Name: Anathi
Surname: Ndzimande
Student number: 21802215
There are multiple beneficial bacteria in the digestive system of human. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a bacterium in our intestine and plays an important role in our health. This bacterium produces lactic acid with the aid of an enzyme called lactase that breaks down lactose and this is a sugar found in milk. It is often used as probiotics this is a live microorganism which, when administrated in adequate amounts confer a health on the host (Hill, 2014). Studies have proven that a L. acidophilus happens to be a probiotic and research has proven that it has some health benefits. However, there are many strains of this L. acidophilus, they each have different effect on our body (Ljungh, 2006). The benefits of the bacterium are:
It is to ensure that it helps in improving blood pressure and cholesterol levels in an individual.

It can fight most infections like viral, bacterial and fungal such as virginal infections, vulvovaginal candidiasis infection, yeast infection.

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It protects infants by making the condition favorable for them like it can prevent flue and colds especially in children.

It is increases the absorption of nutrients by improving the appetite and having a high supply of the required nutrients thus improving our health.

It assists in digestive tract by preventing chances of diarrhea, stabilizing the required pH in the intestine and kills pathogens.

It can withdraw allergies by minimizing the severity of allergies.

It improves immune system when consumed as a supplement with other probiotics.

It prevents and reduce chances of chronic diseases attacking.

It can be used to produce antibiotics such as acidolin, lactobaccilin and others.

It helps improve digestive condition.

L. acidophilus bacterium can be a supplement particularly present fermented food. Just like any bacteria it has its own side effects when consumed too much, not being detoxified and not allowing your body to adjust to it.
Hill, K., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibison, G.R., Merentein D.J., Pot, B., Canani R.B., Flint, H.J., Salminen, S., Calder P.C. and Sanders, M.F. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Aug; 11(8): 506-14.

Ljungh, A. and Wastrom, T. Curr. Issues Intest Microbiol. 2006; 7(2):73-89.

NAME: Nabilah Binti N.Hasnol
ID NO. : 2018200184
TEST 1 (LAW 446)
According to the cases, there are 2 parties that involve in this situation. Which is Pak Belalang and Che Ta. Pak Belalang is the plaintiff while Che Ta was the defendant. Pak Belalang wishes to take an action against Che Ta for the damages of his farm and watermelons, which cost losses up to RM 2 million.
Based on the situation, the court that will hear the matter is High Court. In Malaysia, the High Court are the third-highest courts according to the hierarchy os the courts. In Article 121 of Federal Constitution,provide that there are two high courts of coordinate jurisdiction, one was the High Court in Malaysia and the other one is High Court in Sabah and Sarawak.
Federal Constitution (FC) also known as a written constitution, where it declared that itself was the supreme law of the Federation, based on Article 4(1) Federal Constitution. Which any law passed after MerdekaDay is inconsistent with this constitution shall,to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. If there are conflict with the Federal Constitution, to the extent of its inconsistency the law is void.
Continue with the situation given, the High Court will hear the matter in original jurisdiction with the claim that worth more than RM 250 000. According to civil jurisdiction in section 23 and section 24. By referring to the situation given, where Pak Belalang suffered losses RM 2 million, it already fulfil the condition above to enter the jurisdiction of the court. When this case was failed in High Court, it will be pass out to Court of Appeal in exercise of its appellate jurisdiction. It has power to hear civil in section 68 that appeals origination from the High Court and last, if it still failed Pak Belalang can bring this case up to Federal Court, where has power to hear civil and criminal appeals from the Court of Appeal.
In the Tanggang’s case there are also involve 2 parties, which one of it Tanggang as a defendant. When Tanggang was arrested and charged with theft under the penal code it touching the moral value. Where moral is not be enforced by the court, but in this case it has a relation between law and moral. Law is related the behaviour that created the rules and enforced through social or governmental institutions. Law prescribes what are the proper behaviour for human being.
In this situation, the 1st class magistrate will hear the Tanggang’s case. 1st class magistrate is applicable in subordinate courts Act 1948. Which the suborbinate courts have original jurisdiction only where cases are heard in the court for the first time. 1st class magistrate may try offences where the maximum of imprisonment does not exceed 10 years of offences or punishable with fine only. Under section 379 A of Malaysian penal code where it provided with the deals with the punishment for theft of the motor vehicle, when Tanggang found guilty he shall be punished with imprisonment for a term of not less than 1 year and not more than 7 year. It also will be liable to fine up to RM 10 000..
However, if they failed to prove that Tanggang is guilty, it will bring up the case to the High Court in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction. It has power to hear appeals on civil and criminal cases like Tanggang’s cases originating from the subordinate courts. But if they still failed there are no futher appeal to the Court of Appeal, that must be continue only to questioning of which by the High Court has affected the event of the appeal.

Roll NO:17190856-013
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time requirements including any OS delay are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time. A real time system is a time bound system which has well defined fixed time constraints. Processing must be done within the defined constraints or the system will fail. They either are event driven or time sharing. Event driven systems switch between tasks based on their priorities while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock interrupts. Most RTOS’s use a pre-emptive scheduling algorithm. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling. Scheduler flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications.

a task has three states:
Running (executing on the CPU);
Ready (ready to be executed);
Blocked (waiting for an event, I/O for example).

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Some commonly used RTOS scheduling algorithms are:
Rate-monotonic schedulingRound-robin schedulingFixed priority pre-emptive scheduling, an implementation of preemptive time slicingFixed-Priority Scheduling with Deferred Preemption
Fixed-Priority Non-preemptive Scheduling
Critical section preemptive scheduling
Static time scheduling
Earliest Deadline First approach
Stochastic digraphs with multi-threaded graph traversalCooperative Scheduling
Categories Of ROTS
1: RT Linux
3: Windows CE.

4: OSE
6: Lynx OS
Role Of ROTS In Internet Of Things
Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) for The Internet of Things (IoT) provides analysis of RTOS for IoT including hard vs. soft RTOS, embedded RTOS programs for rugged hardware, low power network and connectivity for RTOS, peripherals and tools to support processing of embedded systems in IoT, and leading RTOS platforms including both open source and proprietary. The report also provides forecasts for the 2016 – 2021 period for embedded RTOS revenue including rugged hardware, software, and microcontrollers. The forecasting includes a regional view for embedded RTOS revenue and the installed base of devices for the same period.…/real-time-operating-systems-rots-for-the-internet

Name:NirvashneeSurname:MaharajStudent number:218085678
Course:Post Graduate Diploma in Industrial
Module:Module 7
Lecturer:Dr Hilda GroblerDue Date27/09/2018

Case number: KNDB – 1261-18
Commissioner: Nirvashnee MaharajDate of Ruling: 20 August 2018
In the In limine Matter between
Joe Snoap Applicant
SPS Respondent
Applicant’s address : P O Box 759
Telephone : 072 569 4587
Respondent’s Address : P O Box 9537
Pine Town
The applicant in this matter, Mr Joe Snoap lodged a dispute with the CCMA.

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The respondent is cited on the cover sheet as SPS.

I must decide if the applicant is an employee for the purpose of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995, as defined in Section 200A.

The true nature of the dispute
Should the school be joined as a party to the dispute?
The applicant worked as volunteer as a crossing officer every morning from 6.30 to 8.30 and every afternoon from 12.00 to 1.30.

He volunteered to this position when John Williams was taken ill until John Williams would be well, unfortunately he (Williams) passed away about six weeks later.

He continued in this position as a volunteer until six months later, when he decided that he like to be appointed to this position in a permanent capacity.

On approaching the school principal, he was told that Williams was employed by SPS (Safety and Protection Services) and was given a letter to take to SPS.

On approaching SPS, he was told that it no longer had a contract with the school and it did not have a vacancy to employ him.

He then lodged a dispute with the CCMA.

Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act defines an employee as :
any person , excluding an independent contractor , who works for another person or for the State ,and who receives, or is entitled to receive , any remuneration : and
any person who in any manner assists in carrying on or conducting the business of the employer.

Part b) is broad enough to include Joe Snoap. It is fairly obvious that he was assisting in and conducting the business of the employer as a crossing officer in ensuring that the schoolchildren crossed over safely.

The Code introduces a new comprehensive test which is the “reality of the relationship test.” This requires that despite the form of the contract, the person in deciding whether someone is an independent contractor or an employee must consider the real relationship between the parties.

I have also applied my mind to great extent in determining the definition of a “volunteer”. A Volunteer is defined as:” persons who choose to provide services for non-profit organizations or charities for which they do not expect compensation. In a profit-based organization, any person allowed, directly or indirectly, to perform work normally done by employees is considered to be an employee, not a volunteer.”
Even if a person offers a service, the onus is on the organisation to make sure the role available meets the criteria to be considered as a volunteer position. If the organization does have a volunteer and would like to provide the opportunity, there should be a signed agreement that clearly indicates that the work being done is unpaid and voluntarily done.

The volunteer should not have a clearly defined ‘job’ but rather learning opportunities and options for growth and development.

the volunteer should have flexibility in scheduling the number of days and hours worked (although it is reasonable to establish shared expectations on this beforehand)
The employee should avoid giving the volunteer critical tasks that would otherwise be done by an employee of the organization.

The employee should not imply a promise of employment upon completion of the volunteer term
The applicant does not make any reference to any signed agreement. On the second criteria, the applicant had a clearly defined job which was to cross the children over. There was no learning opportunities or options for him and he had no flexibility in scheduling his own working hours. The children arrived at school from 6.30 to 8 and left from 12.00 to 1.30. He also performed a critical task that would be normally performed by an employee. He was there for a period of more than six months. He was there for over six months. It was reasonable for him to assume a promise of employment.

I proceed to consider and make findings on the various factors identified in the Code of Good Practice: Who is an employee?
“A person who works for, or renders services to, any other person is presumed, regardless of the form of the contract, to be an employee, if one or more of the following factors are present.”
the manner in which the person works is subject to the control and direction of another person;
the person’s hours of work are subject to the control or direction of another person;
the person has worked for that person for an average of at least 40 hours per month over the last three months;
the person is economically dependent on the person for whom he/ she works or renders services;
if the person is provided with the tools of the trade or work equipment by that person
the person only works or renders services to that person or
In the case of person who works for an organisation, the person forms part of the organisation.

Joe Snoap renders a service from 6.30 to 8.30 and from 12.00 to 1.30 every week day and has done so for the past six months. Therefore he renders a service of 60 hours per week and has done so for the past six months.

The presumption of “employee” in 200 A of the LRA and section 83 A) of the BCEA) does not apply to employees who earn above the threshold salary of R205 433.30.

In “Kylie v CCMA & others (2008) 9 BLLR 870 (LC), the Labour court held that Kylie was an employee as envisaged in Section 213 of the LRA. It further said that the definition was broad enough to include workers without a valid contract. Therefore, I conclude that even though the applicant did not have a valid contract, he can be considered to be an employee.

I therefore conclude that the applicant is an employee and not an independent contractor as he has met one of the presumptions.

The nature of the dispute
CCMA commissioners are duty bound to satisfy themselves that the requisite jurisdictional facts conferring jurisdiction on the CCMA exist. In assessing whether the CCMA has jurisdiction to entertain a dispute, the commissioner must determine what the true nature of the dispute is. The applicant referred the dispute as a discrimination dispute to the CCMA.

Section 187 (f) of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 states:
“that the employer unfairly discriminated against an employee, directly or indirectly ,on any arbitrary ground, including , but not limited to race, gender, sex ,ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion ,conscience ,belief, political opinion, culture, language, marital status or family responsibility
The CCMA has exclusive jurisdiction in all matters concerning discrimination .Section 10 (2) of the EEA (EEA) states that an employee is required to refer to the CCMA such disputes within six months of the alleged act of the unfair discrimination. Section 10(5) of the EEA states that the CCMA must attempt to solve the dispute through conciliation. The employee will also have to prove that there was a reasonable attempt made to solve the dispute, including lodging an internal grievance and the process came to a dead-end as it were.

Joe Snoap did approach the school principal and seemingly all internal processes had failed when the principal gave him a letter of commendation and advised him to approach SPS. He also referred the dispute within the six month time- frame.

I therefore conclude that the applicant was discriminated against on arbitrary grounds
Therefore the CCMA has jurisdiction to hear this matter.

When the applicant approached the school principal, he was told that Williams was not employed by the school but by SPS (Safety and Protection Services). He then lodged a dispute and cited SPS as the respondent.
Having considered this, it seems that the school has a substantial interest in the matter and any decision taken in resolving the dispute will affect the school. In the leading case of Amalgamated Engineering Union V Minister of Labour , the Appellate Division held that is was necessary to join as a party to litigation any person who has a direct or substantial interest in any order that the court might make in that litigation.

I am further guided by CCMA rule (26) (1) that states that a party may be joined to the proceedings if their right of relief depends substantially the same question of law or fact.

It is hereby ordered that:
The CCMA has jurisdiction to hear the case.

The School must be joined as the 2 nd Respondent in the above matter.

The applicant must within 14 days of receipt of this Ruling serve the 2nd Respondent with copies of all the notices and papers.

Dated at Durban this 20th Day of August 2018
Nirvashnee MaharajCommissioner

ID: 647641
Environmental issues
Use of fertilizers………………………………………………………………………………4
Plastic use…………………………………………………………………………………….4
Marketing strategies
Price strategy………………………………………………………………………………….5
Product strategy……………………………………………………………………………….5
Place/Distribution strategy…………………………………………………………………….6
Promotion strategy…………………………………………………………………………….6
The following paper talks about the major environmental concerns customers are concerned about in today’s modern world, when consuming from food manufacturing firms and it affects their buying behaviour if the firm is environmentally friendly or not.
The paper also talks about the various marketing strategies that firms producing healthy food products can use in order to ensure that their products adapt well in the international market.
The food industry is a rapidly growing industry, with a lot of competition between firms operating within the food industry. Various types of firms exist within the industry producing different types of food for different types of customers, in order to satisfy their ever increasing desire for food. In addition, the needs and wants for the types of food customers desire also keeps on changing as new firms enter a market. As a result of this the desire for different types of food is never constant, and this can force firms operating within the food industry to add new products to their large product portfolio, in order to keep pace with other competitors as well as the change in customer buying behaviour. Within the market various types of firms exist, such as firms that produce: junk food, healthy food etc. POLLUTION
Pollution, also called environmental pollution, the addition of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (such as heat, sound, or radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form (Nathanson, 2018).

Customers in today’s world are greatly concerned with issues regarding pollution by companies/ business producing or manufacturing food products. This is because customers are more concerned about the surrounding environment in which the business is operating in. Customers are concerned with levels of pollution since high pollution levels by the companies affect their daily lives,
Some types of pollution customers are concerned with are:
Water pollution
Air pollution and many more.

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Water pollution is a big concern for customers of organization producing food products. This is because customers are concerned about the water, since the quality of water can affect marine life as well as human beings. In addition to this, customers are also concerned about food manufacturing firm’s dumping their wastes into the water, which in turn leads to water pollution affecting a lot of lives living in the water and also around the water. As a result of this customers concern for the water quality is always on the rise. For example Subway, who are known for their sandwiches, use a lot of vegetables. Customers may be concerned with where to water used to wash the dirty vegetable end up.
Air pollution is also a very big concern for customers produced by food manufacturers/ producers that they consume. Customers tend to be concerned with firms that use heavy machinery in the production process to produce food products, since heavy machinery tend to contribute a lot to air pollution. In addition to this, customers may be reluctant to consume food products produced by such firms, since they may feel the mire they buy from the firm, the more the machinery tends to be used, which increase air pollution.
One of the biggest concerns customers have when purchasing food products that use fruits and vegetables, is the fact that they may feel that the fruits and vegetable may have been grown with the help of artificial fertilizers. This is because customers may not want to consume fruits and vegetables that use artificial fertilizers and not natural ones. In the case of Subway, customers may be concerned with the fruits and vegetable the firm either grows or even imports from other countries.
The use of plastic by firms manufacturing/ producing food products is a huge cause of concern for customers, since the use of plastic has negative impacts on the surrounding environment, since plastic does not decompose and affects the environment in a negative way. For example if Subway start using plastic to pack their sandwiches it is a big concern for their customers, since they may not prefer the plastic packing.
Dr. Philip Kotler defines marketing as “the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit.
The following are some of the marketing strategies manufacturers of healthy food products use to adapt their products to the international markets:
One of the biggest marketing strategies firms such as subway need to focus on in order to adapt their products in International markets is the price. This is because the price of the product being offered affects its adaptation rate in the international market. In order to ensure rapid adaptation of subways products, they need to conduct market research about how similar products are priced in the international market.

Another marketing strategy subway need to consider in order to ensure their products adapt properly in the international market is the product strategy. This strategy is very important if subway want to adapt their products (sandwiches), if there is already an existing frim producing sandwiches. One way subway can use this marketing strategy is by offering a variety of sandwiches that none of their competitors are offering at the moment. By doing this subway can ensure that their products adapt very quickly in the international market.
This is another key strategy that subway can use to make their products adapt very easily and quickly. This strategy focuses on how subways products reach the customers. Under this strategy subway need to consider the following: the channels of distribution, location of the restaurant, transportation of raw material from suppliers etc. Subway need to focus on this strategy because if the restaurant/restaurants are located next to the customers, it increases sales as well as ensures that their products adapt well in the international market and vice versa.

Promotion is the way of communicating about a firm’s product’s, its features and benefits which in turn can or may persuade customers to purchase the product. Subway can try to adapt their products in the international market by continuous promotion. This involves continuous advertising about their products through the media used a lot by the locals in the market they are operating in.

Another way to ensure adaptation of their products through promotion is by offering a sale promotion. This can be done by subway when they offer their potential customers sample of their products in order to see if they actually like it or not.
Cohen, H. (n.d.). Https://

Zucker, M. (n.d.). Https://

Nathanson, J. A. (n.d.). Https://

(2014, April 5). Retrieved November 10, 2018, from


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