NAME : NURUL ALIA BINTI ABDUL RAZALI
MATRIC NO : EIA1610161
ASSIGNMENT 1
Explain the effect of an expansionary fiscal policy in the classical model when it is done through the following method;
Expansionary fiscal policy involves the government seeking to increase the aggregate demand (AD) through higher government spending and lower tax. Usually, it is financed by increasing the government borrowing and selling bonds to the private sector.

An increase in government borrowing.

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Initially, the market equilibrium is at point E where supply of loanable funds (SS) equal to demand of loanable funds (DD). At that point, the interest rate at ro and saving (S0) equal to investment (I0).
As borrowing increases, the government have to pay more interest rate payments to those who hold bonds. If government borrows from the supply of loanable funds (SS) which is available from workers, it increases the demand for such funds and forces interest rates up where the demand for loanable funds (DD) shift to the right from I0 to I+(G-T). At the higher interest rate which is r1, people will consume less so consumption (C) declines while return on saving (S) increases and the supply of loanable funds (SS) increases from S0 = I0 to S1 = I + (G-T). At interest rate (r1), supply of loanable funds (SS) is increases to the point F. The higher the interest rate (r) , the lower the borrowing by firms for investment purposes. The government borrowing ‘crowds out’ private borrowing where at r1 private investment decreases from I0 to I1.
An increase in government spending (G) where the government borrowing is increase matches the decreased in private consumption (C) and investment (I).

An increase in money supply.

Initially, the labor market equilibrium is when labor supply (Ns) is equal to labor demand (Nd) at point E. At that point, employment at N0, output at Y0 and price at P0.
When money supply (Ms) is increases, it will shift the aggregate demand (AD) to the right from AD0 to AD1. At point Y0. Money supply (Ms) does not have effect on Y because output is fixed.

When the agregate demand (AD) is increase, aggregate demand (AD) is greater than aggregate supply (AS). So, there is excess demand of goods. When people demanded for goods is high, while the output is fixed at Y0, the price (P) will increase from P0 to P1 due to high demand of goods. Money supply has no effect at total output because output is fixed.

The reduction on the marginal tax rate.

By increasing the disposable income of households, a tax cut would stimulate consumption. If however, the government sold bonds to the public to replace the revenue lost by the tax cut, the same crowding out process would foow, as in the case of a bond financedincreasein government spending. The quilibrium interest rate would rise, investment would fall,and there would al,so be an interest rate induced rise in saving (S), meaning that consumption would fall back toward the pre tax cut level. In the case of tax cut , as with an increase in spending, aggregate demand would not be affected.

If revenue lost because of the tax cut were replaced by printing new money, then as with an increase in government spending money creation would increase AD and the tax cutwoud cause the price leve to rise. Increase in money supply that affected the price eve.

Supply side
A reduction in the marginal tax rate increases the real wage (W/P. The labor supply (NS) curve shifts to the right from NS0 to NS1. . Equilibrium moves from point E to F. Employment and output increase, moving from E to F on the production function. This increases in output is represented by the shifts to the right in the vertical agreagate supply curve in c.

In the classical model, such a change would have an incentive effect on labor supply (NS). The change would effect the supply side and affect the output and employment.

Labor market increase labor supply, at any value of real wage (W/P) and shift the labor supply to the right from NS0 to NS1. Equilibrium employment increase from NOto N1. Increase in employment will increase in labor supply and also increase in output.

Name: Nguyen Phuong Nam (Andrew)
Class: Diploma Internation Technology
Question 2:
Scheduler
+CPU scheduler
– CPU sheduling is a process which allows one process to use the CPU while the execution of another process is hold (in waiting state) and the aim CPU scheduling is to make the system more efficient, fast and fair.

– There are four conditions to CPU Scheduler take place:
1. When a process switches from the running state to the waiting state .

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2. When the process switches from the running state to the ready state.

3. When the process switches from the waiting state to the ready state.

4. When the process terminates.

+Pre-emptive scheduling
For conditions (1) and (4): there is no choice(non-pre-emptive) – a new process must be selected.

For conditions (2) and (3): there is a choice(pre-emptive)- select a next process or continue running the current process.
+Scheduling Algorithms
First come first serve Scheduling-FCFS
Shortest job first scheduling-SJF
Priority scheduling
Round Robin scheduling
Multilevel Queue scheduling
Multilevel feedback queue scheduling
2. Discussion
2.1 Window 10
– Scheduling Priorities: Threads are scheduled to run based on their scheduling priority. One thread is assigned a scheduling priority. The priority always has level range from zero (lowest priority) to thirty-one (highest priority). The zero-page thread have a priority of zero. The system all threads with the same priority as equal. The system assigns time slices in a round-robin fashion to all threads with the highest priority. If don’t have threads are ready to run, the system assigns time slices in a round-robin fashion to all threads with the next highest priority. If a higher-priority thread becomes available to run, the system ceases to execute the lower-priority thread (without allowing it to finish using its time slice), and assigns a full-time slice to the higher-priority thread.

– Priority class
Idle priority class
Below normal priority class
Normal priority class
Above normal priority class
High priority class
Real time priority class
-Priority Inversion: Priority inversion occurs when two or more threads have not same priorities that are disputed. For example: we have 3 threads (thread 1, thread 2 and thread 3). Thread 1 is high and ready to be scheduled, thread 2 is a low priority string and it is executing code in an important section. Thread 1 is the highest priority and begins to wait and receive recourse from topic 2. Thread 3 has an average priority. Thread 3 has received all processing time, because thread of high priority (thread 1) is waiting for resources to be shared from thread of low priority (thread 2). Thread 2 will not leave the important part, because it does not have the highest priority and will not be scheduled.

– The scheduler solves this problem by randomly boosting the priority of the ready threads (in this case, the low priority lock-holders). The low priority threads run long enough to exit the critical section, and the high-priority thread can enter the critical section. If the low-priority thread does not get enough CPU time to exit the critical section the first time, it will get another chance during the next round of scheduling.

– Priority Boosts: Each thread has a dynamic priority. This is the priority the scheduler uses to determine which string to execute. Initially, the dynamic priority of a flow is the same as the underlying priority of the stream. The system can increase and decrease the dynamic priority, to ensure that it is responsive and that no thread is starved for processing time. The system does not increase the priority of the chains with a base priority of 16 to 31. Only basic priority flows in the range of 0 to 15 receive a dynamic priority increase.

2.2 IOS

Name: Anathi
Surname: Ndzimande
Student number: 21802215
LACTOBACCILLUS ACIDOPHILUS
There are multiple beneficial bacteria in our digestive system. Lactobacillus acidophilus is happens to be one of the bacteria present in our intestine and plays an important role in our health. This bacterium produces lactic acid with the aid of an enzyme called lactase that breaks down lactose and this is a sugar found in milk. It is often used as probiotics this is a live microorganism which, when administrated in adequate amounts confer a health on the host (Hill et.al, 2014). Studies have proven that a L. acidophilus happens to be a probiotic and research has proven that it has some health benefits. However, there are many strains of this L. acidophilus, they each have different effect on your body (Ljungh et.al, 2006). The benefits of the bacterium are:
It can help reduce cholesterol level if consumed as a supplement, in dairy products or with other probiotics.

It can reduce or prevent chances of having diarrhea if taken with other probiotics.

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It helps stops symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) example abdominal pain and bloating.

It helps stops vaginal infections such as vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis because it is a probiotic supplement.

Probiotics are known to contribute for weight loss, although more research still needs to be conducted to determine whether L. acidophilus, contributes to weight loss in humans.

It can help reduces the chances of catching flue or cold especially in children.
It can help with allergies since probiotic are able to prevent allergies.

It can help reduce chances of eczema.

It provides support to the guts by fluctuating the number of healthy bacteria in human’s intestines.

L. acidophilus is a normal bacterium that can be a supplement particularly found in fermented foods. Just like any beneficial bacteria when in large quantities it can be pathogenic to host.

REFERENCES
Hill, K., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibison, G.R., Merentein D.J., Pot, B., Canani R.B., Flint, H.J., Salminen, S., Calder P.C. and Sanders, M.F. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Aug; 11(8): 506-14.

Ljungh, A. and Wastrom, T. Curr. Issues Intest Microbiol. 2006; 7(2):73-89.

NAME: JONASH IVAN VILLALOBOS
WRITTEN WORK #1
Do we see reality as it is? Well, I think that reality is subjective and multiple because objective reality is only the image that we see and the things we are sure that actually exist. For example, an apple is an apple it does not matter what other people think as long an object or an apple it’s still an apple. In definition it will only describe on what the person sees on an object it will describe only its appearances including it colour, sizes and shape. An objective reality person wouldn’t normally think of anything that there is more meaning to an object which basically they believe only what is present.
Subjective reality is that part of our experience that it is surely can’t be objectified or known. It means also that reality is a combined belief structure where consciousness and awareness is the central of subjective reality. It means that in a single object it has more meaning than just how it looks I believed that there will be more of it because our perception of things changes over a period of time. According to a scientist that we lack the necessary concepts and intelligence and over the period of time people reconstruct the meaning of things and objects that they see. It is a subject to elaborate sets of things, in anyone that can modify a perception of that reality. As such, when people believe before that earth was the center of our universe because that how people see it. Then Copernicus proposed that Sun is the middle of our solar system not the Earth. What I am saying that our interpretation of a thing changes over a period of time. Also that one person thinks of something is always different than what other people are thinking, but some are indirect ways.
The importance of subjective reality at present and why I’m such a strong supporter of it because it gives you what is the perspective and what beyond on that thing you know that there are more on what you just see on the world. It also gives people have a better idea, more creative and challenging on what they are doing in life because you find something that is interesting. A person does not stop on creating a better world it helps people understand how and what the world is all about. In being a subjective person I also believe that there is someone (God) will be greater than us and who will help our lives in times of crisis. I hope that humans will have more faith because and I know that we will know how everything started and not be curious about the world and will just spread good in life and teach people the be good with other people.
I think that people made a false assumption of thinking of being confident on what they know about reality. This means that we should be sure on what we are going to say or thinking about the world. We humans are still far from learning what the world is really all about we should not stick on that learning if we just see it. People should continue exploring the world and make lots of friends and learn it with them. In subjective reality, we do construct the whole world at once because we construct what we need in the moment. For example is that people believes that the Earth is flat and people we’re wrong. Which until now people observe and examine that the Earth is a sphere and the planets. Another example is that people think that we are inclined that perception is like a window on reality as it is. The theory of evolution is telling us that it has incorrect interpretation of our perceptions. Instead, reality is more like a 3D desktop that’s designed to hide the complication of the real world and guide the adaptive behaviour. If I look and saw a red apple I am interacting with reality but that reality which we do not know yet is not a red apple and nothing like a red apple.

Name:_____________________________________________

Yr 9 History Test: Modern World, Industrial Revolution and Australia – Settlement

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Part A. Multiple Choice: circle the correct answers ____/10 marks

1. The Modern Era is considered by historians to be the period from
a. 2000 to 2014
b. 1900-1999
c. 1750-1918
d. 1200-1300

2. European imperialism was
a. The spread of European powers to control areas of Africa and Asia
b. The European weights and measurements
c. The expansion of European fashion to Australia
d. The spread of Europeans imperials to space

3. The hulks on the Thames River were unsuitable as prisons because
a. They were painted red
b. They were overcrowded and this contributed to the spread of disease
c. They did not have good television reception
d. They had too much space below deck

4. An important change in the Industrial Revolution was
a. the movement of people from rural to urban areas
b. the movement of people from river areas to the sea
c. the movement of people from urban to rural areas
d. the movement of people from hotels to factories

5. Phillips was accepted by indigenous people around Sydney Harbour because
a. he provided donuts and coffee
b. he had a missing tooth like initiated elders
c. he whipped convicts
d. he had a military uniform

6. Pemulwuy was
a. a type of alcohol consumed by early settlers
b. a type of vegetation around Botany Bay
c. an Aboriginal resistance leader
d. the first Aboriginal member of parliament

7. Benelong was significant to the Europeans because
a. He sold them bread and Rum.
b. He was held as a trophy when he went back to England with Phillip.
c. it was the first time Europeans had seen a native Australian.
d. He was able to settle into the white man’s ways.

8. The role that Trugginnini played during the Black wars was
a. As a warrior women fighting for the cause
b. As a sellers of rum and whiskey to the First Australians
c. The wife of a sealer on the coast of Tasmania
d. A translator for the missionary Robinson.

9. The Industrial revolution started in
a. Brisbane
b. Bolvia
c. Britain
d. Bundaberg

10. The settlement of Australia first began
a. In 1778
b. In 1901
c. 40,000 to 70,000 years ago
d. In Roman times

Part B: Short Answers Industrial Revolution ______/10 marks total

1. Explain 2 reasons why the Industrial Revolution started in Britain. ____/4

2. Identify two long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution in Britain.

_____/2 marks

Name: Shanthini D/O RajanClass: TE08
Admission Number: 1805248J
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, called the ”waste hierarchy” is a very
importance guidance for creating a sustainable life. The growing concern of waste
generated has been hot topic globally. This has made countries to implement
projects to reduce waste and reuse the waste for another good cause. For example,
Dutch cities transform urban waste into something helpful. In addition, The Zero
Waste Lab located in the east of the Dutch city gives discounts for local shops and
market stalls in exchange for other goods where you are appreciated for helping the
earth.

From 2016, 30 local businesses and 1100 households have taken part in the project.

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As the project is voluntary, people are more willing to participate as they are
not forced to do it. Furthermore, another project implemented was Circular Urban
Economies where the Netherlands’ two largest cities pledged to become circular
economies by reusing waste materials to new materials. The first steps were to
improve cities recycling rates as Netherlands produces 550kg of waste each year
according to Zero Waste Lab. Other than recycling, Zero Waste Lab also hopes to
improve social cohesion between communities. Moreover, children are also taught
how to reuse old textiles to give them the tools they need in 21st century. Lastly,
Plastic park in Rotterdam was opened by using the waste from the river. It was
implemented to show a city working together to move from trash to beauty.

To conclude, I find the projects implemented very useful and it make a big difference
to the environment and the society. By working together to reduce waste
generated, the environment gets healthier and the bonds between communities
become stronger. Furthermore, I agree that we can reuse our waste to produce
something useful and at the same time teach the skills to the upcoming 21st Century
generation. I would also suggest Singapore to implement such projects to make the
environment waste free and t the same time develop strong bonds between
communities.

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