Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels or ritual purposes were major elements of Shank culture. Divination Techniques for ascertaining the future or the will of the gods by interpreting natural phenomena such as, in early China, the cracks on oracle bones or, in ancient Greece, the flight of birds through sectors of the sky. Chou The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shank and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
The Chou era, particularly the vigorous early period (1027-771 B. C. E. ), was remembered in Chinese tradition as a time of prosperity and benevolent rule. In the later Chou period (771-221 B. C. E. ), centralized control broke down, and warfare among many small states became frequent. Mandate of Heaven Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Chou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects.
Legalism In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Gin lulling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime and its profligate expenditure of subjects’ lives and labor. It was superseded in the Han era by a more benevolent Confucian doctrine of governmental moderation. Confucius Western name for the Chinese philosopher Gingko (551-479 B. C. E. ). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.
Taoism Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring States Period with Laszlo (604-531 B. C. E. ). Taoism offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Dadaists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate, Yin/Yang In Chinese belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. Yin is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities; yang with feminine, dark, and passive qualities.
Cush An Egyptian name for Nubian, the region alongside the Nile River south of Egypt, where an indigenous kingdom with its own extinctive institutions and cultural traditions arose beginning in the early second millennium B. C. E. It was deeply influenced by Egyptian culture and at times under the control of Egypt, which covered its rich deposits of gold and luxury products from substrata Africa carried up the Nile corridor. Mere© Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubian from the fourth century B. C. E. To the fourth century C. E.