, and the ability to make decisions rapidly” (Kreitner & Cassidy,2011, p.8).

Key Aspects of the Management Process
Henri Fayol’s Universal Management Process
Fayol was first an engineer and later a successful administrator in a large French mining and metallurgical concern. Fayol was a manager who attempted to translate his broad administrative experience into practical guidelines for the successful management of all types of organisations
Fayol believed that the manager’s job could be divided into five functions, or areas, of managerial responsibility-planning, organizing, command, coordination, and control-that are essential to managerial process.

His 14 universal principles of management were intended to show managers how to carry out their functional duties. Fayol’s functions and principles have withstood the test of time because of their widespread applicability.

Fayol’s 14 Universal Principles of Management
Division of work. Specialization of labour is necessary for organizational success.

Authority. The right to give orders must accompany responsibility.

Discipline. Obedience and respect help an organization run smoothly
Unity of Command. Each employee should receive orders from only one employee
Unity of Direction. The efforts of everyone in the organization should be coordinated and focused in the same direction.

Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. Resolving the tug of war between personal and organizational interests in favor of the organization is one of management’s greatest difficulties.

Remuneration. Employees should be paid fairly in accordance with their contribution
Centralization. The relationship between centralization and decentralization is a matter of proportion; the optimum balance must be found for each organization.

Scalar chain. Subordinates should observe the formal chain of command unless expressly authorized by their respective superiors to communicate with each other.

Order. Both material things and people should be in their proper places.

Equity. Fairness that results from a combination of kindliness and justice will lead to devoted and loyal service.

Stability and tenure of personnel. People need time to learn their new jobs.

Initiative. One of the greatest satisfactions is formulating and carrying out a plan.

Esprit de corps. Harmonious effort among individuals is the key to organizational success.

Fayol’s main contribution to management was to show how the complex management process can be separated into interdependent areas of responsibility or functions. Fayol’s contention that management is a continuous process beginning with planning and ending with controlling also remains popular to date.

Management Practises
How to Become a Better Manager?: Top Management Practices of Effective Leaders
Different management styles will suit different contexts depending on the company culture, the size of the team or organisation, the nature of the work or industry and the particular personalities involved. There are some universals, however.

Effective management is an art – but luckily, it is one that can be learned if you follow some basic principles. Here are some tips on becoming a better manager, starting right now:
Select the right people
It all starts with getting the best possible team in place – together, the whole can become greater than the sum of its parts. You need to select the right people for the right jobs, build a complementary team, and align your people with your organisational goals and culture.Recruit right. Make sure that each person not only has the right skills but, more importantly, fits the culture. Knowing how various roles will help to achieve your organisation’s goals can help define the requirements against which you will interview and assess candidates.The development of key people may be the single greatest determinant of an organisation’s ability to deal with uncertainty and succeed. Central to its development is a leader’s ability to engage people and align the needs of individuals with those of the organisation to deliver a united and cohesive front.
Show empathy
Empathy is the ability to listen to people, relate to their emotional experience and let them know that you are doing so. Managers with high emotional intelligence can build rapport with and between people, leading to greater trust and transparency in the team.

As a manager, openness and empathy should be a key part of your brand. Developing the ability to understand people and connect with them in a genuine, meaningful way is a key determining factor in how effective you can be at influencing them, setting them objectives that motivate them, and rewarding them in a way they each actually find motivating. In fact, multiple studies have shown that high performing managers have higher ’emotional competence.

Communicate clearly
Communication is the key to fostering transparency and building relationships built on openness, trust and honesty with your team. The first step in effective communication is to create the time and space for people to talk and to ask questions. 
After all, you can’t motivate people if they don’t know what you want. Managers ought to set clear objectives for both the organisation and its people to discuss and negotiate, let people know what support and resources they have access to, and to clearly link rewards to objectives. Non-verbal behaviour is just as important as what people say, so effective managers need to be keen observers to gauge how people are responding to a work situation at an emotional level. Managers need to be intuitive, since staff members may not always tell you when they’re struggling. Communication needs to flow in all directions, from managers to their staff, from staff to managers, and between team members. An effective leader is a good listener and fosters an environment where people can get to know each other and understand each others’ strengths, weaknesses and communication styles. Good managers are open to input from their staff, and learn from their feedback.

Lead by example
People will pick up on the verbal and non-verbal expressions of their boss’s state of mind, so leaders need to take responsibility for the atmosphere they create and shape it with their own behaviour. This can be as simple as your posture and demeanour when you arrive at the office in the morning, or more systemic like outlining values and protocols for working with each other.It’s also important to practise what you preach. You can’t expect your staff to work harder than you’re willing to. Once in a while, roll up your sleeves and get your hands dirty.
5. Delegate
As a manager, it’s important that you recognise that there are only so many hours in the day, and only so much that you can do by yourself. While you may find that it’s faster to get things done on your own in the short term (particularly if you have a new or inexperienced team), in the long term you will save a lot of time by delegating meaningful projects to your team members. By doing this, you will also build their skills and help them reach their potential. However, delegation doesn’t mean micromanaging.
It’s important to let your staff take ownership of their work and find their own ways of doing things. Articulate the outcome you would like to see – and then leave them to their devices, checking in every once in a while to see if they need your support. Delegate responsibility rather than tasks for maximum impact. 
6. Be positive and constructive
Providing timely and meaningful feedback to your staff is crucial, as is determining how best to give them this feedback. Tailor your approach to each individual, with some people requiring regular assurance and support, and others preferring more autonomy. It’s important to let your staff know what they’re doing right as well as what areas they need to work on. 
It’s better to tell people what you want them to do rather than telling them what you don’t want them to do. If you have to comment on poor performance, use actual observations to demonstrate the issue and talk about behaviours (which people can change) rather than criticise personalities or make value judgments.

7. Thank and reward your people
This area is often neglected but can’t be overstated – it takes very little effort to thank someone, but it can make all the difference to how people feel on the job. After all, your team members are people, not robots!When it comes to rewards, it’s important to provide rewards that people will actually find gratifying. For example, some people love to be taken out for lunch, while others might prefer time in lieu or more autonomy and responsibility. Many managers reward people in the way they themselves like to be rewarded, which is not always effective. 
8. Develop your people
A manager is only as good as their team. Help your employees to succeed – their success is your success. Be patient. Coach them and coach them and coach them … they’ll remember one day.The best way to coach your people is to help them focus on process rather than content. As a manager you will have people coming to you with issues and problems, but instead of getting bogged down in the detail, coach people. If you don’t know where to start, here’s a framework.

Ask the person to:
Outline the problem;
Describe the impact the problem is having;
Explain what they’ve tried already;
Define what an ideal outcome looks like;
Explore the resources they might use to get there;
Consider possible next steps;
Have them try it; and
Come back to you with the results.

This turns the problem orientation into a solution orientation, as well as being a great learning opportunity and empowering the person to solve the problem themselves.

9. Encourage innovation
It’s important for leaders to think outside the square and know when to take risks. Take risks with your employees – often they bring pleasant surprises.By giving people the freedom to work through problems and solutions themselves, you will encourage innovation, creativity and resourcefulness. Let your team think for themselves; don’t strangle their creativity. Encourage innovation – for instance, Google allows one day a week for every employee to innovate.'(Google does indeed allow its employees to use up to 20 per cent of their time to pursue their own independent projects. Apparently this independent work time leads to 2.5 times greater productivity and generates the ideas for 50 per cent of all new product releases!)
10. Be flexible
Good managers have a flexible approach and are able to adapt to individual employees, allowing them to work according to their own individual style. In addition, flexible workplace practices have emerged as an increasingly important priority for employees. Great leaders know how to lead from the front and motivate their teams to perform to the best of their ability.
So, a question to you as a new manager.

What are your top management tips that you would offer to the organization?
Conclusion
There is definitely no fixed manual for managers to follow to become successful ones but with the Fayol’s universal principles of management and also the few stated practises of management one can definitely be on the right path to becoming a successful and effective manager of an organization. All managers should strive to work through others, in this case their employees to achieve the set out organizational objectives and this can only be achieved by a manager who decided to go beyond the norm and been an exceptional manager who is open to change.

Reference
Cassidy, C & Kreitner, R. (2012). Management. South-Western, USA: Cengage Learning.

Chun & Avenell: How to Become a Better Manager: Management Practices of Effective Leaders. Retrieved from https://www.careerfaqs.com.au/news/news-and-views/top-10-management-practices-of-effective-leaders

Name: Nam Hoang Do
Period 5
Date: 03/05/2018
Process Essay

Do you like to save every moment on your smartphone’s camera? The photos and videos will be extremely precious memories for you in the future. Unfortunately, one day your smartphone suddenly may break or get lost and those precious photos and videos will disappear forever! Today I will share with you about using Google Photos to backup and sync your picture collections in the most effective way.

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Firstly, you have to download Google Photos for your smartphone and login with your Google account. Afterwards, go to Settings ; Backup ; Sync ; enable the option Backup ; Sync.

Then, to chose the upload size, go to Settings ; Backup ; Sync ; Upload Size ; High quality (free unlimited storage). Soon after, you can start uploading unlimited photos and videos to Google’s server. It is very great if all your pictures are saved on the cloud without worries about storage space. The disadvantage of this option is that the photos or videos be probably slightly reduced, but Google still gives you “great visual quality” for your pictures. Next, I believe you do not want to waste your expensive 3G/4G data just to backup and sync photos and videos, so go to Settings > Backup & Sync > disable all options in cellular data.

Finally, you will enjoy the usefulness of Google Photos. When
you have photos or videos on your smartphone, they will be automatically backed up and synced to the cloud. This app is very useful because once you have taken a photo or video, it cannot be retaken exactly the same moment. That is why if you use Google Photos you will not worry about losing your valuable moments.

Name : RAJANPREET KAUR Family name : RAJANPREET KAUR
Student ID: 1824305 Group:

Assignment#1 (20 Mark)
Note: The answers should be summarise in your own language; otherwise it will reduce some marks.
1. What is a software testing?
and which one of the following statement is correct?
a) Software testing can evaluate a system but its components with the intent to find that whether it only satisfies the specified requirements.
b) It involves execution of a software to evaluate only one properties of interest.
c) It helps to identify errors but is not able to fix the gaps or missing requirements.
d) It can check that the actual result matches the expected result.
ANSWER(a): Software Testing is the process of identifying the correctness and quality of software program. The purpose is to check whether the software satisfies the specific requirements, needs and expectations of the customer. In other words, testing is executing a system or application in order to find software bugs, defects or errors. The job of testing is to find out the reasons of appli-cation failures so that they can be corrected according to requirements.
Example:
Car manufacturer tests the car for maximum speed, fuel efficiency and safety from crash. These tests later become the part of advertising strategy for car sales.
Ways of Software Testing
1. Manual Testing: Test Cases executed manually.
2. Automation Testing: Testing performed with the help of automation tools.
ANSWER(b): option a is correct.

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2. Choose the correct answer:
? Error : It is a system error that produces the incorrect result that produces a failure.
? Bug : The presence of error at the time of execution of the software.
? Fault : Human’s state that caused by an error.
? Failure : Deviation of the software from its expected result. It is an event.
ANWSER : Failure

3. What is SDLC? How many stages does it have? Please describe each one in a brief sentence (using your own word)?
Answer : Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by the software industry to design, develop and test high quality softwares. The SDLC aims to produce a high-quality software that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches completion within times and cost esti-mates.
• SDLC is the acronym of Software Development Life Cycle.
• It is also called as Software Development Process.
• SDLC is a framework defining tasks performed at each step in the software development pro-cess.
• ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for software life-cycle processes. It aims to be the standard that defines all the tasks required for developing and maintaining software.

SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall devel-opment process
A typical Software Development Life Cycle consists of the following stages:
Stage 1: Planning and Requirement Analysis : it is the most important and fundamental stage in SDLC. It is performed by the senior members of the team with inputs from the customer, the sales department, market surveys and domain experts in the industry. This information is then used to plan the basic project approach and to conduct product feasibility study in the economical, opera-tional and technical areas. Planning for the quality assurance requirements and identification of the risks associated with the project is also done in the planning stage. The outcome of the tech-nical feasibility study is to define the various technical approaches that can be followed to imple-ment the project successfully with minimum risks.
Stage 2: Defining Requirements :Once the requirement analysis is done the next step is to clearly define and document the product requirements and get them approved from the customer or the market analysts. This is done through an SRS (Software Requirement Specification) document which consists of all the product requirements to be designed and developed during the project life cycle.
Stage 3: Designing the Product Architecture :SRS is the reference for product architects to come out with the best architecture for the product to be developed. Based on the requirements speci-fied in SRS, usually more than one design approach for the product architecture is proposed and documented in a DDS – Design Document Specification. This DDS is reviewed by all the important stakeholders and based on various parameters as risk assessment, product robustness, design modularity, budget and time constraints, the best design approach is selected for the product. A design approach clearly defines all the architectural modules of the product along with its com-munication and data flow representation with the external and third party modules (if any). The internal design of all the modules of the proposed architecture should be clearly defined with the minutest of the details in DDS.
Stage 4: Building or Developing the Product: In this stage of SDLC the actual development starts and the product is built. The programming code is generated as per DDS during this stage. If the design is performed in a detailed and organized manner, code generation can be accomplished without much hassle. Developers must follow the coding guidelines defined by their organization and programming tools like compilers, interpreters, debuggers, etc. are used to generate the code. Different high level programming languages such as C, C++, Pascal, Java and PHP are used for coding. The programming language is chosen with respect to the type of software being devel-oped.
Stage 5: Testing the Product: This stage is usually a subset of all the stages as in the modern SDLC models, the testing activities are mostly involved in all the stages of SDLC. However, this stage refers to the testing only stage of the product where product defects are reported, tracked, fixed and retested, until the product reaches the quality standards defined in the SRS.
Stage 6: Deployment in the Market and Maintenance: Once the product is tested and ready to be deployed it is released formally in the appropriate market. Sometimes product deployment happens in stages as per the business strategy of that organization. The product may first be re-leased in a limited segment and tested in the real business environment (UAT- User acceptance testing). Then based on the feedback, the product may be released as it is or with suggested en-hancements in the targeting market segment. After the product is released in the market, its maintenance is done for the existing customer base.
There are various software development life cycle models defined and designed which are fol-lowed during the software development process. These models are also referred as “Software De-velopment Process Models”. Each process model follows a Series of steps unique to its type to en-sure success in the process of software development. Following are the most important and popu-lar SDLC models followed in the industry:
• Waterfall Model
• Iterative Model
• Spiral Model
• V-Model
• Big Bang Model Other related methodologies are Agile Model, RAD Model, Rapid Application Development and Prototyping Models.

4. What is waterfall model? And choose the correct statements:
a) The whole process of software development goes to one joint phases.
b) It is very straight-forward to understand and use
c) The input of one phase acts as the same input for the next phase.
d) It is a linear-sequential life cycle model

Answer (a) : WATERFALL MODEL : The Waterfall life cycle model, also known as the classic or linear-sequential life cycle model, is one of the simplest to understand and use. The Waterfall model is characterized by a series of steps that must be completed in a linear, sequential order. Each phase is completed and verified before development progresses to the next phase.
Following each phase is a formal review process that results in the decision to proceed to the next phase. Testing is performed late in the development process, and phases do not overlap. When one phase is completed, the entire development effort shifts to the next phase. This cascading flow from one phase to another is the basis of the Waterfall model’s name.

Advantages of the Waterfall model : As a formalized approach to software development, the Waterfall model is simple and easy to use. This model can be easy to implement and manage be-cause each phase has a specific purpose, and development occurs in only one phase at a time. The Waterfall model is appropriate for small development projects in which the requirements are well understood.

Disadvantages of the Waterfall model : Although the Waterfall model provides a good introduc-tion to software life cycle models, its usefulness is limited. Due to the rigidity of the model, all re-quirements must be stated explicitly before development begins. If requirements change or are added, the project must start over from the beginning. No working software is developed until very late in the process, and this delay creates a great deal of uncertainty and risk. If errors are made in requirements-gathering or design, they may not be discovered until very late in the im-plementation or testing phases. Due to these issues, the Waterfall model is inappropriate for complex projects. It should not be used for developing object-oriented software, for long-term or ongoing projects, or for projects in which requirements are unknown or subject to change.

ANSWER (b): options b and d are correct.

5. Refer to Waterfall Model Application, choose the correct answer:
a) Requirements are not very well documented or clear and fixed.
b) The project is short.
c) Product definition is unstable.
d) Technology is understood and is statics.
e) Ample resources with required expertise are available to support the product.
f) There are ambiguous requirements.
ANSWER : b and d are correct.

6. What is Iterative SDLC Model? Advantage and disadvantages ?
ANSWER : Iterative Model works on the simplified requirements which are the subsets of the software or application requirements. The product is iteratively enhanced and developed to the final product for deployment. It is called as a “build ” for each iteration. So at each build, design amendments and new functionalities are added to the product. With iterative model, the software is implemented by small portions at a time.

Applications of model Appropriate situations for using Iterative Model in the SDLC :
• Major requirements are defined but them in or details might evolve when time goes.
• New technologies are being used and there is a learning curve for the programmers to learn.
• Resources are limited to do a huge or project as if small project or teammates are in contract rather than permanent.
• Very high risk as the goal of the project might change from time to time.

Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages :
• Easier to start on a complex project.
• Preview the project periodically.
• Parallel implementation is allowed.
• Project can still be managed like waterfall Model with clear schedule and milestones.
• Easier testing and troubleshooting at each build.
• Support and less costly for scope or requirement change.
• Suitable for huge and core projects.
• Better communication with business user as feedbacks can be gather at each build.
Disadvantages
• High risk due to system architecture and designs keep changing.
• Issues might occur for integration of each build.
• More management work to do ensure each build can meet the standard.
• Overlapping implementation could be chaotic.
• Need more involvement of business users.
• Easier but more time is needed for each testing as each testing have to cover all the previous works.

7. Please choose the correct answer (Quality Assurance):
a) It ensures the prevention of error in the process used to make software Application
b) Quality Assurance doesn’t involve in process-oriented activities.
c) The Defects may arises when the Software Application is being developed.
d) None of the above answers
ANSWER : option (a) is correct.

8. What is Quality Control? please briefly explain it in your own words:
ANSWER : A definition of quality control is:
The process of inspecting products to ensure that they meet the required quality standards.
This method checks the quality of completed products for faults. Quality inspectors measure or test every product, samples from each batch, or random samples – as appropriate to the kind of product is produced. The main objective of quality control is to ensure that the business is achiev-ing the standards it sets for itself.

Advantages of Quality Control:
1. Minimal consumer complaints after the goods are delivered
2. Reduced costs (no defects — no need to patch solutions)
3. Performance improvement (QC reveals common errors and allows to avoid them in future)
4. Updates and changes can be introduced to the following projects and plans
Disadvantages of Quality Control:
1. Increased time-to-market
2. More employees needed

9. What is Verification in software testing? please briefly explain it in your own words:
ANSWER : Verification makes sure that the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer.
• Verification is done at the starting of the development process. It includes reviews and meetings, walk-throughs, inspection, etc. to evaluate documents, plans, code, require-ments and specifications.
• It answers the questions like: Am I building the product right?
• Am I accessing the data right (in the right place; in the right way).
• It is a Low level activity
• Performed during development on key artefacts, like walkthroughs, reviews and inspec-tions, mentor feedback, training, checklists and standards.
• Demonstration of consistency, completeness, and correctness of the software at each stage and between each stage of the development life cycle.
Advantages of Software Verification :
1. Verification helps in lowering down the count of the defect in the later stages of develop-ment.
2. Verifying the product at the starting phase of the development will help in understanding the product in a better way.
3. It reduces the chances of failures in the software application or product.
4. It helps in building the product as per the customer specifications and needs.
10. What is Static and dynamic Testing? please briefly explain it in your own words:
ANSWER : STATIC TESTING:
Static Testing is type of testing in which the code is not executed. It can be done manually or by a set of tools. This type of testing checks the code, requirement documents and design documents and puts review comments on the work document. When the software is non –operational and in-active, we perform security testing to analyse the software in non-runtime environment. With static testing, we try to find out the errors, code flaws and potentially malicious code in the soft-ware application. It starts earlier in development life cycle and hence it is also called verification testing. Static testing can be done on work documents like requirement specifications, design doc-uments, source code, test plans, test scripts and test cases, web page content.
DYNAMIC TESTING
Dynamic testing is done when the code is in operation mode. Dynamic testing is performed in runtime environment. When the code being executed is input with a value, the result or the output of the code is checked and compared with the expected output. With this we can observe the func-tional behaviour of the software, monitor the system memory, CPU response time, performance of the system. Dynamic testing is also known as validation testing , evaluating the finished product. Dynamic testing is of two types: Functional Testing and Non functional testing.
Types of Dynamic Testing techniques are as follows:
• Unit Testing: Testing of individual modules by developers.. The source code is tested in it.
• Integration Testing: Testing the interface between different modules then they are joined..
• System Testing: Testing performed on the system as a whole.
• Acceptance Testing: Testing done from user point of view at user’s end.

11. The phase in software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group called:
Part 1)
a) unit testing
b) System testing
c) Alpha Testing
d) Integration testing
ANSWER : option (d) INTEGRATION TESTING is correct.

Part 2)
Name the types of this Software Testing:
ANSWER : Integration testing is one of the type of Dynamic Testing.

12. What is Alpha testing and which one of the Entry Criteria for Alpha testing is true:
a) Delivery of Test summary report
b) Defined and Approved Requirements
c) Testable Code with Appropriate Test Environment
d) Make sure that no more additional features can be included

ANSWER (a): ALPHA TESTING : Alpha testing is a type of testing that is done on an application to-wards the end of a development process when the product is almost in a usable state.
This type of testing does not involve functional testing on the application. Instead, it is a user test-ing on the application in order to understand the user behavior and experience on the application. Normally this test is performed by test engineers, employees and sometimes friends / family members with the aim of trying to emulate around 80% of the customers. While these users test and give their feedback, the development team observes the behavior to check for design issues in the application. Alpha testing is mainly conducted to unveil bugs that might arise due to abrupt errors created by the users, validate the quality state of the software in minimal time and finally propound a build that procures the specifications required. Once this test is executed properly, the software is ready for the next stage, i.e., the beta test. Alpha testing has two phases. The first phase consists of testing by the developers. The software used is either hardware-assisted debug-gers or debugger software. The basic motive is to detect bugs quickly. The second phase of testing is done by the quality assurance team, which ensures that the build works perfectly on the envi-ronment similar to user end.

ANSWER (b) : option (c) is correct.

13. What are the Types of Beta Testing: please explain them in your own word:
ANSWER : Beta testing, which is a type of User Acceptance Testing is among the most crucial software testing, performed before the release of the software. Considered to be a type of field test, beta testing is performed by a group of end users.
Types of Beta Testing:
Beta testing can be categorized into six types, each of which caters to different aspects of the software. These, together, help developers improve the quality of the software and allow them to deliver a product that offer superior user experience. The various types of beta testing are:
1.Open Beta Testing: Open beta testing generally involves the testing of the software product by the large number of the people or target audience, before the final release. Organization decides to make software product open to public on any specific date before its release announcing that specific date. This witnesses the large participation of the public to use and evaluate the software product and accordingly, report the bugs (if any found) to the organization, along with the sugges-tions in order to improve the software quality.
This witnesses the large participation of the public to use and evaluate the software product and accordingly, report the bugs (if any found) to the organization, along with the suggestions in order to improve the software quality.
2.Closed Beta Testing: Contrary to open beta testing, closed beta testing is carried out by the se-lective and limited number of persons, which are being invited by the organization. The software product is not opened to the public.
3.Traditional Beta Testing: In this type of testing, the software product is delivered to the target market and feedback of the users is collected from all aspects. With the assistance of this type of testing the quality of the software is improved and the developers are able to make necessary changes.
4.Public Beta Testing: Similar to open beta testing, in this type of testing also, the product is de-livered to the end users worldwide, with the aid of various online channels available in the world. Moreover, the feedback and evaluated data is also collected through this means, based on which required changes and modifications are implemented by the development team.
5.Technical Beta Testing: Another important type of beta testing, technical beta testing involves delivering the software product to the internal groups of an organization, wherein the data and feedback is provided by the employees of the organization.
6.Focused Beta Testing: As suggested by the name, this type of testing is focused on evaluating and monitoring a specific feature or component of the software. Hence, in focused beta testing, the software is delivered to the market and user’s experience is collected and evaluated to make required changes.
7.Post Release Beta Testing: In post release beta testing, the product is delivered to the market for the use of the end users and their reactions, experience, and feedback is collected for the fu-ture release of the software.

14. Which of the following statements is true:
a) Acceptance Testing is a type of testing to ensure software applications will perform well under their expected workload
b) Poor scalability cannot handle the expected number of users or when it does not accom-modate a wide enough range of users.
c) Performance Testing is conducted by business owners, it tests whether the system does in fact, meet their business requirements.
d) Stress testing is used to gauge how certain stressors will affect a company. it involves test-ing an application under extreme workloads to see how it handles high traffic or data pro-cessing.
ANSWER :

15. What is Validation in software testing?
ANSWER : Validation is determining if the system complies with the requirements and performs functions for which it is intended and meets the organization’s goals and user needs.

1.Validation is done at the end of the development process and takes place after verifications are completed.
2.It answers the question like: Am I building the right product?Am I accessing the right data (in terms of the data required to satisfy the requirement).
3.It is a High level activity.
4.Performed after a work product is produced against established criteria ensuring that the prod-uct integrates correctly into the environment.
5.Determination of correctness of the final software product by a development project with re-spect to the user needs and requirements.
Advantages of Validation:
1. During verification if some defects are missed then during validation process it can be caught as failures.
2. If during verification some specification is misunderstood and development had happened then during validation process while executing that functionality the difference between the actual result and expected result can be understood.
3. Validation is done during testing like feature testing, integration testing, system testing, load testing, compatibility testing, stress testing, etc.
4. Validation helps in building the right product as per the customer’s requirement and helps in satisfying their needs.

16. What is White Box Testing?
ANSWER : White Box Testing
White box testing is the detailed investigation of internal logic and structure of the code. White box testing is also called glass testing or open box testing. In order to perform white box testing on an application, the tester needs to possess knowledge of the internal working of the code. The tester needs to have a look inside the source code and find out which unit/chunk of the code is be-having inappropriately.

Advantages:
1.As the tester has knowledge of the source code, it becomes very easy to find out which type of data can help in testing the application effectively.
2.It helps in optimizing the code.
3. Extra lines of code can be removed which can bring in hidden defects.
4. Due to the tester’s knowledge about the code, maximum coverage is attained during test sce-nario writing.
Disadvantages:
• Due to the fact that a skilled tester is needed to perform white box testing, the costs are in-creased.
‘• Sometimes it is impossible to look into every nook and corner to find out hidden errors that may create problems as many paths will go untested.
• It is difficult to maintain white box testing as the use of specialized tools like code analyzers and debugging tools are required.

17. What is Big Bang Approach?
ANSWER: Big Bang Integration Testing is an integration testing strategy, wherein all units are linked at once, which results in a complete and efficient system. In this type of integration testing all the components as well as the modules of the software are integrated simultaneously, after which everything is tested as a whole. During the process of big bang integration testing, most of the developed modules are coupled together to form a complete software system or a major part of the system, which is then used for integration testing. This approach of software testing is very effective as it enables software testers to save time as well as their efforts during the integration testing process.
However, if the test cases and their results are not properly recorded in big bang testing, the en-tire integration process can become complicated and may also prevent the testing team from get-ting their desired goals or results from integration testing. This approach, therefore, is generally executed by those developers who follow the ‘Run it and see’ approach.
Benefits:
• Big bang integration testing is used to test the complete system.
• The amount of planning required for this type of testing is almost negligible.
• All the modules are completed before the inception of integration testing.
• It does not require assistance from middle components such as stubs and driver, on which testing is dependent.
• Big bang testing is cost effective.
• There is no need of immediate builds and efforts required for the system.
Drawbacks:
• In Big bang integration testing, it is difficult to trace the cause of failures as the modules are integrated late.
• This approach is quite challenging and risky, as all the modules and components are inte-grated together in a single step.
• If any bug is found it becomes difficult to detach all the modules on order to find out its root cause.
• Defects present at the interface of components are identified at a later stage, as all the components are integrated in one shot.
• Since all the modules are tested together chances of failure increases.
• There is a high probability of missing some crucial defects, errors and issues, which might pop up in the production environment.
• It is difficult and tough to cover all the cases for integration testing without missing even a single scenario.
• Isolating any defect or bug during the testing process is difficult.
• If the test cases and their results are not recorded properly, it can complicate the integra-tion testing and prevent developers and testers from achieving their desired goals.

18. What is the black box testing and what are the advantages?
ANSWER: Black Box Testing
The technique of testing without having any knowledge of the interior workings of the application is Black Box testing. The tester is oblivious to the system architecture and does not have access to the source code. Typically, when performing a black box test, a tester will interact with the sys-tem’s user interface by providing inputs and examining outputs without knowing how and where the inputs are worked upon.

Advantages:
• Well suited and efficient for large code segments.
• Code Access not required.
• Clearly separates user’s perspective from the developer’s perspective through visibly defined roles.
• Large numbers of moderately skilled testers can test the application with no knowledge of im-plementation, programming language or operating systems.

Disadvantages:
• Limited Coverage since only a selected number of test scenarios are actually performed.
• Inefficient testing, due to the fact that the tester only has limited knowledge about an applica-tion.
• Blind Coverage, since the tester cannot target specific code segments or error prone areas.
• The test cases are difficult to design.

19. What is Bottom-Up Approach?
ANSWER: Bottom- Up is an approach used in integration testing, which is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested as groups. Integration testing is performed by software testers once unit testing is completed and before the inception of system testing. The main purpose of this level of testing is to expose faults in the interactions between integrated units. To assist testers in integration testing, test drivers and test stubs are used. Integration test-ing is defined by International Software Qualifications Board (ISQB) as process of testing per-formed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interactions between integrated components or systems. During the process of software testing, integration testing is executed for various rea-sons, some of which are mentioned below:
• Integration testing becomes necessary to validate that various software modules are work-ing in unity. .
• At the time of module development, there can be a change in client’s requirements. If these requirements have not gone through unit testing, integration testing becomes com-pulsory for them.
• Interfaces of software modules with database can contain errors, which can be resolved through integration testing.
• As inadequate exception handling could cause issues and hence require integration testing.
Advantages of Using Bottom-Up Approach:
The advantages of bottom-up approach are:
1.It is appropriate for applications where bottom-up design methodology is used.
2.Test conditions can be created easily.
3.If the low level modules and their combined functions are often invoked by other modules, then it is more useful to test them first so that meaningful effective integration of other modules can be done.’
4.Always starting at the bottom of the hierarchy again means that the critical modules are gener-ally built and tested first and therefore any errors or mistakes in these forms of modules are iden-tified early in the process.
5. Advantageous if major flaws occur towards the bottom of the program.
Disadvantages of Bottom-Up Approach of Software Testing:
The disadvantages of Bottom-Up approach are:
1.Test engineers cannot observe system level functions from a partly integrated system.
2.They cannot observe the system level functions until the top level test driver is in place.
3.The program as an entity does not exist until the last module is added.
4.One big disadvantage of bottom up strategy is that, in this sort of testing no working model can be represented as far as several modules have been built.
5.This approach is driven by the existing infrastructure instead of the business processes.

20. What are the different Types of Software Testing?
ANSWER : Types of Software Testing Techniques:
• Acceptance Testing: The aim of this testing is to test the compliance of the software with client’s and business requirements and to assess its acceptability for delivery.
• Agile Testing: Important testing technique, wherein testing ; development activities hap-pen concurrently. Is also known as release or delivery driven approach.
• Accessibility Testing: Subset of usability testing, accessibility testing ensures that the ap-plication can be used by people with disabilities easily. Includes testing compliance with various accessibility standards.
• Adhoc Testing: This testing does not follow any structured way of testing and requires no documentation and planning. Here, testing is performed randomly by the testers.
• Alpha Testing: A type of acceptance testing, it stimulates real users with the assistance of black box and white box testing.
• Beta Testing: Here, software is tested in the real environment by real users. It can be termed as an external form of acceptance testing that reduces product failure risks and provides increased product quality.
• Functional Testing: Functional testing validates that the software has all the required func-tionalities.
• Non-Functional Testing: The aim of testing here is to ensure the non-functional require-ments of the software, such as the way the system operates.
• Black Box Testing: During this testing, knowledge of software’s internal structure, code, design, etc. is not required.
• White Box Testing: Here, the testers are aware of the internal structure and design of the software. It is applicable to unit testing, integration testing, etc.
• Gray Box Testing: A combination of white box and black box testing, in gray box testing testers have a limited knowledge of software’s internal structure. It is considered to be non-intrusive and unbiased.
• Compatibility Testing: It helps in determining the compatibility of the software product with various devices, environment, OS, networks, platforms, and more.
• Installation Testing: A crucial testing technique, installation testing ensures successful in-stallation of the application, before it is made available for the use of the end users.
• Endurance Testing: This is a type of non-functional testing, which is also known as soak testing. It involves testing a software under a significant load to validate its behaviour.
• Exploratory Testing: It tests the functionality, performance, features, and all the other components of the software, when the specifications and requirements are not defined.
• Integration Testing: Executed after unit testing ; before validation testing, here individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.
• Component Testing: Also known as program ; module testing, it tests the various compo-nents of the software in isolation to evaluate their quality and accuracy.
• System Testing: This testing is executed on a complete and integrated system to evaluate its compliance with its specified requirements.
• Load Testing: A type of performance testing technique, which is used to determine the performance of the system under real life load conditions.
• Localization Testing: Tests the software to make it suitable for a particular region, coun-try, or language. Makes the software culturally and linguistically appropriate.
• Globalization Testing: Ensure the adaptability, flexibility, and functionality of the software components, while making sure it is geographically, culturally, and linguistically acceptable all over the world.
• Regression Testing: Helps verify the performance of the software after it is changed or in-terfaced with other software systems.
• Smoke Testing: Also referred as build verification testing, smoke testing is performed to ensure software system’s critical functionalities are working as intended.
• Sanity Testing: Performed, after minor changes are executed in the software build, to make sure its functionality is not hindered by the executed changes.
• Security Testing: This type of testing is performed to protect the software and application from unforeseen threats and various security breaches.
• Scalability Testing: Measures the capability of a software, network, or process to continue working properly even after changes are implemented in its size and volume.
• Performance Testing: Determines the performance, stability, responsiveness of the soft-ware under expected workload.
• Stress Testing: Tests the software and its performance, functionality, and effectiveness un-der unfavourable and unexpected conditions.
• Usability Testing: Also known as user experience testing, here the software product is tested by user representatives.
• Volume Testing: A non-functional testing type, where software is tested by increasing the volume of data in the database. The aim is to analyze the performance of the software.
• A/B Testing: A statistical hypothesis testing or split testing, wherein two variants of the web page are tested to determine the better performing variant.

Name: < Madeleine Moreau >

Social Studies 30-1: Rejections of Liberalism
Unit 4 Section Two
Conflicting Ideologies Assignment

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30 marks
s
In this section, you considered the impact of ideological conflict on international affairs. Many strategies were employed by both sides as the incompatible ideologies of liberal democracy and communist totalitarianism strove for global domination.

In this two-part assignment, you will use your knowledge, imagination, and creativity to construct an illustrated presentation to demonstrate your understanding of the conflicts of the Cold War era. Be sure to review all the readings from this section before you complete this assignment.

Part One 20 marks

Step One

Choose five of the terms below. For each term, select an image that illustrates the key features suggested. You may choose to illustrate the concept symbolically or provide an example.

brinkmanship
containment
deterrence
détente
expansionism
non-alignment
mutually assured destruction
liberation movement
proxy war
domino effect

The image can be your own photo, a photograph from the Internet or a magazine, a cartoon, or a representation that you have constructed.

Possible image sources include the following:
Flicker Photo Sharing: http://www.flickr.com/
Picasa Photo Sharing: http://picasa.google.com/
United States Library of Congress Digital Collection: http://www.loc.gov/library/libarch-digital.html
Creative Commons Image Search: http://search.creativecommons.org/#
Photobucket: http://photobucket.com/

Step Two

After you have chosen your images, compile them into a mosaic or collage. You may use Mosaic Maker at http://bighugelabs.com/mosaic.php or some other software program to generate your mosaic, or you can inset your images into a table.

Insert your mosaic into the space below the example:

Step Three

Identify the term that goes with each individual image, and explain why you selected it. Your explanation should show your understanding of the term and how it was used during the Cold War. Explain any aspects of the term that the images do not explain. An example is provided.

Sphere of Influence: This image is a sphere, like the earth. Within the sphere are several smaller spheres representing various countries, in patterns of colour that represent the various areas in which the Soviet Union and the United States had influence. The red represents the Soviet Union, with most of its sphere of influence within one geographic area, but with other allied communist countries in other parts of the globe. The United States areas of influence are gold, mostly western Europe. There are other areas as well representing the non-aligned nations. It’s not exactly accurate in terms of how much geographic area the different spheres had and it doesn’t show the techniques used to create and maintain the two superpowers.

I also liked this picture because it used bright colours such as those you would see in the 1950s to 1970s, which is when most of the Cold War took place.
Brinkmanship: defined as “the art or practice of pursuing a dangerous policy to the limits of safety before stopping, typically in politics.” (cited from wikipedia)

I used this image of Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un stating on the edges of opposing cliffs with many missiles in the background. I used this image as it clearly depicts the ongoing ties between the United States and Korea in regards to war. With the Korean leader calling the President names, he took it upon himself to discuss the nuclear weapons in his possession with the United Nations. Threats are continuing to be made by both parties without looking at the safety and well-being of both countries.

Proxy War: Defined as “a war instigated by a major power that does not itself become involved.”(cited from wikipedia)

Using the Korean War as an example, the slip of the North (ruled by the the soviet union) and the South (ruled by the United states). With both influential nations showing interest in Korea during the war, the liberation movement came into effect. Due to this, North and South Korea declared what they called a “hot war”. As North and South Korea were in the same country, the physical military battles quickly came into play. Whereas between the Soviet Union and the United States, it was a “cold war”, or a war of threats. Because these two countries were not actually in the battles, I chose to use an image of a pupett as they both were controlling another nations without actually getting affected by the situation.
Deterrence: defined as ” the action of discouraging an action or event through instilling doubt or fear of the consequences.”(cited from wikipedia)

Deterrence was prominently seen during the Cold War. During the time, the United States and the Soviet Union began creating more and more nuclear arms. This image shows two parties with many nuclear weapons on either side. The message “on no account to be used the enemy might retaliate” is seen on either side of the image. It is demonstrating that neither country will use their nuclear bombs, as it will in turn be detrimental to both sides as they will retaliate.
Detente: defined as “the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries.”(cited from wikipedia)

The period when tension between nations was low is known as “detente”. The United States and Soviet Union met at summits and came to many agreements, signing many treaties and pacts to reduce the amount of conflict between the two aspiring nations. During the time of the Vietnam War, the economy of the United States was struggling. More money than was previously anticipated was being used to create social programs. Due to these negative effects on both nations, many agreements were signed over a 20 year time period. Agreements including: Helsinki Accords, START 1, and many others were signed from 1060-1979. This made it possible for countries with different beliefs and ideologies to work together and create a relationship that affects both countries in a positive manner. This image shows a bear and an eagle, two animals that you would never see together, cooperating. The baby in the carriage that is a mix of both animals truly shows the positive effects of their cooperation. In turn this sums up the main idea that detent brings.

Non-alignment: refined as “Non-Aligned Movement, movement of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. non-belligerent, in a war.”(cited from wikipedia)

Many countries with history of European imperialism wished to get away from the influential nation, and create their own ideologies and in turn a non influenced nation. The non-alignment was formed by the coming together of many countries like: Egypt, India, Indonesia, and many more. These countries all had one common goal, to maintain neutrality among influential nations. Nevertheless, their flee for independence was not successful with the United States and Soviet Union’s extreme powers. I chose this image as it shows a dove, a symbol for peace. This image was a symbol during the movement and although it does not relate directly, the overall meaning of the symbol is the basis for the movement.

Part One Rubric

Scoring Criteria:Paragraphs and Discussions Ideas and Support10

The student… Communication of Ideas5

The student… Quality of Visual Presentation
5

The student…
Excellent provides thoughtful ideas and thorough explanations
support is specific, relevant, and accurate
demonstrates a confident and perceptive understanding of  the assigned task
10 writes fluently with effective organization
uses vocabulary that is precise, accurate, and effective
controls confidently sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics
5 chooses visuals that are purposeful and compelling
makes highly effective use of the medium
5
Proficient provides meaningful ideas and appropriate explanations
uses support that is relevant and appropriate but may contain minor errors
demonstrates a proficient and clear understanding of the assigned task
8 writes and organizes proficiently
uses vocabulary that is specific, accurate, and appropriate
controls proficiently sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics

4 chooses visuals that are convincing and meaningful
makes effective use of the medium
4
Satisfactory provides straightforward ideas and general explanations
uses support that is relevant but general and /or incompletely developed
demonstrates an acceptable understanding of the assigned task
6 writes generally clearly and organizes functionally
uses vocabulary that is appropriate and generally accurate but not specific
controls satisfactorily sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics; minor errors do not interfere seriously with communication
3 chooses visuals that are credible and conventional
uses the medium adequately
3
Limited provides ideas and/or explanations that are limited and over-generalized
uses support that is superficial and may not always be relevant
demonstrates a limited understanding of the assigned task
4 writes unevenly and /or incompletely
uses vocabulary that is general and/or imprecise and/or inappropriate
controls falteringly sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics

2 chooses incomplete or inadequate visuals
uses the medium ineffectively
2
 
Poor provides ideas and/or explanations that are minimal and/or tangential
uses support that, if present, is superficial, incomplete, and/or marginally relevant
demonstrates a minimal understanding of the assigned task
2 writes unclearly and without organization
uses vocabulary that is ineffective and frequently incorrect
lacks control of sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics

1 chooses irrelevant, confused or inaccurate visuals
uses the medium unsuccessfully
1

Part Two10 marks

For each of the five remaining terms write a short paragraph demonstrating your understanding of how each term was associated with the period of tensions and suspicions between the superpowers during the Cold War. Provide specific evidence to support your explanation

Term Explanation
Mutually Assured Destruction: An unwinnable and lose-lose situation for both parties.
An example of this would be the nuclear weapons that both the United States and Soviet Union had access to. They knew that if one party launched a weapon, the other would send one in the opposite direction. Hence why no weapons were actually used during this time, they were just open ended threats.

Liberation Movement: It occurs when a “country rebels against the country that colonized it or otherwise oppressed it”.

A strong example of a liberation movement is the Korean War. North and South Korea were both fighting for each other’s oppression. North Korea was fought by many allies of the South, including the United States. These countries came together in a stance of a liberation movement. The Soviet Union and their allies helped to fight South Korea to stop the war.

Expansionism: Defined as the attempt to enlarge territorial and ideological influence beyond the country’s borders, the Cold War was a perfect example of how Soviet Union and the United States successfully countries “contained” the non-alignment unions, so that either side will have their expansionism process hindered

Containment:

Defined as the attempt to thwart another country’s expansionism through means other than direct warfare. During the beginning of the Cold War, Stalin wanted to keep Germany divided to avoid going war with Germany, while United States and its allies pushed to unify the German zones.

Domino effect
Coined by President Eisenhower, the domino theory was the strongest argument to persuade the U.S. citizens that it should withdraw from the Vietnam War. Or else, it would result in a ‘falling domino’ principle, where the loss of Vietnam would result in similar communist victories in its neighbouring countries, such as Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and etc

NAME:
SADIA FAYYAZ ABBASI
BS BIOINFORMATICS
3RD SEMESTER
ASSIGNMENT:
SOCIOLOGY
TOPIC:
CLASS CONFLICTS AND INEQUALITIES
SUBMITTED TO:
SIR ABDUL RASHEED

CLASS CONFLICTS AND INEQUALITIES
WHAT IS CLASS?
Social class refers to a group of people with similar levels of wealth, influence, and status.

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WHAT IS MEANT BY A CLASS ACCORDING TO SOCIOLOGY?
A social class is a group of people of similar status, commonly sharing comparable levels of power and wealth. In sociology, social classes describe one form of social stratification.

TYPES OF SOCIAL CLASSES OF PEOPLE:
Sociologists typically use three methods to determine social class:
The objective method measures and analyzes “hard” facts.

The subjective method asks people what they think of themselves.

The reputational method asks what people think of others.

Results from these three research methods suggest that in the United States today approximately
15 to 20 percent are in the poor, lower class.

30 to 40 percent are in the working class.

40 to 50 percent are in the middle class.
1 to 3 percent is in the rich, upper class.

THE LOWER CLASS:
The lower class is typified by poverty, homelessness, and unemployment. People of this class, few of whom have finished high school, suffer from lack of medical care, adequate housing and food, decent clothing, safety, and vocational training. The media often stigmatize the lower class as “the underclass,” inaccurately characterizing poor people as welfare mothers who abuse the system by having more and more babies, welfare fathers who are able to work but do not, drug abusers, criminals, and societal “trash.”
THE WOKING CLASS:
The working class are those minimally educated people who engage in “manual labor” with little or no prestige. Unskilled workers in the class—dishwashers, cashiers, maids, and waitresses—usually are underpaid and have no opportunity for career advancement. They are often called the working poor. Skilled workers in this class—carpenters, plumbers, and electricians—are often called blue collar workers. They may make more money than workers in the middle class—secretaries, teachers, and computer technicians; however, their jobs are usually more physically taxing, and in some cases quite dangerous. 
THE MIDDLE CLASS:
The middle class are the “sandwich” class. These white collar workershave more money than those below them on the “social ladder,” but less than those above them. They divide into two levels according to wealth, education, and prestige. The lower middle class is often made up of less educated people with lower incomes, such as managers, small business owners, teachers, and secretaries. The upper middle class is often made up of highly educated business and professional people with high incomes, such as doctors, lawyers, stockbrokers, and CEOs. 
THE UPPER CLASS:
Comprising only 1 to 3 percent of the United States population, the upper class holds more than 25 percent of the nation’s wealth. This class divides into two groups: lower?upper and upper?upper.
The lower?upper class includes those with “new money,” or money made from investments, business ventures, and so forth.
The upper?upper class includes those aristocratic and “high?society” families with “old money” who have been rich for generations. These extremely wealthy people live off the income from their inherited riches. The upper?upper class is more prestigious than the lower?upper class.

Wherever their money comes from, both segments of the upper class are exceptionally rich. Both groups have more money than they could possibly spend, which leaves them with much leisure time for cultivating a variety of interests. They live in exclusive neighborhoods, gather at expensive social clubs, and send their children to the finest schools. As might be expected, they also exercise a great deal of influence and power both nationally and globally.

WHAT IS CONFLICT?
Meaning of conflict:
a struggle or clash between opposing forces; battle.

a state of opposition between ideas, interests, etc; disagreement or controversy.
a clash, as between two appointments made for the same time.

WHAT IS CLASS CONFLICT?
CONFLICT between different CLASSES in a community resulting from different social or economic positions and reflecting opposed interests.

Also called class war, class warfare. (In Marxist thought) the struggle for political and economic power carried on between capitalists and workers.

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class struggle, is the tension which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin.

Class conflict can take many different forms:
Direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor;
Indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions;
Coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles.

Additionally, political forms of class conflict exist; legally or illegally lobbying or bribing government leaders for passage of desirable partisan legislation including labor laws, tax codes, consumer laws, acts of congress or other sanction, injunction or tariff. The conflict can be direct, as with a lockout aimed at destroying a labor union, or indirect, as with an informal slowdown in production protesting low wages by workers or unfair labor practices by capital.

WHAT IS INEQUALITY?
Meaning of inequality:
The unfair situation in the society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc than other people
OR
A lack of equality or fair treatment in the sharing of wealth or opportunities
OR
A situation in which money and other opportunities are not equally shared between different groups of people in the society
INEQUALITIES BETWEEN COUNTRIES:
Looking at inequality between countries essentially means looking at poverty. Research by internationally renowned experts has shown a strong link between the wealth of a country and the probability of it suffering from civil war.
 The risk of civil war is much higher in poor than in rich countries. A country with a GDP per capita of $250 has a 15 percent chance of descending into conflict at some point in the coming five years while, in a country with a GDP of $1250 per person, the chances are less than 4%.  It is much cheaper to recruit rebels in a poor country, where wages are low and unemployment high, than in a rich country, where costs are much higher and the state is likely to have more resources to deter a possible rebellion. 
There are also inequalities within the country and within the groups in a society.

INEQUALITIES WITHIN THE COUNTRIES:
There are many inequalities within the countries on the basis of different opportunities, money etc.

INEQUALITIES BETWEEN GROUPS:
Horizontal inequalities occur between different ethnic, religious or regional groups.

“When cultural differences coincide with economic and political differences between groups, this can cause deep resentment that may lead to violent struggles.”
SOCIAL INEQUALITIES
Social inequality is a situation in which there can be found differences between individual groups in a society from the point of view of their social groups, social circles or social status. In some parts of the world there are different social groups that do not have the same rights to propriety, vote, freedom of speech, health care or education.

WAYS TO MEASURE SOCIAL INEQUALITIES:
Researches show that inequalities are still present now as well as in the past, but with some minor changes depending on the countries.

The easiest way to measure the differences in social classes is to grade people by their occupation. These differences are:
Differences in earning
Standard of education
Differences in style of dressing
Accent
Values
Behavior
Prestige
Power
wealth
SOCIAL CLASSES:
In sociology, the term ‘social class’ is most often used to refer to the primary system of social stratification found in modern capitalist societies. Social stratification refers to ‘the presence in society of distinct social groups which are ranked one above the other in terms of factors such as prestige and wealth’.

  The defining feature of a stratified society, then, is that of inequality in terms of the ‘arrangement of individuals in a hierarchy of advantaged and disadvantaged life chances’.

CLASS CONLICTS AND INEQUALITIES:
Social class, which can define one’s position in society, sometimes contributes to a form of conflict for people with socially low status who try to gain rights and equality in society.

This can often been seen in the twentieth century history, such as the movement towards African and Indian independence, where people rebelled in order to create their own government and have better living conditions.
The rise of conflicts due to social inequality happened in all over the world, and consequently, social class difference is integral to the conflict in many examples of Non-Western literature in the twentieth century.

DIFFERENT WAYS OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS:
Sociologists believe that there are four different ways of social conflict. Most sociologists will use the theoretical or perspective approach to help research. There are a multitude of approaches that are used by sociologist but, the mainly stick to three types of theories. The first would be the structural – functional theory, then the social conflict theory, and finally the symbolic interaction theory. Within these three approaches are several more ways to gain research.

INEQUALITY; CAUSE OF SOCIAL COFLICTS:
The social conflict theory tries to show that society creates conflict due to the inequalities that are present in everyday life.

Most sociologists will use the macro level orientation theory simply because it takes society as a whole and shows how it shapes our lives. It uses terms like inequality, power, authority, competition, and exploitation.

ROLE OF AUTHORITY IN SOCIAL CONFLICT:
Some of the examples that would be used in the social conflict theory are authority. Authority takes into account the family, patriarchy, race and ethnicity hierarchies of authority. In inequality there is family, health, and property. Inequality looks at how people are treated and how are perceived by others. Then there is competition which; can be anything from education, religion, to who will move over when you pass someone on the street. Competition is ingrained in all of us from the time we are born until the time we die.

POWER:
The power and exploitation can go hand in hand. The people that are in power or come to power got that way by exploiting citizens along the way. Power, if not kept in check, will make the honest of men corrupt. Once the corruption sets in they will use that power to exploit people along the way to gain more power.

Karl Marx believed there two groups of people in society, the wealthy and the poor. He studied what would happen if one group decided to up rise against the other. He looks to see what would happen and what roles the people involved would take. Once the sides are chosen and the revolt has begun, Marx will study the inner workings of the dominate class to see how they retain their status after the conflict has ended.

Social conflict can be either used for good or bad. Take any uprising against the local government. In Somalia the people have been fighting their government for equality and fairness. The government themselves are fighting its own people to keep the control or power. All across time there is human uprising against those in power. The earlier battles were fought for land, the later battles are fought for greed, power, and wealth.

Some examples of bad social conflict are the recent increase in school shootings, bombings, and over all violence that is plaguing the country today. Unfortunately the innocent by stander is usually the one getting hurt or killed. This is not just limited to the United States; it is all across the globe. Those that are in power want more power and wealth to control those who are less fortunate.

So, the social conflict theory is about those in power wanting to stay in power and those not in powers wanting to gain power. Throughout time there have been many battles waged in the desire to gain power. It all began with Karl Marx and has evolved over time to incorporate many other theories about crime and what causes it.

REALISTIC THEORY:
There is also the realistic theory; this theory is about one’s group gain, due to another group’s loss. This can be brought on by limited resources, this can lead to conflict. This can lead to more friction within each group when they compete for resources. This theory is a social psychological theory thought to explain prejudice.

An example for this would be immigration. With all the bombings, terrorist attacks, and violence from one ethnic group or religious group. With the recent Boston bombings, this will lead to a negative reaction to all immigrants of Muslim decent. It doesn’t matter if they are of Middle Eastern decent, people will see just the color of their skin and automatically lump them into one category, terrorist.

This theory can be traced back through history. It can be seen with the British and Native Americans, Whites and blacks, Japanese and American, and recently middle eastern and Americans. Most of these conflicts have happened over one ethnicity doesn’t like what the other one believes, whether it is religion, politics, or moral standings.

ROBBERS CAVE:
Muzafer Sherif did the famous study called “Robbers Cave “in 1954. He basically took two groups of teenage boys, put them in a camp, and had them compete against each other. He had 22 boys in the study, all middle class white boys. These boys all came from similar backgrounds and upbringing. He randomly assigned them to a group.

In the first week of the experiment, the two groups bonded with each other. The boys chose group names and stenciled them on their clothing and a flag. They bonded over hiking, swimming, and hanging out. This created and attachment that bonded the boys together.

In the second week he challenged the boys to competitions against the other group. He used activities like, baseball, tug-of-war and other games. The winning group would receive a trophy at the end of the competition. He also included individual prizes to create competition against the other group and within the groups.

The boys became physically, verbally, and mentally abusive towards each other. They burned each other’s flags, tore up sleeping areas, and had to be physically restrained by the researchers. This study showed that it doesn’t matter where you come from, you can turn to prejudice.

Then there is the Game Theory which states “investigates the strategic behavior of decision makers who are aware that their decisions affect one another”.
The gaming theory believed that people interacted with each other similar to a game. This was done by strategic moves, winners and losers, rewards and punishments, or profits and cost. It was the first model used to describe how the human population interacts.

So, with this theory you will have players, strategies, and consequences just like in a game. There are many types of games like zero-sum game, non-zero sum game, simultaneous move games, sequential move games, one-shot games, and repeated games. These games are used to study the gaming theory.

A popular gaming theory is the prisoner’s dilemma. The prisoner’s dilemma shows” why two individuals might not agree, even if it appears that it is best to agree”.

They use two people who have committed a crime and pit one against the other. The sentencing is done by how the criminals talk, or not talk. If one partner talks, they get sentenced and the other set free. If they both remain quiet they get a short sentence, if they both talk they both get a moderate sentence. They never reveal what the prisoners chose to do.

CONCLUSION:
Promoting social equality is still a challenge that each nation still has to overcome. It is quite common to see inequality through race, ethnicity, gender, and social status. We are still segregated by social class, gender, and through political association. Greed and power also contribute greatly toward social inequality.  The more exposed we are to different cultures, the more accepting we become. Once we accept the ideas of other cultures, we will be able to be more accepting of others, thus eliminating social inequality. 

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