MZUMBE UNIVERSITY FACULTYOF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TERM PAPER- PUB 520 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT; RUKIA M. MUYA- 210550014/T.17 MASTERS IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LECTURER DR MTEI DECEMBER 2017 QUESTIONTHREEIndicate yourunderstating of Human Resource Selection Process and discuss differentselection methods commonly used in filling vacant positions in work places,while also indicating their utility in providing relevant and qualified peopleto serve organizational work objectives. HUMANRESOURCE SELECTION PROCESS;1.0IntroductionEmployee selection isthe process of choosing most appropriate candidate for the specified positionamong the perspective candidates.
It aims to select right man at the right job.The selection process follows the optimum fit between the job and the person.It follows recruitment but it is different in certain cases. 1.2Definitions· Selection;Selection is defined asa process which differentiates between job applicants to filter and hire thosewho can achieve greater success in the job.
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· Selectionprocess; The Selection processincludes filtering that ensures the selection of a suitable candidate qualifiedfor the position. Selection differs from Recruitment on the following basicthings. As shown on the Table 1below; Recruitment Selection Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs. Selection is concerned with picking up the right candidates from a pool of applicants. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selection on the other hand is negative in its application in as much as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates. · HumanResource Selection Process;The HR selectionprocess is the strategically planned procedural approach developed by humanresources professionals and implemented by organizations when recruiting,evaluating and hiring new employees. The process typically begins when jobs areposted internally and externally.
Sometimes recruiting tools are used to drawtop-qualified candidates for certain jobs.This is a complexdecision making process, it is concerned with selection of best applicant andrejecting less competent and less suitable applicant through large number ofapplicant. There is no any fixed method and process that can be universallyapplicable which guarantee for the selection of only best candidates.Organization can follow different processes and methods as per demand andculture of organization and types of employees to be selected. However,selection passes through different stages as it is a process. Selection processin general, can be explained as below. 2.
1SELECTION METHODS;1. ReceivingApplications;Once the individualqualifies the preliminary interview he is required to fill in the applicationform in the prescribed format. This application contains the candidate datasuch as age, qualification, experience, etc. This information helps theinterviewer to get the fair idea about the candidate and formulate questions toget more information about him.
In most of theorganizations, the selection program begins with preliminary interview orscreening. In some places if an applicant appears in person, an impromptupreliminary interview may be granted.2. ScreeningApplications;Once the applicationsare received, these are screened by the screening committee, who then prepare alist of those applicants whom they find suitable for the interviews. The shortlisting criteria could be the age, sex, qualification, experience of anindividual.
Once the list is prepared, the qualified candidates are called forthe interview either through a registered mail or e-mails.Employers face a numberof human resource challenges. Recruiting the right employee for the right jobis one of the most critical challenges, and that task has become more difficultwith a global economy and very mobile workforce. Employers can no longer relysolely on candidate interviews to make a sound hiring decision. Pre-employment screening is a process thatallows employers to verify information such as education, and prior job historyand performance.
In addition, the screening process reveals importantinformation about a candidate’s prior behavior which can help an employerassess potential risk posed by the candidate. Prior behaviors can includesubstance abuse, credit history and bankruptcy, driving records, and criminalconvictions, and civil litigation.Contribution of ScreeningApplications;· Gettingbetter Candidates which lead to better employeesEmployers who utilizepre-employment screening as a part of their recruitment process realize anumber of important benefits. One of those benefits is a general improvement inthe quality of applicants which ultimately leads to better workers, higherproductivity, increased quality, and lower employee turnover. Simply announcingto all applicants the intention to conduct background checks will discouragesome candidates from applying.
· Reductionin Non-violent Employee MisconductAnother benefitprovided by pre-employment screening is a reduction in non-violent employeemisconduct in the workplace. Non-violent employee misconduct can include theftof company or customer assets, fraud, drug possession or solicitation, andidentity theft or other confidential information abuses. In addition to theobvious financial impact, these acts can result in lost customers, deflatedemployee morale, and organization brand and image destruction.· Reductionin Risk of Negligent Hiring LitigationNegligent hiring is alegal theory under which employers are held responsible for injuries caused bytheir employees if the employer failed to take reasonable care in theemployment selection process.
The employer can be held liable even if they didnot know about the employee’s history if it is determined that they should haveknown. An employer may be found liable if the employee injures a co-worker,customer, or member of the general public even if the employee is not actingwithin the scope of their job duties when the injury occurs.3. PreliminaryInterview;The preliminary interview is alsocalled as a screening interview wherein those candidates are eliminated fromthe further selection process who does not meet the minimum eligibilitycriteria as required by the organization. Here, the individuals are checked fortheir academic qualifications, skill sets, family backgrounds and theirinterest in working with the firm. The preliminary interview is less formal andis basically done to weed out the unsuitable candidates very much beforeproceeding with a full-fledged selection process.
Suchan interview is generally planned by large organizations for short listing thepotential candidates in order to cut the costs of selection by allowing onlyeligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection. A competentexecutive from the Human resource department may elicit responses fromapplicants on important items determining the suitability of an applicant for ajob such as appearance, age,education,training, experience, pay expectations,aptitude, interests, choice etc. this courtesy interview as it is often called,helps the department screen out obvious misfits. If the department finds thecandidate suitable, a prescribed application from is given to her or him tofill submit.4. SelectionTests;Selected candidatesfrom preliminary interview are required to appear in written examination. Onthe basis of level of job, nature and responsibility and number of applicants,different types of selection tests can be used.
Intelligence, test, personalitytest, attitude and interest test, professional test, personality test are somecommon selection tests which can be used on the basis of nature oforganizational need. From this process, whether the candidate is suitable fororganizational objectives or not, can be judged. Skills and qualificationrequired for the job are judged from selection tests. If minimum expectedquality is not maintained, candidates will be rejected.Individuals differ inmany respects including job-related abilities and skills, in order to select aright person for the job, their abilities and skills need to be equallymeasured.
That is done through selection tests. A selection test is a devicethat uncovers the information about the candidate, which is not known throughapplication blank. They can measure certain abilities, aptitudes and skillsthat provide objective information how well the applicant can be expected toperform the job. Typesof Selection Test· Aptitude Test: Learning capacity· Intelligence Tests: Reasoning, verbal,number, memory· Achievement Tests: Theoretical andpractical knowledge· Situational Tests: Situational problems· Interest Tests: Likes and dislikes ofcandidates· Personality Tests: Relationship,Talkative, Reliability, Self-confident· Honesty Tests: The “Polygraph” a liedetector mechanical device that measure honesty of the candidate.
Reduce lossesand Employee theftContributionof Selection Tests· Predict Future Performance: A welldesigned test can predict future performance of an individual.· Unbiased Tool: Standard, Eliminatebiasness in selection process.· Measure the Aptitude: Psychological testmeasure the aptitude of candidates and predict their success.· Basis for Comparison: Test provides areliable basis for comparing applicant’s ability. 5. EmploymentInterview;The one on one sessionwith the candidate is conducted to gain more insights about him.
Here, theinterviewer asks questions from the applicant to discover more about him and togive him the accurate picture of the kind of a job he is required to perform.Also, the briefing ofcertain organizational policies is done, which is crucial in the performance ofthe job. Through an interview, it is easier for the employer to understand the candidate’sexpectations from the job and also his communication skills along with theconfidence level can be checked at this stage.Contributionof Employment Interview;· Interview verifies the informationprovided by candidates during the application.· It helps to get some additionalinformation which may have not been included in application form.· It helps to know the attitude ofcandidates towards job and organization· It helps to known the interpersonalcommunication skills, situation adaptation skills, problem solving skills, etc.
of candidates.· It helps to share the organizationalworking procedures, culture, tradition and working environment. 6. Reference Check;Reference check is a process ofgetting information about a person from his previous employers, his schools,college and other available sources. Through reference checks, the organizationconfirms the information given by the individual during the job application,and the organization verifies information like education, work experience,family back ground, personal identification. This is usually done by theemployer before hiring a job applicant.Some of the Main Purposes of Reference Checks are;· To verify the correctness of the informationprovided by the applicant in the resumes, application forms and duringinterviews.
· To check if the applicant has any criminalbackground or history.· To check if the applicant has right skill set forthe job and if he fits well in the organization.· To identify any patterns (desirable or undesirable)of behavior of the applicant during his tenure with previous employer.· To identify the developmental needs and determinethe appropriate initial training and development programs needed when theapplicant is newly hired in the organization.· To know the applicant’s previous behavior and toestimate success in his new job.· Reference checking is also done by the currentemployer when assigning a new project which deals with more sensitiveinformation of the client, or when client mandates it.
For Example: Bankrelated projects.Contribution of Reference Checking;· The best indicator of future performanceis a candidate’s past performance, and his former employer is the best sourceof this information.· Employers get additional information onthe candidate’s performance, behavior, attitude and other traits, which makesthe hiring decision, smoother.· Employers can avoid hiring anundesirable candidate with timely information through reference checks, andsave their company from undue risks or harm to other employees. 7. MedicalExamination;A pre-placement orpre-employment examination is a medical assessment provided by a company. Theexamination serves two functions which are to determine an applicant’s abilityto perform a specific job and to provide a baseline medical status againstwhich to evaluate any occupational illnesses or injuries that might ariseduring employment.
It may include a physical examination, vision test, hearingtest, pulmonary function test, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, blood tests,urinalysis, and drug testing. Job applicants may be required to be screened fordrug and alcohol use prior to being hired. Employees may be tested for drugs oralcohol in the workplace, where permitted by the law. The physician mustdetermine if the applicant can perform necessary job functions despite anymedical condition he or she may have.Contribution of MedicalExamination;· Healthyand Fit WorkforceA medical exam enablesemployers to recruit workers with qualifications that should increaseefficiency. Physical fitness and health are requirements you need to joinstrenuous fields such as firefighting. The applicant must go through a medicaltest that will determine whether your heart, lungs, eyes, ears and limbs arehealthy.· PsychologicalStabilityThis is most used inlaw enforcement careers require applicants to go through psychological andemotional pre-employment medical exams.
These exams are vital in establishingyou do not have underlying mental problems that may lead to misuse of yourpower as a state security officer with a duty to protect the citizens. As anapplicant for law enforcement jobs, your psychological examination process mustbe handled by a licensed professional. · WorkplaceSafetyA drug- andalcohol-free workplace helps reduce carelessness that may result in injuries ordeath, especially in businesses that involve the use of machinery.Pre-employment medical examination procedures used in screening the use ofillegal drugs and alcohol can help you avoid these problems. 8.
Final SelectionHerethe candidate who qualifies all the rounds of a selection process is given theappointment letter to join the organization.Thus, the selection is complex anda lengthy process as it involves several stages than an individual has toqualify before getting finally selected for the job. CONCLUSIONThis essay has set outthe current recommended best practice in respect of recruitment and selection.It has illustrated the complexity and resource intensive nature of the process,and also emphasized the importance of prior planning and preparation to ensurethat the most suitable candidates are shortlisted for the role, and that theyhave the necessary skills and attributes. As has been discussed throughout theessay, there are a number of alternative methods for actually selecting acandidate for the job role, and the determination of which of these methods isused relies on the specifics of the job itself and also the long-term HR andhuman capital requirements of the organization.
In an ideal scenario, therecruitment and selection process is cross-functional in nature, involving bothHR and department heads, and is also linked to the long-term strategicrequirements of the business. Throughout the entire process it is imperative tomaintain fairness and transparency, and to focus on recruiting the bestpossible candidate in order to reduce the possibility of subsequent employeeturnover. HUMANRESOURCE SELECTION PROCESS FIGURE; RECEIVING APPLICATIONS SCREENING APPLICATIONS PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW SELECTION TESTS EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW NT INTERVIEW REFERENCE CHECK MEDICAL EXAMINATION FINAL SELECTION