Mycotoxins damage, attack on central nervous system

Mycotoxins are a structurally diverse group of mostly small molecular weight compounds, produced mainly by the secondary metabolism of some filamentous fungi, or molds. These organisms grown under suitable temperature and humidity conditions, and may develop on various foods and feeds, causing serious risks for human and animal health.

Mycotoxins have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. These compounds are constituted a toxigenically and chemically heterogeneous. They grouped together and can cause disease and death in human, vertebrates, plants, and microorganisms. Mycotoxins can be toxic depending on the kind of toxins and dose.

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In animals, acute diseases include liver and kidney damage, attack on central nervous system (CNS), skin diseases and hormonal effects. Among the mycotoxins, aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A.parasiticus, A. nomius. Although the potentially harmful effects of feeding moldy grain and foods has been known for many years. While all mycotoxins are of fungal origin, not all toxic compounds produced by fungi are called mycotoxins Human exposure to mycotoxins may result from consumption of plant derived foods that are contaminated with toxins r exposure to air and dust containing toxins.

Mycotoxins included aflatoxin which produced by A.flavus, and A. parasiticus, zearalenone and trichothecenes produced by Fusarium spp., ochratoxin produced by A.ochraceus and fumonisins produced by F.

moniliforme (. These toxins account for millions of dollars annually in losses worldwide in human health, animal health, and condemned agricultural products. Factors contributing to the presence or production of mycotoxins in foods or feeds include storage, environmental, and ecological conditions (Moulds may grow on plants in the field or during the storage period.

Human food can be contaminated with mycotoxins at various stages in the food chain (Bennett and Klich, 2003) and the most important genera of mycotoxigenic fungi are Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys. Such cases of poisoning may cause death in animals, but are rarely fatal in humans. The toxic effect of mycotoxins on animal and human health is referred to as mycotoxicosis, the severity of which depends on the toxicity of the mycotoxin). Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium has mainly been found in cereals as well as in other products like coffee, wine, dried fruits, beer and grape juice It occurs in the kidney, liver and blood of farm animals by transfer from animal feed The principal classes of mycotoxins include a metabolite of A. flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent hepatocarcinogenic substance known.

In dairy cattle, another problem arises from the transformation of AFB1 and AFB2 into hydroxylated metabolites, aflatoxin M1 and M2 (AFM1 and AFM2), which are found in milk and milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed ( Mycotoxins can be classified as hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, and immunotoxins Cell biologists put them into generic groups such as teratogens, mutagens, carcinogens, and allergens Risk of mycotoxin contamination in the world is increased due to environmental, agronomic and socioeconomic factors. The socioeconomic and food security status of the majority of inhabitants leave them little option in choosing good quality products. Farmers incur losses due to low productivity of birds and low product quality of ruminants. Consumers end up paying higher end product prices due to increased monitoring at all levels of handling and in extreme cases death problems due to consumption of contaminated products Mycotoxin contamination can occur pre harvest when the crop plant is growing or postharvest during processing, packaging, distribution, and storage of food products 7,21. The majority of crops and cereals those are stored under fluctuated temperature and suitable humidity for long time can be subject to mold growth and mycotoxin contamination 5.

Maize is most the crop susceptible to mycotoxins contamination, while rice is the least 22. Most of mycotoxins have chemical and thermal stability during food processing such as; cooking, boiling, baking, frying, roasting, and pasteurization. Mycotoxins can transfer into the human plate through the animal products including; meat, eggs, milk as the result of the animal eating contaminated feed 3,23. Many national and international public health and governmental authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO), Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), are working in seriuous manner to prevent and control the contamination in food and feed and they addressed this global problem 5. Aflatoxins are one member of mycotoxins, produced by Aspergillus species such as; A.

flavus and A. parasiticus. (.

AFs have carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and immunosuppressive effects, with the liver the main organ affected 5. AFs are associated with both acute toxicity and chronic carcinogenicity in human and animal populations 5. Aflatoxin including four different types of mycotoxins namely; B1, B2, G1, and G2 Aflatoxins are largely associated as contamination for some tropics and subtropics plant products such as cotton, peanuts, spices, pistachios, and maize (Milk can be contaminated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) 5, and can be detected in milk 12–24 h after cow consuming feed contaminated with AFB129.

AFM1 is heat stable and it can binds well to casein, thus it can be detected cheese with a concentration higher than that of the raw milk 30,31. In Africa and developing countries the acute toxicosis are usually rare whereas chronic carcinogenicity is a global problem 5,32. The symptoms of the acute aflatoxicosis is characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary and cerebral edema, coma, convulsions, and even death 34. Due to the extreme the FDA since 1969 paid a huge concerns for preventing the great effects of AF contamination in food and feed. Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin and it resulted in three secondary metabolite forms; A, B, and C, these forms are produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species (Bayman and Baker 2006).

Aspergillus ochraceus is found as a contaminant of a wide range of commodities including beverages such as beer and wine. The Aspergillus carbonarius is the main species found on vine fruit, which releases its toxin during the juice making process (Mateo, et al 2007). Also, can be founded as contaminants in a wide variety of agricultural including; corn, wheat, barley, flour, coffee, rice, oats, rye, beans, peas, and mixed feeds, and are notably present in wine, grape juice, and dried vine fruits 38. In addition, Ochratoxins can also contaminate animal derived products such as; meat and milk, and can be found in human milk 11.

These compounds, are very stable in acidic environments and can tolerate high thermal processing 5,10 and the oral LD50 of these compounds ranges from 3 to 20 mg/kg 8, causes cancer especially for kidney and liver in both human and animals 39. is a toxin produced by the P. expansum, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Paecilomyces fungal species.The fungal P. expansum is especially associated with a range of moldy fruits and vegetables, in particular rotting apples and figs.

). It is destroyed by the fermentation process and so, it is not found in apple beverages, such as cider. Although patulin has not been shown to be carcinogenic, it has been reported to damage the immune system in animals. (Moss, 2008). In 2004, the European Community set limits to the concentrations of patulin in food products. They currently stand at 50 ?g/kg in all fruit juice concentrations, at 25 ?g/kg in solid apple products used for direct consumption, and at 10 ?g/kg for children’s apple products, including apple juice.

). Patulin (Figure 3) is a polyketide mycotoxin and It was firstly used as a antibiotic, but after that its toxicity for human was demonstrated 62. It was observed that the LD50 of patulin ranges from 29–55 mg/kg body weight in animals 63, and it is calssifeied as carcinogensis Fusarium toxins are produced by over 50 species of Fusarium and have a history of infecting the grain of developing cereals such as wheat and maize.

Fumonisins were detected in sorghum, wheat, barley, soybean, asparagus spears, figs and tea. The fumonisins affects the nervous systems of horses and may cause cancer in rodents. The trichothecenes are the most strongly compounds associated with chronic and fatal toxic effects for both animals and humans. Zearalenone, has no fatal toxic effects in animals or humans. Some of the other major types of Fusarium toxins include: beauvercin and enniatins, butenolide, equisetin, and fusarins. Fumonisin B1 was first isolated in South Africa where Fusarium moniliforme has long been associated with animal problems (Marasas, 2001).

Fumonisins are hydrophilic mycotoxins that are structurally different from most other mycotoxins and causes pulmonary edema for pigs feeded on contaminated corn 44. Until now over 28 fumonisins have been identified and grouped into four main groups (A, B, C and P) 48. Fumonisins can affect both the liver and the kidney and cause severe toxicity in experimental animals 51. Due to their hydrophilicity, there are no carryovers of fumonisins into milk in cattle, and little FB1 accumulates in edible tissues 9.

WHO set the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake at 2 ?g/kg body weights 44. Trichothecenes (Fig. 5) are a family of 200 – 300 related compounds that apparently exert their toxicity through protein synthesis inhibition at the ribosomal level.

Several species of Fusarium and related genera produce trichothecenes. T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and 2-deoxynivalenol (DON), are commonly found in agricultural commodities. Trichothecenes (TCTC) were recognized as causing alimentary toxic when a contaminated unprocessed food including; soybeans, potatoes, sunflower seeds, peanuts, and bananas, and in processed food such as bread, breakfast cereals, noodles, and beer 5.

The symptoms of the toxicity gained by contaminated grains are; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever 55. Generally, the common symptoms of TCTC toxicity in animals are slow growth, lowered milk production in cattle, feed refusal, drop in egg production in laying hens, intestinal hemorrhage, and suppression of immune responses 56. Zearalenone and zearalenol are estrogenic metabolites of several species of Fusarium (F. graminearum and F.

semitectum). Chemically, zearalenone (ZEN) is a resorcylic acid lactone which does not have actual toxicity (Youssef 2009), 43. Due to its structural similarity to the naturally occurring estrogens and it was identified as estrogenic mycotoxin that induces obvious estrogenic effects in human and animals 5. ZEA and its derivatives act by displacing estradiol from its uterine binding protein, eliciting an estrogenic response 44. These toxins were detected in; corn, wheat, barley, sorghum, and rye and oats in European countries 10.

These compounds were classified by the IARC as carcinogen (Group 3). Infertility, swelling of the uterus and vulva, symptoms were observed when the rats, rabbits and cattles were feed on contaminated food with ZEA46. Ergot are alkaloids compounds that include several mycotoxins are produced by the fungus Claviceps species (Claviceps paspali (forage grass), Claviceps fusiformis, Claviceps gigantea, and Sphacelia sorghi (an anamorphic form of Claviceps) and caused disease for the human which is called ergotism (as “holy fire” or “St.

Anthony’s fire”). Ergots are considered as one of the oldest food-borne diseases in humans. Ergotism causes death for many people in France and other European countries during the middle ages (Betina, 1989). Ergots are common pathogens of various grass species and bread produced by contaminated flour, cause ergotism, which have two forms. Modern methods of grain cleaning have significantly reduced ergotism as a human disease The most important problem in the ergot (alkaloids, fig. 7) are relatively thermolabile, and some may not survive during the bread making process.

. In cattle, ergotism spreads around the hooves, and the animal may lose hooves and is unable to walk and die by starvation Moulds can occurred and produced their mycotoxins in plants and plant products either cultivation or storage stages (Gnonlonfin et al., 2013). Some moulds occur in the field and produce a variety of mycotoxins, mainly belonging to the Fusarium and Penicillium species.

Penicillium and Aspergillus species are the most predominant storage fungi (Pitt, 2000). Fusarium species mainly produce fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Penicillium species produce ochratoxins, patulin and citrinin. Mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus include aflatoxins, patulin and citrinin (Gokmen, Acar, ; Sarioðlu, 2005; Pitt, 2000). Moulds growth and mycotoxin formation are mainly dependent on environmental factors, agricultural practices and storage conditions (Stoev, 2013).

Mycotoxin production conditions are controlled by several factors such as; temperature, moisture content, available nutrition and humidity of the surrounding environment Appropriate temperature and humidity are the predominant environmental factors for mycotoxigenic fungi to produce mycotoxins. In general, crops in countries in temperate and subtropical climates may become more easily exposed to mycotoxins In Uganda, aflatoxin contaminated samples of harvested maize were much higher in the moist zone than those from the dry zone (. In North American, higher levels of mycotoxins in wheat are usually associated with excessive wet periods prior to harvest Unseasonable rains play an important role in mycotoxin production. In Kenya in 2004, unseasonable rainfall resulted in an aflatoxin outbreak in maize, where 125 deaths and 317 clinical cases of aflatoxicosis were reported Good agricultural and manufacturing practices are the most effective options to prevent mycotoxigenic fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Due to the application of modern agricultural and manufacturing technologies, as well as better government regulations, people in developed countries are less exposed to mycotoxins than those in developing countries ACCP systems also play an important role in mycotoxin prevention and management, this system developed new strategies for mycotoxin prevention and control.

In addition to the good manufacturing practices at all stages of field management, storage monitoring, automated sorting, segregation and cleaning procedures. Farmers in Africa have little training in good agriculture practices, and delayed harvesting, intercropping, and continuous cultivation increases the risk of mycotoxin contamination. Even if the farmers are aware of the advantages of early harvesting, they cannot be sure of harvesting at the appropriate time due to antiquated agricultural techniques, weather changes, and other unfavourable factors To prevent mycotoxin contamination by crop rotation, Codex suggests the use non-host crops to Fusarium species in rotation. In the case of fruits, the joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program suggested that many patulin control measures should be based upon careful selection of fruits and good agricultural practices Appropriate storage practice may prevent moulds growth in addition, the optimal temperature, moisture level and humidity of store houses can also decrease moulds growth and prevent mycotoxin production (Lowering the moisture level of agricultural products during storage can create unsuitable condition for fungal growth and metabolism When harvested and for example, if maize is dried to a moisture content of 15.5% or lower, the risk of fungal growth and aflatoxin synthesis can be reduced investigated the effect of moisture content on ground nuts and found that ground nuts can be free of fungi and mycotoxins for 6 months with a moisture content of 6.6%.

A relatively low oxygen concentration and relatively high carbon dioxide concentration contribute to prevent fungal development and mycotoxin production Reducing the oxygen concentration can decrease aflatoxin production; when the oxygen concentration was reduced from 5% to 1%, aspergillus development and aflatoxin biosynthesis could be prevented In addition, mixing grains and long term storage should be avoided, as these may increase the risk of mycotoxin infection. Corbett indicated that a long storage time for apples caused dramatic increases in patulin content within apple juice. Many of the above strategies are applicable to prevent the mycotoxigenic fungal development and mycotoxin formation.

Mycotoxin decontamination and subsequently detoxification could be carried out by physical methods includes various procedures such as sorting and separation, immersing and washing, irradiation, filtering and adsorption. Sorting and removal of decayed fruits or the rotten sections of fruits can reduce patulin levels significantly in fruit products, with it sometimes being possible to reduce patulin levels up to 99% Moreover, sorting and separation of corn can generally reduce fumonsin and aflatoxin contamination Due to the density properties of contaminated grains, immersing grains in water and discarding the floating fractions helping for instance in removing some amount of aflatoxins, and this floating technique can eliminate up to 80% of aflatoxins). reported that cleaning and scouring procedures can significantly reduce ochratoxin contamination.Irradiation is effective method for inhibition of fungal growth and decontamination of aflatoxins, T-2 toxin, or deoxynivalenol when applied to a on the grains thin layer of Irradiation method reduces production of AFB1 in contaminated groundnuts and soybeans. With a dose of 10 kGy of irradiation can completely eliminate the aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal, and significantly reduced the mycotoxin contamination in Mucunapruriens seeds AFB1 could be efficiently degraded by Ul-traviolet (UV) irradiation, and the degradation efficiency varied with different irradiation conditions (Tripathi ; Mishra, 2010).

Using medium and long wavelength of either UVA or UVB resulted in aflatoxin detoxification, for example aflatoxins were completely removed within 60 s after a 2000 lbs/h treatment from almonds It was reported that various adsorbents have been developed to establish their capability to adsorb mycotoxins from contaminated food. For example, activated charcoal (adsorbent) has a large surface area and so, excellent adsorption capability in aqueous environments. Several studies have reported that mycotoxins adsorption with activated charcoal, and confirm its capability in reducing aflatoxin residues, patulin, ZEA, DON and nivalenol due to its porous structure Bentonite clay can bind and remove aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1 from milk Additionally, a mixture of different adsorbents such as Q/FIS allies charcoal and HSCAS (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates) has the ability to adsorb various mycotoxins at the same time. In some cases, chemically modified adsorbents can improve the adsorption to remove mycotoxins from contaminated grains. Moreover, it was reported that Fumonisin can be reduced by modified mineral adsorbents Chemical treatments showed high effects in mycotoxin decontamination. Mycotoxins decontamination and removing could be approached by using numerous chemical agents such as; bases, oxidizing agents, organic acids and other agents.

Ammonization of grains not only reduces several mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, OTA) to undetectable levels but also inhibits mycotoxigenic fungal growth. However, this method is not permitted in the European Community (EC) for human foods. A mixture of glycerol and calcium hydroxide shows a powerful detoxification effect for mycotoxins. Using a mixed solution of 2% sodium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate has been shown to reduce OTA in coco shells Ozone was used as effective detoxification method in food processing). It was reported that Ozon showed high capability in degrading some mycotoxins such as; Patulin, aflatoxins and zearalenone.

In additions, The aflatoxins; AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 also were degraded with ozone, the net results of aflatoxins degradation were proved Moreover, a recent study indicated that both ozone concentration and exposure time positively affect reducuction of deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins and total fungal count as well OTA was reported to be degraded by several organic acids. Egg albumin has been shown reduce OTA without removing total polyphenols Using a high molecular weight gelatin or a complex compound based on plant proteins, amorphous silica and PVPP (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone), could reduce the OTA contamination more than 40% in wine making. In addition, biodegradable polymers could reduce OTA in wine without affecting quality parameters Chemical decontamination methods have already been accepted for use in industry; more novel detoxification methods must be developed and investigated for use in agricultural products while considering public concerns about animal feed and human food.Although numerous physical and chemical detoxification strategies have been developed to prevent mycotoxigenic fungal growth and eliminate mycotoxin contamination, few strategies meet the requirements due to their high cost, bio-safety risk or limited binding capacity. It is important to explore efficient biological methods for mycotoxin detoxification to save food safety for human consumption It was observed that a huge numers of bacteria, moulds and yeasts are capable to biodegrade mycotoxins.The interactions between lactic acid bacteria strains and mycotoxins (aflatoxin, zearalenone, OTA, and patulin) have been examined by many researchers.

Several scientists reported that Bacillus and Brevibacterium species have ability to reduce mycotoxins. B. licheniformis isolated from soybean showed high removal capacity to OTA, with a removal efficiency of 92.5% with a 48 h treatment at 37 ºC). The soil B.

licheniformis (DSM 025954) showed 100% detoxification of zear-alenone after 48 h and 98.1% after 36 h of incubation. In addition, B.

licheniformis (NRRL B-50504 and B-50506) and B. subtilis (NRRL B-50505 and B-50507 ) showed a 46% and 100% reduction of deoxynivalenol after 48 h at 37 ºC.. Consequently, both if B. natto and B.

subtilis strains were capable to remove mycotoxins from aqueous medium. Brevibacterium species showed high activity in degrading the OTA by hydrolysing its amide bond Yeasts have been proven to be useful for inhibiting some mycotoxigenic fungal growth and to prevent mycotoxin biosynthesis. It was observed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can reduce patulin levels during fermentation in juices and patulin production by Penicillium expansum during postharvest.

Additionally, Pichia anomala produced 2-phenylethanol, by which the AFB1 produced by Aspergillus flavus could be inhibited. The 2-phenylethanol can controlled the growth of pathogenic mould through gene expression alteration Pichia caribbica can inhibit the growth of many moulds, especially those produce Patulin. The yeast strain T. mycotoxinivorans showed high activity to degrade OTA in a mineral medium Moulds are the third organisms recognized that can degrade the mycotoxins as bacteria and yeasts. For examples, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium spp.

Showed high activity and mostly effective abilities to degrad mycotoxins. Clonostachysrosea can be used as a biocontrol agent in cereals and prevent the other fungi from growth on zearalenone contaminated media Additinally, Aureobasidium pullulans can be used as biocontro agent against mycotoxins producers grown in wine grapesThe pure laccase enzyme isolated from Trametes versicolor (1 U/mL) could be used in degradation of AFB1 (Alberts et al., 2009). Manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from the white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete sordida,YK-624), the enzyme oxidize AFB1 to AFB1-8, 9- epoxide and then hydrolyze to AFB1-8, 9-dihydrodiol. purified MnP from white rot edible mushroom P. ostreatus, with the highest detoxification power (90%).

Wu et al. (2009) also reported the Mnp isolated from P. ostreatus is capable to degrade AFBin addition to aflatoxin-detoxifizyme (ADTZ) which isolated and purified from Armillariella tabescens. ADTZ isolated from A.

tabescens showed oxidizing activity against AF and renamed aflatoxin-oxidase (AFO). Moreover, the enzyme lactonohydrolase which isolated by Takahashi-Ando et al. (2002) from the fungus C. rosea showed high ability in detoxification of ZEA.

When, purified enzymes from Acinetobacter sp. (SM04) and they reported that the obtained enzyme is capable in degrading ZEA in efficient manner. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, and OTA) showed ability to adhesion (adsorbed) to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria.

This type of adsorption is physically and is associated with the bacterial cell wall surface (In details; some of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Lactococcus strains showed capability to adsorb AFB1, with different ranges. The AFB1 removal could be carried on by association of cell surface binding rather than enzymatic degradation produced extracellular by these bacteria Several studies revealed that Lactobacillus spp. have exhibited efficient aflatoxins adsorption on their cell walls Subsequently, aflatoxin adsorption, by Lactobacillus strains was observed when zearalenone and its derivative a-zearalenol were detoxifying, both toxins were removed by heat-inactivated bacteria reported that actobacillus species are the most effective patulin-binding strains with high efficacy, and the heat-treated nonviable cells had a higher adsorption capacity. These results confirmed by demonstrated that the lactic acid bacteria have high capcity to adsorb patulin.

Generally, it was observed that about 29 lactic acid bacteria strains were showed different capacities in removing FB1 and FB2 The nature of the yeast cell wall exhibitthe cells to adsorb a wide range of compounds, for example Saccharomyces cerevisiaeis shows the high efficient for AFB1 adsorption (S. cerevisiae strains are also used for zearalenone binding, this binding associated with polysaccharides of the yeast cell wall reported that yeasts can be used for control of patulin. It was reported that both of FB1 and AFB1 were removed by S.

cerevisiae through physicsorption (In addition, several other yeast species such as Candida spp., Kloeckera spp., Pichia spp.

, Schizosaccharomyces spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Showed high capability to adsorb OTA and patulin It well known that natural essential oil (EO) has several advantages intraditional medicine.

The turmeric essential oil showed high antifungal activity against A. flavus and aflatoxin Also, Mentha spicata essiential oil (Eo) showed high capability to inhibit toxigenic resulted from A. flavus fungal growth on chickpeas for up to 12 months of storage Morover, Curcuma longa L. essential oil showed completely inhibited the growth and ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum reported that some essential oils including; lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils are able to detoxified effectiveness of ZEA toxin.

Another study revealed that OTA production could be completely inhibited by garlic and wild oregano essential oils and significantly reduced by sage and mint essential oils (Actually, essential oils could inhibit some key enzymes controlling carbohydrate catabolism and mycotoxin production The inhibitory activities of polyphenol and flavonoid compounds against the mycotoxins have been studied, for example, polyphenols showed high against AFB1 in edible beans. Moreover, both of chlorogenic and gallic acids have inhibitory effects onq AFB1 Quercetin and umbelliferone prevent patulin accumulation at the transcript level Flavanones extracted from citrus byproducts such as neo-hesperidin, hesperidin, naringin and hesperetin glucoside, showed inhibitory effects for patulin production and reduced patulin accumulation at least 95% compared to the controlIt was reported that removal of mycotoxins was achieved successfully by magnetic materials. This adsorbent activity may due to the surface maghemite of the nanoparticles and its capability in binding with the mycotoxins. For example, the magnetic carbon nano-composites which biosynthesized from maize wastes showed high removal activity of AFB1, and facilitate the hopes for the detoxification of aflatoxin in poultry feed The chitosan-coated Fe3O4 particles were used in patulin removal and the animal toxic response was determined in treated animals compared with the control ones. Also, the cross-linked chitosan polymers showed high detoxification activity aginst different types of mycotoxins, for example, cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde complex one of the succeded materials which showed high capability in mycotoxin adsorbance and detoxification


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