MOUNT …. …… …. ……. …… …….

MOUNT KENYA UNIVERSITYSCHOLL OF SOCIAL SCIENCESDEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS ANDDEVELOPMENT STUDIESVIRTUAL CAMPUSMASTER OF ARTS(MONITORING AND EVALUATION)MED 5106 : DEVELOMENTCOMMUNICATION1TABLE OF CONTENTSElements of Communication …..

…….

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

…..

……

……

….

…….

……

…..

…..

….

…….

…….

…..

….. 8The Process of Communication ..

…..

……

….

…….

…….

….

…….

……

…..

…….

…..

……

….

….

91.5 Communication for Development, participation and human development……

…….

……

…….

…..

……

……

……

….

……

…..

…….

….

…….

…..

….

…..

…..

……

…….

…..

….

…. 151.6 Approaches to Communication for Development .

…….

…..

…….

……

…….

…..

. 16Diffusion of Innovation Theory and development communication ….

……

….. 17Strengthening an enabling media and communication environment ..

….

….

. 25BASIC MODES OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION ……

…..

……

…….

….

…..

.. 262.2 Features of communication modes …

….

…..

…..

…..

……

….

……

….

…….

…….

30Community Media and Development …….

….

…….

…..

…….

……

….

….

……

….

…….

……

…….

. 31Defining Characteristics of community media ……

…….

….

…….

…..

…….

…….

…….

32Different Types of Community Media …

…….

…..

…..

…..

….

……

….

….

…….

……

…….

….. 33Problems and Challenges of community media .

……

…..

…..

……

……

……

…….

……

… 36Information communication technologies for poverty reduction anddevelopment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36ICT contribution to development ………………………………………………………………………. 39Indirect impact of ICTs on development………………………………………………………….. 41Local content and development …………………………………………………………………………. 43Role of ICT in Local Content Development ……………………………………………………… 45Types of communication tools ……………………………………………………………………………. 46MEDIA, GENDER AND SOCIETY …………………………………………………………………………. 51TYPES OF MEDIA …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 531. MASS MEDIA ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53Gender biases within the media …………………………………………………………………………. 60REFERENCES: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6323MED 5106 : DEVELOMENT COMMUNICATIONPREREQUISITES: NONECREDIT HOURS: 31.0 COURSE PURPOSEThis course equips learners with knowledge and skills to be effective communicators indevelopment2.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMESBy the end of the course the student should be able to:(i) apply basic principles of communication in daily life and in business management;(ii)apply communication principles in business management;(iii)Develop external communication strategies;(iv) Be effective communicators in business meetings and other functions.3.0 COURSE CONTENTDevelopment communication theory, history of development communication, contributors todevelopment commination, theories of development communication, models of developmentcommunication, development communication planning process, communication for disastermanagement, communication in Hyogo framework for action taking, developmentcommunication continuum, role of development communication and media, indigenousknowledge, social marketing communication theory, diffusion of innovation theory,communication adoption process, social change and communication, the nature ofcommunication, the purpose of communication, forms of communication, verbalcommunication, preparation and presentation of speeches, writing memos and reports, nonverbalcommunication, meetings, communication as a management tool, system for internalorganization, external aspects of communication, social responsibility of an organization,determinants of buyer behaviour, communication technology, ICT and development,development communication and PR communication. Tools and techniques for developmentCommunication, cultural communication, Future for development communication. Public4awareness and education for development. Development journalism. Principles ofdevelopment journalism4.0 TEACHING METHODOLOGYThe course will be conducted using lectures, quizzes, cases studies, group presentations.5.0 INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENTAudio-visuals, computers/internet services, journals, newspapers, chalk/pens and chalk/white boards, learning centers.6.0 COURSE ASSESSMENTContinuous Assessments Tests 20%, Mid-semester Examination 20%,Final exam 60%7.0 COURSE TEXTBOOK AND JOURNALBrounstein, R. (2007) Business communication, John Wiley: New JerseyJournal of Business Communication: Sage Publications: London8.0 RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS AND JOURNAL FOR FURTHER READINGSillars, S. (1988). Success in communication. London: John Murray Publishers.Bovee, C. L., and John V. T. (1992). Business communication today (3rd ed.). NewYork:McGraw-Hill.Wahlstrom, B. J. (1992). Perspectives on human communication Iowa: Brown Publishers.Nisar, A. S. (1997). Business communication and report writing simplified. Nairobi: N.ASaleem Publishers.Van rys, J. (2006) The Business Writer, Houthon Mifflin: New YorkMandal, S.K. and Kumar, S. (2006) Effective Communication and Public Speaking, JaicoPublishing House: New DelhiJournal of Business and Technical Communication: Sage: London5DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION.Module Learning OutcomesBy the end of this module students should be able to:• compare concepts of the contribution of knowledge to development from differentdevelopment paradigms and how knowledge is expected to contribute to poverty reduction,increased inclusion of the poor and greater equity• understand how knowledge creation is socially constructed through social relations andexplain the implications of this concept of knowledge for development programmes, projectsand policies• Articulate reasons why an analysis of power relations is useful for understandingknowledge and information programmes in a development context• outline arguments for the possibilities and limitations of differentdevelopmentcommunication approaches• explain why some communication and applications can be pro-poor and howcharacteristics of the technology and the organisations and policy associated with their useaffect these outcomes• compare and contrast different models of how knowledge and communication areexpected to influence policy directed at important development goals• summarize key aspects of the different roles played by communication in relation todifferent development goals• critique inappropriate use of communication for development goals in a variety of sectorsand describe key lessons from experience, particularly with reference to their advantagesand disadvantages for the inclusion of disadvantaged sectors of society in developingcountries• identify crucial enabling factors that contribute to successful communicationinterventions for development purposes6• identify key principles and practices that may help improve the design and social impactof knowledge and communication-based interventionsDEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION ORIGIN?The practice of development communication can be traced back to efforts undertaken invarious parts of the world during the 1940s, but the widespread application of the conceptcame about because of the problems that arose in the aftermath of World War II. The rise ofthe communication sciences in the 1950s saw a recognition of the field as an academicdiscipline, with Daniel Lerner, Wilbur Schramm and Everett Rogers being the earliestinfluential advocates. The term “development communication” was first coined in 1972 byNora C. Quebral, who defines the field as…the art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformationfrom a state of poverty to one dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equalityand the larger unfolding of individual potentialsOr as Erskine Childers has defined it:Development support communications is a discipline in development planning andimplementation in which more adequate account is taken of human behavioural factors in thedesign of development projects and their objectives.Both Childers and Quebral stress that communication for development is not confined tothe mass media channels, but includes any and all effective means of communication -interpersonal, face-to-face, small group, the stage play, a picture, or even a billboard.According to Quebral (1975), the most important feature of Philippines-style developmentcommunications is that the government is the “chief designer and administrator of themaster (development) plan wherein, development communication, in this system then ispurposive, persuasive, goal-directed, audience-oriented, and interventionist by nature. Thetheory and practice of development communication continues to evolve today, with differentapproaches and perspectives unique to the varied development contexts the field has grownin. Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity ofcommunication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit”of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, socialmarketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, andparticipatory development communication.Participatory development communication refers to the use of mass media andtraditional, inter-personal means of communication that empowers communities tovisualise aspirations and discover solutions to their development problems and issues.Communication planning for development is a logical process guided by a systematic andrational framework. This framework could be developed through situation-specific datagathered using participatory research techniques.1. Preliminary situation assessment2. Communication strategy design3. Participatory design of messages and discussion themes4. Communication methods and materials development5. Implementation76. EvaluationTHE CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATIONThe relevance of communication to development is an established paradigm in developmentstudies. It is borne out of the realisation that development is humancentred and thusrequires communication for its full realisation. FAO (1994:5) points out that”communication is the key to human development and the thread that binds peopletogether”. This corroborates Moemeka’s (1991) view that development efforts cannot besuccessful without planned communication because its flow determines the direction andpace of dynamic social development. It is the agglutination of communication anddevelopment that birthed the word development communication. It is to emphasize the kindof communication that is done for development purposes. It is also known ascommunication for development. Some scholars call it communication in development;while others refer to it as “development support communication”, that is, communication insupport communication of development. These nomenclatures establish that there is aclose relationship between communication and development.There exist various kinds of definition for communication, as there are different disciplines.While some definitions are human centred, others are not. For example, communicationsystem may incorporate procession like computers, as well as less sophisticatedreproducing devices such as photocopiers. A photocopier may see communication asmeaning different thing from the way a marketer perceives it. Similarly, a gospel preachermay think communication is something, which is of course different from what a journalistthought it is. Therefore, there is no single definition of communication agreed upon byscholars. Psychologists, sociologists, medical practitioners, philosophers andcommunication specialists, all define communication based on their orientations andperspectives. Psychologists define communication as “the process by which an individual(the communicator) transmits stimuli (usually verbal symbols) to modify the behavior of theother individuals (communicates).” This definition describes what many extension workersand change agents hope to achieve. Sociologists see communications “as the mechanismthrough which human relations exist and develop.” Some people limit their definitions ofcommunication rather narrowly, saying “communication is the process whereby one persontells another something through the written or spoken word.” This definition, from a bookwritten by a journalist, seems reasonable for those in that field. So, there are definitions ofcommunication as there are various disciplines. Communication is from a Latin word8COMMUNIS, which means common or shared understanding. Communication therefore isa purposeful effort to establish commonness between a source and receiver (Schramm1965). Whatever is being shared could be associated with knowledge, experience, thought,ideas, suggestion, opinions, feelings etc. We will define communication here as the processof exchanging or sharing information, ideas and feeling between the sender and thereceiver. It involves not only the spoken and written word by also body language, personalmannerisms, and style – anything that adds meaning to a message (Hybels & Weaver II,(2001). Baran (2003) has defined communication as the process of creating sharedmeaning. This is because the participants in communication encounter are interested inobtaining messages that are understandable. That is why they have to negotiable, seekclarification and ask for explanation to ensure that they have obtained the meaningintended in the message.Elements of CommunicationCommunication as a system means that it works through interrelated set of elements. Wecan identify about seven elements that are involved in communication process. They are:Stimulus: This is the impulse that triggers off the communication exchange. It takes placeat the ideation stage of communication. We can also call it the reason one has forcommunicating, which may be to inform, educate, entertain etc.Source: This is the person who begins the communication process. He is the one triggeredby the stimulus and from him begins the communication activity. He could be referred toas the initiator, encoder or sender. He is the initiator because he begins the communicationprocess. As the encoder, he packages the message in a way that it can be communicatedand as the sender when he passes across the message by himself.Message: This could be the idea, feelings, information, thought, opinion, knowledge orexperience etc. that the source/sender wants to share.Medium/Channel: Medium and channel are generally used interchangeably. But here, adistinction is made between the two. Medium could be regarded as the form adopted by thesender of the message to get it to the receiver. It could be oral or written form. The channelthen is the pathway, route or conduit through which the message travels between thesource and the receiver e.g. the channel of radio, television, newspaper, telephone etc.Channel provides a link that enables the source and the receiver to communicate. It may9also be seen in term of the five physical senses- sight, sound, touch, taste and smellthroughwhich messages can be sent, received, understood, interpreted and acted upon.Receiver: This is the person to whom the message is sent. He is the target audience or therecipient of the message. All the source/sender effort to communicate is to inform or affectthe attitude of the receiver. That is why communication must be receiver-centred.Feedback: This is the response or reaction of the receiver to the message sent.Communication is incomplete without feedback. It confirms that the message is wellreceived and understood. Feedback guides the source in communication process and helpshim to know when to alter or modify his message if not properly received. A feedback ispositive when it shows that the message has been well received and understood and itcould be negative when it shows that the intended effect has not been achievedNoise: Noise is interference that keeps a message from being understood or accuratelyinterpreted. It is a potent barrier to effective communication. Noise may be in differentform: Physical Noise: This comes from the environment and keeps the message from beingheard or understood. It may be from loud conversations, side-talks at meetings, vehicularsounds, sounds from workmen’s tools etc. Psychological Noise: This comes from within as aresult of poor mental attitude, depression, emotional stress or disability. PhysiologicalNoise: Results from interference from the body in form of body discomforts, feeling ofhunger, tiredness etc Linguistic Noise: This is from the source’s inability to use thelanguage of communication accurately and appropriately. It may be a grammatical noisemanifested in form of defects in the use of rules of grammar of a language, and faultysentence structure. It may be semantic as in the wrong use of words or use of unfamiliarwords, misspelling, etc. And it could also be phonological manifested in incorrectpronunciation.The Process of CommunicationCommunication is a process because it is dynamic, recursive, on-going, continuous andcyclical. There is no recognizable beginning and end, neither is there a rigid sequence ofinteraction. But we may try to identify how the process begins.Stimulation: This is the point at which the source sees the need to communicate. Hereceives stimulus that triggers him to communicate.10Encoding: The source processes the message he want to communicate into a form that willbe understandable to the receivers. This may be a feeling, opinion, experiment etc.Transmission: The message is passed across to the receiver through a chosen medium orchannel.Reception: The receiver gets the message that is sent from the sourceDecoding: The message is processed, understood and interpreted by the receiver.Response: This the reaction of the receiver to the message received, in form of feedbackThe Osgood model of communication presented below shows that communication is both asystem and process.Contexts of CommunicationContexts here mean the different levels at which communication occurs. It can also bereferred to as the kinds of communication that are available.Intra-personal Communication: This is essentially a neuro-physiological activity whichinvolves some mental interviews for the purposes of information processing and decisionmaking. The basic operations of intrapersonal communication are to convert raw data fromenvironment to information; to interpreter and give meaning to that information and to usesuch meaning. In other words, it is communication that occurs within you. Becauseinterpersonal communication is cantered in the self, you are the only sender-receiver. Themessage is made up of your thoughts and feelings and the channel is your brain, whichprocesses what you are thinking and feeling. There is also feedback because you talk toyourself, you discard certain ideals and replace them with others. InterpersonalCommunication: Is occurs when you communicate on a one-to one basis usually in aninformal, unstructured setting. It occurs mostly between two people, though it may includemore than two. Each participant functions as a sender-receiver; their messages consist ofboth verbal and non-verbal symbols and the channels used mostly are sight and sound. Italso offers the greatest opportunity for feedback. Group Communication This form ofcommunication occurs among a small number of people for the purpose of solving problem.The group must be small enough so that each member has a chance to interact with all theother members. The communication process in group communication is more complex thanin interpersonal communication because the group members are made up of several11sender-receivers. As a result, there are more chances for confusion. Messages are also morestructure in small groups because the group is meeting for a specific purpose. It uses thesame channels as are used in interpersonal communication, and there is also a good dealof opportunity for feedback. It also occurs in a more formal setting than in interpersonalcommunication. Public Communication: Here the (sender receiver) speaker sends amessage (the speech) to an audience. The speaker usually delivers a highly structuredmessage, using the some channels as in interpersonal or small-group communication. Thechannels here are more exaggerated than in interpersonal communication. The voice islouder and the gestures are more expansive because the audience is bigger. Additionalvisual channels, such as slides or the computer programme Power Point might be used.Opportunity for verbal feedback is limited in most public communication. The setting isalso formal.Mass Communication: Mass Communication is a means of disseminating information ormessage to large, anonymous, and scattered heterogeneous masses of receivers which maybe far removed from the message sources through the use of sophisticated equipment. It isthe sending of message through a mass medium to a large number of people. Development.Rogers (1976) sees development as a widely participatory process of social change in asociety, intended to bring about social and material advancement (including greaterequality, freedom, and other valued qualities) for the majority of the people through theirgaining control over their environment. Rogers stressed the endogenous dimension ofdevelopment. It must be through people’s participation, exploiting their own environment toimprove their situation rather than expecting development to “fall from heaven” as it were.Inayatullah (cited in Soola 2003:13), for example, says “development is change towardpatterns of society that allow better realization of human values, that allow a society greatercontrol over its environment and over its political destiny, and that enables its individualsto gain increased control over themselves”. Moemeka (1991) observes that: …the twodefinitions show that development is a multifaceted concept. It generally means differentthings to different people, ranging from the psychologist’s preoccupation with individual orpersonality variables as self reliance, achievement motivation, self worth and selfactualization,to the communicator’s concern for acquisition of new knowledge and skills,increased self confidence, control over oneself and one’s environment, greater equality,freedom, ability to understand one’s potentials and limitations, and willingness to workhard enough to improve on existing conditions (p.4).12Todaro and Smith (2003) stress that development involves both the quality and quantity oflife. Quality of life refers to opportunities and availability of social, health and educationalconcerns. Quantity of life involves the amount of economic and political participation of thepeople. This definition shifts the attention and aim of development away from an economicto a more humanizing conceptualised one. In line with this, Oladipo (1996:1) notes thatdevelopment is: a process of economic and social advancement which enables people torealize their potentials, build self-confidence and lead lives of dignity and fulfilment. It is aprocess aimed at freeing people from evils of want, ignorance, social injustice and economicexploitation. Todar and Smith (2003) identify three objectives of development:1. To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods suchas food, shelter, health and protection.2. To raise levels of living in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, bettereducation, and greater attention to cultural and human values, all of which will serve notonly enhance material well-being but also to generate greater individual and national selfesteem.3. To expand the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nationsby freeing them from servitude and dependence, not only in relation to other people andnation- states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery.Development Communication PerspectivesDevelopment communication can be looked at from two perspectives in terms of the use ofcommunication channels. The narrower concept of “development journalism” refers to theuse of mass communication (the mass media) in the promotion of development.Development communication on the other hand is broader in shape and makes use of allforms of communication in the development process. In other words, it employs not onlythe mass media, but also interpersonal channels, group or public means of communicationand the traditional channels of communication.Quebral (1975) cited in Anaeto&Anaeto (2010), defines development communication as theart and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a countryand the mass of its people from a state of poverty to a more dynamic state of economicgrowth which make possible greater social equality and the larger fulfillment of the humanpotentials. It is observed that development communication is a purposeful communication13effort geared towards realisation of human potentials and transformation from a badsituation to a good one. That is why Moemeka (1991) defines development communicationas the application of the process of communication to the development process. Coldevin(1987) notes that development communication mobilises people to participate indevelopment activities. He defines development communication as “the systematicutilisation of appropriate communication channels and techniques to increase people’sparticipation in development and to inform, motivate, and train rural populations, mainlyat the grassroots level. This is in line with Balifs (1988:13) definition, which seesdevelopment communication as a social process aimed at producing a commonunderstanding or a consensus among the participants in a development initiative. Somedefinitions specifically emphasise on social change. Okunna (2002) sees developmentcommunication as the entire process of communication with a specific group of people whorequire development (target audience), with the purpose of achieving the social change thatshould change their lives in a positive way, thus giving them better living conditions.Similar point was emphasised by Middleton and Wedeneyer (1985), describing developmentcommunication as any series of planned communication activities aimed at individual andsocial change; and by Rogers (1976:93) as the application of communication with a view topromotingsocioeconomic development. As for the expression “development communication”, it wasapparently first used in the Phillippines in the 1970 by Professor Nora Quebral to designatethe process for transmitting and communicating new knowledge related to ruralenvironments (Srampickal, 2006). The fields of knowledge were then extended to all thoselikely to help improve the living conditions of the disadvantaged people. The concepts ofcommunication and development are central to our understanding of developmentcommunication. In development communication, the main reason of communication is tobring about or expedite the process of development. Communication is necessary fordevelopment because it helps to mobilise people’s participation. Communication is acommon denominator for development and participation. It is for this reason that FAO saysthat communication is the key to human development and the thread that binds peopletogether (1994:5).14Types of Participatory CommunicationParticipation can be used as a goal or as a tool for specific projects. The four categoriesbelow refer to different levels of participation and communication:Passive ParticipationThe stakeholders of a project essentially act as “empty vessels” and receive information.Feedback is minimal if at all and participation is assessed through methods such as headcounts.Participation by ConsultationResearchers or “experts” pose questions to the stakeholders. Input can be provided atdifferent points in time but the final analysis and decision-making power lies in the handsof the external professionals whom may or may not take the stakeholders decisions intoconsideration.Participation by CollaborationGroups of primary stakeholders are formed in order to participate in discussion andanalysis. Objectives are predetermined. This method incorporates components of horizontalcommunication and capacity building among all stakeholders.Empowerment ParticipationPrimary stakeholders are capable and willing to become involved in the process and takepart in decision-making. Outsiders are equal partners, but the stakeholders make the finaldecisions as ownership and control of the process rests in their hands. Knowledgeexchange leads to solutions.Communication based analysis:Communication based analysis: research method probing empirical evidence andstakeholders’ perceptions in order to assess the socio-political situation, cultural dynamics,identify opportunities, and risks.CBA Main Features Identifies roadblocks for a project; Assess the socio-political and cultural environment around the project; Segments audiences based on their positions; Assesses communication capacity of government, media, and others involved; Identifies partners and local communication professionals;Develops strategic guidelines for future communication plan15Development Communication Helps Overcome Obstacles to Change and Reform through: Two-way (cyclic) communication: both informing and listening Building consensus and active constituencies Building local capacity to communicate development issues Creating social ownership1.5 Communication for Development, participation and human developmentSuccess in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the broader globaldevelopment agenda of democratic governance and human development is dependent in largepart on the extent to which national planning processes are informed by all sections of society.This means the involvement of the poor and more marginalized people as well as those who arebetter off. Participation processes determine significantly whose voices are heard and amplifiedand whoseare muted. Broader and more equal participation reflecting society as a whole isconsidered a prerequisite for more responsive and democratic governance and sustainabledevelopment. Such participation can only take place if the information needs of all citizens aremet and the voices of those most affected by policy decisions are heard. Access to clear, reliableand appropriate information is necessary for citizens to make informed decisions and toinfluence policy processes that affect their lives. Communication for development processes cantherefore be seen as essential for effectiveparticipation and central to enhancing humandevelopment.The rapid spread of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in recent years istransforming how people communicate and exchange information with each other and having aconsequent impact on the dynamics of social, political and economic life. However, not allsections of society are able to take advantage of these opportunities. While the expansion of ICTsopen up many opportunities for public participation, they can also serve to widen the gapbetween the poor andbetter off – between those with access and the skills to use the newtechnologies and those without – thus limiting the potential to enhance human development.Communication for development as a practice seeks to provide a framework through which themost appropriate actions can be taken to empower communities and to make policy makersmore accountable. Sometimes ICT fordevelopment may be the best approach, while at othertimes the most effective solution may simply involve bringing people together for discussionwithout the use of technology.161.6Approaches to Communication for DevelopmentThere are four main ‘strands’ / approaches within C4D. These include(i) Behaviour change communication;(ii) Communication for social change;(iii) Advocacy communication; and(iv) Strengthening an enabling media and communication environment.1.7.1 Behavior Change Communication (BCC)Behavior Change Communication (BCC) is an “interactive process for developing messagesand approaches using a mix of communication channels in order to encourage and sustainpositive and appropriate behaviors”.This is probably the best-known approach, as it has been used widely in developmentprogrammes since the 1950s. BCC envisages social change and individual change as twosides of the same coin. It has evolved from information, education and communication (IEC)programmes to promote more tailored messages, greater dialogue and increased ownershiptogether with a focus on aiming for, and achieving health-enhancing results. BCC isregarded as an essential element of many health-related programmes, particularlyHIV/AIDS programmes.It has been argued that a central aspect of the relationship betweencommunication and behaviour is ‘ideation’ – the spread of new ways of thinking throughcommunication and social interaction in local, culturally-defined communities.1.7.2 Communication for Social Change (CFSC)Communication for Social Change (CFSC) emphasizes the notion of dialogue as central todevelopment and the need to facilitate poor people’s participation and empowerment.CFSC uses participatory approaches. It stresses the importance of horizontalcommunication, the role of people as agents of change, and the need for negotiating skillsand partnerships. CFSC focuses on dialogue processes through which people can overcomeobstacles and identify ways to help them achieve the goals they set for themselves. Throughthese processes of public and private dialogue, all members of community and civil society– women, men and children – define who they are, what they want and need and what hasto be changed for them to have a better life.A CFSC approach focuses on moving towardscollective community action and long-term social change and away from individualbehavior’s.17CFSC is guided by principles of tolerance, self-determination, equity, social justice andactive participation. Elements of the CFSC process include catalyst, community problemrecognition, community dialogue, planning and collective action.Diffusion of Innovation Theory and development communicationOne of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea. It … makes you thinkthat after all, your favorite notions may be wrong, your firmest beliefs ill-founded …Naturally; therefore, common men hate a new idea, and are disposed more or less to illtreattheoriginalmanwhobringsit.-Walter Bagehot Physics and PoliticsDefinition of Diffusion of InnovationIn his comprehensive book Diffusion of Innovation, Everett Rogers defines diffusion as theprocess by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over timeamong the members of a social system. Rogers’ definition contains four elements that arepresent in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements are:(1) Innovation – an idea, practices, or objects that is perceived as knew by an individual orother unit of adoption.(2) Communication channels – the means by which messages get from one individual toanother.(3) Time – the three time factors are:(a)innovation-decision process(b) relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group.(c) innovation’s rate of adoption.(4) Social system – a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving toaccomplish a common goal.Make a better mousetrap, and the world will beat a path to our door.-Ralph Waldo EmersonBackground on Diffusion of InnovationThe original diffusion research was done as early as 1903 by the French sociologist GabrielTarde who plotted the original S-shaped diffusion curve. Tarde’s 1903 S-shaped curve is ofcurrent importance because “most innovations have an S-shaped rate of adoption”. (Rogers,1983) The variance lies in the slope of the “S”. Some new innovations diffuse rapidlycreating a steep S-curve; other innovations have a slower rate of adoption, creating a moregradual slope of the S-curve. The rate of adoption, or diffusion rate has become animportant area of research to sociologists, and more specifically, to advertisers. In the1940’s, two sociologists, Bryce Ryan and Neal Gross “published their seminal study of thediffusion of hybrid seed among Iowa farmers” renewing interest in the diffusion of18innovation S-curve. The now infamous hybrid-corn study resulted in a renewed wave ofresearch. “The rate of adoption of the agricultural innovation followed an S-shaped normalcurve when plotted on a cumulative basis over time”. This rate of adoption curve wassimilar to the S-shaped diffusion curve graphed by Tarde forty years earlier.Ryan and Grossclassified the segments of Iowa farmers in relation to the amount of time it took them toadopt the innovation, in this case, the hybrid corn seed. The five segments of farmers whoadopted the hybrid corn seed or adopter categories are:(1) Innovators,(2) Early adopters,(3) Early majority,(4) Late majority, and(5) Laggards.”The first farmers to adopt (the innovators) were more cosmopolite (indicated by travelingmore frequently to Des Moines) and of higher socioeconomic status than later adopters”.One of the most important characteristics of the first segment of a population to adopt aninnovation, the innovators, is that they require a shorter adoption period than any othercategory. Rogers identifies several additional characteristics dominant in the innovator type:(1) Venturesome, desire for the rash, the daring, and the risky,(2) Control of substantial financial resources to absorb possible loss from an unprofitableinnovation.(3) The ability to understand and apply complex technical knowledge, and(4) The ability to cope with a high degree of uncertainty about an innovation.Characteristics Rogers identified in the Early Adopters:(1) integrated part of the local social system,(2) Greatest degree of opinion leadership in most systems,(3) serve as role model for other members or society,(4) Respected by peers, and(5) Successful.Characteristics Rogers identified in the Early Majority:(1) Interact frequently with peers,(2) Seldom hold positions of opinion leadership,19(3) One-third of the members of a system, making the early majority the largest category.(4) Deliberate before adopting a new idea.Characteristics Rogers identified in the Late Majority:(1) One-third of the members of a system,(2) Pressure from peers,(3) Economic necessity,(4) Skeptical, and(5) Cautious.Characteristics Rogers identified in the Laggards:(1) Possess no opinion leadership,(2) Isolates,(3) Point of reference in the past,(4) Suspicious of innovations,(5) innovation-decision process is lengthy, and(6) Resources are limited.Although additional names and titles for the adopters of an innovation have been used inother research studies, Everett Rogers labels for the five adopter categories are the preferredor standard for the industry. Moreover, the specific characteristics that Rogers’ identifies foreach adopter category is of significance to advertisers interested in creating an integratedmarketing plan targeting a specific audience. Ideas confine a man to certain social groupsand social groups confine a man to certain ideas. Many ideas are more easily changed byaiming at a group than by aiming at an individual.-Josephine Klein, Working with Groups: The Social Psychology of Discussion and DecisionThe Adoption ProcessIn his book Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers defines the diffusion process as one “which isthe spread of a new idea from its source of invention or creation to its ultimate users oradopters”. Rogers differentiates the adoption process from the diffusion process in that thediffusion process occurs within society, as a group process; whereas, the adoption processis pertains to an individual. Rogers defines “the adoption process as the mental processthrough which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to finaladoption”.20Five Stages of AdoptionRogers breaks the adoption process down into five stages. Although, more or fewer stagesmay exist, Rogers says that “at the present time there seem to be five main functions”. Thefive stages are:(1) Awareness,(2) Interest,(3) Evaluation,(4) Trial, and(5) Adoption.In the awareness stage “the individual is exposed to the innovation but lacks completeinformation about it”. At the interest or information stage “the individual becomesinterested in the new idea and seeks additional information about it”. At the evaluationstage the “individual mentally applies the innovation to his present and anticipated futuresituation, and then decides whether or not to try it”. During the trial stage “the individualmakes full use of the innovation”. At the adoption stage “the individual decides to continuethe full use of the innovation”. Why is the Adoption Process of any relevance to advertisers?The purpose of marketing and advertising is to increase sells, which hopefully results inincreased profits. It is through analyzing and understanding the adoption process thatsocial scientists, marketers and advertisers are able to develop a fully integrated marketingand communication plan focused at a predetermined stage of the adoption process.Be not the first by who the new is tried, nor the last to lay the old aside.-Alexander Pope, An Essay on Criticism, Part IIRejection and DiscontinuanceOf course, as Rogers points out, an innovation may be rejected during any stage of theadoption process. Rogers defines rejection as a decision not to adopt an innovation.Rejection is not to be confused from discontinuance. Discontinuance is a rejection thatoccurs after adoption of the innovation. Rogers synopses many of the significant researchfindings on discontinuance. Many “discountenances occur over a relatively short timeperiod” and few of the “discountenances were caused by supersedence of a superiorinnovation replacing a previously adopted idea”. One of the most significant findings wasresearch done by Johnson and Vandan Ban (1959): The relatively later adopters had twiceas many discountenances as the earlier adopters. Previous researchers had assumed thatlater adopters were relatively less innovative because they did not adopt or were relativelyslow to adopt innovations. This evidence suggests the later adopters may adopt, but thendiscontinue at a later point in time.21Rogers identifies two types of discontinuance:(1) Disenchantment discontinuance – a decision to reject an idea as a result ofdissatisfaction with it’s performance, and(2) Replacement discontinuance – a decision to reject an idea in order to adopt a better idea.One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it, you have no certaintyuntil you try.-Sophocles, 400 BCThe Innovation – Decision ProcessRogers defines the innovation-decision process as the “process through which an individual(or other decision making unit such as a group, society, economy, or country) passesthrough the innovation-decision process”.There are five stages in the Innovation-Decision Process:(1) From first knowledge of innovation,(2) To forming an attitude toward the innovation,(3) To a decision to adopt or reject,(4) To implementation of the new idea,(5) To confirmation of this decision.It should be noted that prior conditions affect the innovation-decision process. Priorconditions such as:(1) Previous practice,(2) Felt needs/problems,(3) Innovativeness, and(4) Norms of the social systems.The first stage of the innovation-decision process entails seeking one or more of three typesof knowledge about the innovation. Rogers describes these as:1. Awareness knowledge is information that an innovation exists.2. How-to-knowledge consists of the information necessary to use an innovationproperly, and3. Principles knowledge consists of information dealing with the functioning principlesunderlying how the innovation works.22Rogers states that awareness and knowledge of an innovation can be made most efficientlythrough mass media. It will be interesting in twenty years or so, to ascertain if mass mediawill still be considered the most efficient means to create product awareness andknowledge. The following chart identifies seven characteristics consistently found in `earlyknowers’. These characteristics should be taken into consideration when targeting the earlyor late knowers segment of the population.1 Earlier knowers of an innovation have more formal education than later knowers.2 Earlier knowers of an innovation have higher socioeconomic status than late knowers.3 Earlier knowers of an innovation have more exposure to mass media channels ofcommunication than later knowers.4 Earlier knowers of an innovation have more exposure to interpersonal channels thanlater knowers.5 Earlier knowers of an innovation have more change agent contact than later knowers.6 Earlier knowers of an innovation have more social participation than later knowers.7 Earlier knowers of an innovation have more cosmopolite than later knowers.The knowledge stage of the innovation-decision process is of great value to advertisersbecause at this vulnerable stage of the innovation-decision process, advertisers are able tocreate an impressionable impact on their target audience. Advertisers should focus theirefforts on creating awareness and knowledge when promoting a new product or innovation.Consequences of InnovationsBefore concluding our discussion on the innovation-decision process, it is important toconsider the consequences or changes that occur to an individual or to a social system as aresult of the adoption or rejection of an innovation. Rogers identifies three consequences orchanges:(1) Desirable versus undesirable consequences(2) Direct versus indirect consequences, and(3) Anticipated versus unanticipated consequences.Diffusion research is emerging as a single, integrated body of concepts and generalizations,even though the investigations are conducted by researchers in several scientificdisciplines. -Everett M. Rogers with F. Floyd Shoemaker (1971), Communications ofInnovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach.For the most part, the world of advertising is concerned with the diffusion of innovationprocess in terms of how such research studies can facilitate product adoption and thereforemarket segmentation. But it should be mentioned that additional research exists on thediffusion of innovation theory in other scientific disciplines, such as economic developmentand in the technological sector.23The Process of InnovationIn The Innovative Choice: An Economic Analysis of the Dynamics of Technology, MarioAmendola and Jean-Luc Gafford compare the process of innovation with the diffusion ofinnovation as “the extent and the speed at which the economy proceed to adopt a superiortechnique.” The concern is on how the economy adjusts or `diffuses’ to the new technology.This adjustment or diffusion can be instantaneous or gradual. Amendola explains a `new’,expanded interpretation of the process of innovation has emerged. Less emphasis is on theactual absorption of a given technology, and more importance is placed on the actualprocess through which a new technology is developed step by step. “The economy, in thiscontext, no longer adjusts passively to the technology but becomes the instrument fordetermining the extent, the nature and the articulation through time of the development ofthe technology.” (Amendola, 1988)Although, we are most concerned with how the diffusion of innovation theory relates to thefield of advertising, it is meaningful to give a brief description of other existing research thatis based on and integrates the diffusion on innovation process into its’ study. A slowadvance in the beginning, followed by rapid and uniformly accelerated progress, followedagain by progress that continues to slacken until it finally stops: These are the three agesof…invention…if taken as a guide by the statistician and by the sociologists, (they) wouldsave many illusions.-Gabriel Tarde, The Laws of Imitation, p 127.Five Stages of the Diffusion ProcessIn his book Inventive Activity, Diffusion, and Stages of Economic Growth, Stanislav Gomulkaidentifies five stages of technological growth that any economy in the world can be divided.They are:(1) by and large balanced growth at a low rate,(2) transition phase of gradually increasing the characteristic rate of growth.(Gomulkastates that there are four characteristic rates of growth),(3) high level of roughly semi-balanced growth,(4) transition phase of gradually decreasing characteristic rate of growth,(5) by and large balanced growth at a relatively low rate, possibly close to the rate of growthof the country’s population.The first stage.In this phase of development the technological sector as well as the level of technology arein their “embryonic” stages. Both the share and rate of growth are low. The society isfrequently faced with a great scarcity of primary commodities, living on a low level ofsubsistence, and with a lack of medical facilities (Gomulko 1971). Although the birth rate ishigh, the expansion rate of the technological sector is almost zero. There are two channelsfor diffusion to a less developed country. The first channel for diffusion is the exchange ofknowledge and the second channel for diffusion is innovations from other countries. For24either one of these channels to be utilized, so that the diffusion rate of a less developedcountry expands, is dependent upon two factors:(1) the degree of openness and receptivity from the underdeveloped country, and(2) the rate of growth of exports.The `degree of openness and receptivity’ of an underdeveloped country is influenced bythree main conditions:(1) transportation sectors within the country,(2) communication sectors within the country, and(3) the general education levels of the population.All of these conditions tend to be low in underdeveloped nations. Low levels oftransportation, communication, and education produces a low degree of openness, makingthe less developed country almost closed to the diffusion process. Gomulka summarizesthat the above hypothesis of a low rate of growth during the first stage can be due to thefollowing three main reasons:(1) low rate of growth of the total population,(2) very limited growth of the technological sector,(3) relatively little communication with more advanced countries.The second stage.The rate of growth of the total population gradually begins to accelerate due to increasedknowledge and achievement of a certain level of technology. The increased knowledge andtechnology achievement is due to improvements in food production and medical facilities.”New expanded supply and demand by society necessitates a larger absorption of foreignmadeinnovations and augmentation of the technological sector.” (Gomulka 1971)The third stage.The third stage is a continuation of the growth rate at the end of the second stage. Growthis brought about by the high rate of growth of the technological sector and/or by massivediffusion.The fourth stage.The rapid rate of the third stage decreases due to an exhaustion of one or more of thegrowth rate variables.The fifth stage.The fifth stage is congruent with the growth of the country when it:25(a) is already a part of the technologically leading area of the world,(b) expansion of the economy follows growth of the country’s population. The growth of thecountry’s population is the independent variable, or principal determinant of the former.Just as the adoption process relates to market segmentation, Gomulka presents anexample of how the diffusion process can be applied to the economy and technologicallevels of less developed countries.The New Learning about InnovationMark Dodgson and John Bessant in their book “Effective Innovation Policy: A NewApproach” recognize that `success’ in innovation is not simply a matter of moving aresource from A to B, but “the capability on the part of the recipient to do something usefulwith that resource”, in other words, to innovate effectively. Dodgson and Bessantacknowledge that innovation is not an “instantaneous event, but a time-based processinvolving several stages”. They have identified these stages as:(1) initial recognition of opportunity or need,(2) search,(3) comparison,(4) selection,(5) acquisition,(6) implementation, and(7) long-term use (involving learning and development).Communication for advocacyAdvocacy communication involves organized actions aimed at influencing the politicalclimate, policy and programme decisions, public perceptions of social norms, fundingdecisions and community support and empowerment regarding specific issues. It is ameans of seeking change in governance, power relations, social relations, attitudes andeven institutional functioning. Through ongoing advocacy processes, policy makers andpolitical and social leaders at all levels are influenced to create and sustain enabling policyand legislative environments and to allocate resources equitably.Strengthening an enabling media and communication environmentThis approach emphasizes that strengthening communication capacities, includingprofessional and institutional infrastructure, is necessary to enable:26i) A free, independent and pluralist media that serves the public interest;ii) Broad public access to a variety of communication media and channels,including community media;iii) A non-discriminating regulatory environment for the broadcasting sector;iv) Media accountability systems; andv) Freedom of expression in which all groups are able to voice opinion andparticipate in development debates and decision-making processes.Communication plays a central role in changing the behaviour of individuals and groupswhen combined with the development of appropriate skills and capacities and the provisionof an enabling environment. Communication also plays a key role in behavioraldevelopment, (process of putting habits and attitudes that result in desired / healthybehavior). Communication needs to be understood and used as a process – and not simplya collection of print materials, radio commercials and television ads – to change whatpeople think and do.C4D prioritizes communication systems and processes that enablepeople to deliberate and speak out on issues important to their own well-being. Its role inthis empowerment processes helps distinguish Communication for Development from otherforms of communication, for example, corporate and internal communications.Guiding principles for Communication for developmentC4D (communication for development) is a broad ranging concept based on key principles;these are that· C4D is participatory in all aspects of content production and dissemination· It is communication that originates from the ‘subjects’ of the communication itself,· It is not at its inception mediated, translated or editorialized by external partiessuch as the mass media or intermediaries,· In its distribution it may be repackaged by these parties, but only as a redistributionservice.· It is bottom-up and inclusive.BASIC MODES OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATIONCommunication role is not restricted to media and dissemination—that it is also concernedwith “involving people in the diagnosis of needs and in the design and implementation ofselected activities.” To be effective in that task, a specialist in this field should be familiar27not only with communication do’s and don’ts but should have broad analytical skills andbe able to use communication methods to assess the cultural, political, and social context.A communication specialist, when called in to assist in development projects and programs,should always ask why a certain issue is occurring and what kind of communication isneeded to address it effectively.Development communication is divided into two basic modes, or families’ i.e.· The “monologic” mode, based on the classical one-way communication modelassociated with diffusion, and· The “dialogic”mode, based on the interactive two-way model, associated withparticipatory approaches.The two modes serve different purposes, but they are not mutually exclusive and can oftenbe used in a complementary way.Monologic Mode: One-Way Communication for Behavior ChangeThe monologic mode is linked to the development communication perspective known as”diffusion.” It is based on the one-way flow of information for the purpose of disseminatinginformation and messages to induce change. Its main intentions can be divided into twodifferent types of applications:1. Communication to inform (or simply “information,” and2. Communication to persuade.Communication to inform” typically involves a linear transmission of information, usuallyfrom a sender to many receivers. It is used when raising awareness or providing knowledgeon certain issues is considered enough to achieve the intended goal (for example, informinga community about the activities of a project or informing the public about a reform cominginto effect).In other instances, the dissemination of information is only a temporary stage tobe reached in a longer process aimed at achieving behavior changes. This modality can belabeled “communication to persuade.”Approaches in communication for behavior change use methods and media to persuadeindividuals to adopt specific practices or behaviors. These approaches are frequently usedin health initiatives. Communication for behavior change aims to foster positive behavior;promote and sustain individual, community, and societal behavior change; and maintain28appropriate behavior. Its underlying assumption is that individual attitudes and behaviorscan be changed voluntarily through communication and persuasion techniques and therelated use of effective messages. Since the approaches, methods, and media used for thismodality rely mostly on the one-way model, the mode of referred to as monologiccommunication.Dialogic Mode: Two-Way Communication for Engagement and DiscoveryThe dialogic mode is associated with the emerging participatory paradigm. It is based onthe horizontal, two-way model of communication, creating a constructive environmentwhere stakeholders can participate in the definition of problems and solutions.The main purposes of this model can be divided into two broad types of applications; i.e.(1) Communication to assess; and(2) Communication to empower.This categorization helps one to understand the way in which the ultimate scope of thecommunication interventions shapes the choice of communication approaches, methods,and models of reference. Both of these types of applications take a radical turn away fromthe common conception of communication, since they do not involve any dissemination ofinformation or messages. The scope of the two type of application is often closelyintertwined; with the ultimate use of dialogic communication being to ensure mutualunderstanding and explore a situation, hence becoming the best tool to facilitateempowerment.”Communication to assess” is used as a research and analytical tool thatcan be used effectively to investigate any issue, well beyond those strictly related to thecommunication dimension.The power of dialogic communication is applied to engage stakeholders in exploring,uncovering, and assessing key issues, opportunities, and risks of both a technical andpolitical nature.Take an example such as building a bridge to link two communitiesseparated by the river. A communication-based assessment prior to the project would probethe knowledge, perceptions, and positions of local stakeholders on the intended initiative.Unless probed through two-way communication, the identified technical course mightneglect important aspects that could lead to problems or conflicts, for example by localfishermen who see their livelihoods endangered.This use of two-way communicationengages experts and local stakeholders in the problem-analysis and problem-solving29process leading to change. Active listening becomes as important as talking. In a way, itcould be said that dialogic communication is not used to inform but to truly”communicate”—that is, to share perceptions and create new knowledge.Dialog should be understood as a process where “participants come together in a safe spaceto understand each other’s viewpoint in order to develop new options to address acommonly identified problem. In dialog, the intention is not to advocate but to inquire; notto argue but to explore; not to convince but to discover. Similar notion applies to the othertypology of the dialogic mode, that is, “communication to empower.” When used to facilitatethe active engagement of stakeholders, the dialogic feature of communication enhances thecapacities of all groups, especially the most marginalized ones, and addresses the issue ofpoverty in a community.· Dialogic communication is not only effective as a problem-solving tool, but it alsobuilds confidence, prevent conflicts, and addresses the issue of poverty by engagingthe poorest and most marginal sectors in the process concerning issues of relevanceto them.· By involving the poor in the assessment of problems and solutions, by engagingthem, and not just the experts, in the decision-making process, and by making thevoices of the poor heard, the dialogic mode can address and reduce one keydimension of poverty: social exclusion.The overall goal of the dialogic mode is to ensure mutual understanding and to make thebest use of all possible knowledge in assessing the situation, building consensus, andlooking for appropriate solutions. By facilitating dialog with key stakeholders, this type ofcommunication enhances the analysis and minimizes risks. On the other hand, theprimary scope of the monologic mode emerges especially when information needs to bepackaged and disseminated to address specific needs and gaps.302.2 Features of communication modesMonologic Mode Dialogic ModeCompare andcontrastCommunicationto informCommunicationto persuadeCommunicationto assesCommunicationto empowerMain purpose To raiseawareness orincreaseknowledge ofkey audienceTo changeattitudes andbehaviours ofkey audienceTo asses, probeand analyze thesituationTo involvestakeholders indecision overkey issuesModel ofreferenceOne way model(monologic)One way model(monologic)Two way model(dialogic)Two way model(dialogic)Preferredmethods andmediaPredominantmass mediaPredominantmass mediaWide range ofmethods toinvestigateissueUse of dialogueto promoteparticipationDevelopment is about change and about people. Each of the communication typespresented in table above is a means to bring about change. Methods to achieve change,however, may vary according to the perspective, situation, and overall scope of theinitiative. Even if past experiences indicate that the mere dissemination of informationseldom achieves the intended change, properly packaged message dissemination may beeffective in a number of cases, such as the prevention of the spread of pandemic illnessesor for explaining the benefits of a public reform. On the other hand, two-waycommunication is more indicated in achieving mutual understanding, building trust, anduncovering and generating knowledge, leading to better results.31Community Media and DevelopmentCommunity media is any form of media that is created and controlled by a community,either a geographic community or a community of identity or interest. Community media isa crucial element in development process. The role of any media in promoting good causesis indispensable. However, in some cases, media may fail to play that role. This couldhappen because there are political or financial pressures, or lack of knowledge, interest andunderstanding of certain issues. Even more, they are essential when it comes to givingvoice to particular social groups and communities, notably those disadvantaged. It’s aplatform which enables the “voiceless” to have a “voice”. The media systems usually standin-between public broadcasting and private media outlets, i.e. they often fill the void left bylarger corporate media entities that operate under different imperatives that may notinclude the underrepresented or marginalized populations in a society.Community media exist in many countries in all continents. Community media enablesmarginalized communities to speak about issues that concern them at the local level,creating linkages between development, democracy and community media. This presents asnap-shot of community needs and aspirations and allows a community to map its futureusing the bottom-up approach.More so, community media offers space for creativity and isalso a tool for empowerment. Besides it’s able to integrate different mediums ofcommunication e.g. drama, song and dance, storytelling, puppetry, radio listenershipgroups and community radio stations.Community media can help contextualize national development programs withincommunity frameworks and bring these goals closer to their intended beneficiaries. Inpromoting democratic processes, effective local media can also help people understand thehistory and evolution of oppression or discrimination and give them the necessaryperspective to make rational choices to emerge from it. With this information, people havethe means to participate in democratic processes and shape their own futures locally andnationally. Community Media foster the freedom of expression and information, thedevelopment of culture, the freedom to form and confront opinions and active participationin local life.32Defining Characteristics of community mediaThere are four key characteristics that are common to the community media described.However no one organization can fulfill all these ideals all the time:1. LocalismCommunity media are created primarily with and by residents of a specific geographicplace. They explore local issues. They help define the places where we live and how werelate to one another. They reflect local values and culture. By definition, communitymedia “can’t be outsourced.”2. Diverse ParticipationCommunity media are mission-driven, in service to the broader community. They insiston the inclusion of diverse voices within the community, and their production anddistribution processes emphasize community participation. They seek representation ofthe range of demographics of its citizens – social, economic, ethnic, cultural, political,age – in their programming. And that programming is not merely about the community;it is created in collaboration with the community.3. Storytelling and DeliberationAs both process and content, storytelling is central to community media and can jumpstarta deliberative process among community members. It combats alienation andisolation by allowing audience members to express their story as well as live in someoneelse’s shoes. It allows participants and viewers to derive broader meaning from personalexperience and provides in-depth coverage of issues on an intimate level.4. EmpowermentOne goal of community media is to challenge notions conveyed in mainstream media.Accomplishing this requires putting communication tools in the hands of individuals,sharing access with nonprofessionals, and supporting self-expression and communitybuilding. Community media institutions engage in empowerment in different ways.Many offer training programs to build the capacity of community members to use mediatechnologies while others emphasize economic and workforce development throughskills training and content production. By enabling citizens to make and understandmedia, community media become a tool for personal, community, and ethnic expressionand development. They may even inspire audiences to take action leading to politicaltransformation.33Different Types of Community MediaPromotion of different kinds of community media depends on the particular circumstancesof the different communities. These are examined below.1. Community Radio: As everyone recognizes, rural radio is an especially appropriatetool for reaching large groups, or groups beyond the immediate vicinity. The freeingof the airwaves makes access to radio a strong reality.Community Radio is a third tier of radio, distinct from Public and Commercial Radio.Community Radio stations are locally owned and accountable to their audience.They operate on public service principles for community benefit and are non-profitdistributing. Community Radio stations are run by local people, mostly volunteersand they enable communities to use the medium of radio to create new opportunitiesfor regeneration, employment, learning, social cohesion and inclusion as well ascultural and creative expression.Radio has enormous advantages for community use. The technology offers widechoices to suit different spatial requirements for transmission. It affords easycollection, recording and playback of events and issues. Radio can also cover severalvillages or scattered communities at no extra cost. The low literacy rates also make itstill the most efficient and accessible mass medium.The use of community radio should also be combined with field work to ensure thatcommunication flows in both directions: in this case, radio can both follow andsupport a communication initiative being undertaken at the same time, or it can bemade an integral part of that initiative as a means for allowing people to expressthemselves.2. Newspapers, magazines: Community newspapers and magazines are an importantcomponent of community media. Experience shows that they can be used effectivelyfor mobilisation for development, through organized reading clubs and meetings.However, the generally high illiteracy rate, especially in rural and poor communities,makes print media an ambiguous proposition. Literacy rates are even lower inindigenous languages. However, their use encourages interest in literacy among thenon-literate. Community print materials offer the literate a resource for improvingtheir reading skills. For print media to be most relevant, they must be published inthe local languages.3. Video: By the virtue of being audio-visual, video has strong qualities of effectivenessin imparting knowledge and skills that other media do not have. It facilitates34recording current events and group activities for recall better than do others, and itis thus a medium with greater potential for credibility for non-literate people. Videois recommended strongly to support training, educational and developmentprogrammes.However, as a medium for communities, video has severe limitations. Withoutbroadcasting and production on television through transmitters that reach largeraudiences, video is usually limited to small groups at a time. This means that manyunits would be required to meet the needs of many communities, or even groups inindividual communities at a higher cost. The main consumable, the tapes, is alsocostly. Maintenance also makes extraneous demands.4. Audio tapes: Using audio tapes for community projects has the potential forreaching audiences as groups or as individuals. Their use for group listening,feedback and production is the preferred approach. This creates an atmosphere fordialogue, discussion, and the promotion of understanding and a culture of healthydebate. Audio tapes can be an effective facility for education in a range of issuesfrom health, agriculture, voter or elections awareness to community management.This medium, however, raises some issues pertaining to production and resources.As the community’s needs increase, production on a corresponding scale wouldrequire appropriate facilities, e.g. a studio with more sophisticated equipment.5. Music, drama, and puppets: Most villages have informal or formal groups ofperforming artists. Religious groups such as churches have choirs and some schoolshave drama clubs. Drama groups performing professionally also exist. These formsof media can be popular and facilitate educational programmes of awareness raising,influence behaviour formation and contribute to perception change. However, theyare most beneficial as complementary or supplementary elements. Though liveperformances are limited to one audience at a time, they are effective and encourageinterpersonal encounters and participation. These forms also unearth creativetalents. They can become more widely accessible if performances are produced andbroadcast through other media such as radio, video and audio tapes.6. Community Internet: Community-based applications and the Internet have takenoff with the emergence of easy to installand use email and web-browsing softwarecoupled with growing awareness and reducing costs of Internet access. Unliketraditional media, which broadcast from one source to many listeners, the Internet is35by its nature a two-way interactive medium. It presents exciting new opportunitiesfor Community Media whether as a stand-alone medium or linked to other mediasuch as radio and television. Early community-based Internet projects have provideda platform for local organisations, a gateway to local information, news and listings,and a networking service for groups and individuals.Importance of Community Media (How it changes lives)Community Media has the power to change lives:1. It contributes to social inclusion by reaching hard-to-reach groups throughaccessible broadcasts, training and employment opportunities.2. It promotes Community Cohesion by offering a common platform on which diverseand common interests can be shared and understood.3. It contributes to neighborhood renewal or in development of initiatives by enablingpeople to engage with regeneration initiatives in local communities.4. It encourages volunteering and community participation by involving local people inthe production of programmes and the management and operation of communitymedia projects.5. It promotes lifelong learning through vocational training for people of all ages,backgrounds and abilities.6. It contributes to local democracy by promoting an informed citizenship, facilitatingdialogue between communities and elected representatives and enabling meaningfulparticipation in electoral processes.7. It encourages the expression and dissemination of local culture8. It contributes to media literacy by enabling members of the public to directly engagewith, produce and understand the media.9. It facilitates grassroots access to information communication technologies byenabling local people to use the internet and learn computer literacy skills in friendlyand supportive environments. Community Media projects also enable communitiesto deliver information and programming on new technological platforms likebroadband and wireless technologies.Community Media has a lot to offer to those that participate in it and those who are able tosupport it.36Problems and Challenges of community mediaThe main challenges confronting existing community media, and efforts to initiate newprojects, include the traditional problems of funding, running costs, management, humanresources, and the social environments of the communities. Other issues have to do withthe legal and policy regimes of the countries concerned. These affect the functioning ofmedia and communication and have a bearing on the establishment and operation ofcommunity media as well.One of the difficult social questions that obstruct community media is illiteracy. Theconsequences of this are that print media development is hindered and human resourcesfor producing media messages and adding to creative productions are severely limited.Illiteracy also hampers versatility in the use of new communication technologies bymembers of communities.Information communication technologies for poverty reduction and developmentNew information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become critical enablers forsustained human development. The current wave of globalization – the trend towardsworldwide integration of markets- is spurred by the development of information andcommunication technologies (ICTs), including the Internet, mobile phones and satellitenetworks. Rapid growth of ICT usage in high-income countries is raising concerns about a”digital divide” emerging between rich and poor nations.The Complex Nature of PovertyProgress in understanding of the complexity and interdependence of the causes ofpersistent and widespread poverty offer an entry point for understanding where, and how,ICTs might help address it.It is increasingly clear that some individuals, families, and groups tend to remain inpoverty. In addition, there are, at any given time, significant flows into and out of poverty.Flows into poverty are the joint product of economic decline and the shocks andvulnerabilities particular to the poor. Conversely, flows out of poverty are the result ofsome combination, particular to a countryand time, of economic growth, opportunities37for the poor, and mitigation of the risks and vulnerabilities that the poor particularlyface.The poor, lack not only material and financial resources. They lack opportunities toconvert the resources they do possess (their labor, skills and experience, and thephysical resources at their disposal) into value-creating activity (producing eithercash income or other resources valuable to their particular livelihoods.)They lack information of many sorts and as a result they are information poor.· First, they lack information (about resources, tools, processes) that could helpthem be more productive or about new opportunities to increase their income andimprove their livelihoods.· They lack information about markets and prices and about the availability andreliability of persons and institutions on which they depend in their economicexchanges.· The poor lack communication opportunities vital to their lives and livelihoods. Therural poor in particular, who comprise a substantial majority of the world’s poorest,spend disproportionate amounts of resources that are valuable to them (time andmoney, in particular) for essential communications with family, trading partners andsuppliers of economic necessities, health providers, government officials, and others.· The poor lack access to education and knowledge that could improve their livesand expand their opportunities. They have extremely limited access to theincreasing stock of global knowledge on agriculture, disease-prevention,environmental and resource management. They lack access to innovations inproducts and processes that could increase their efficiency, help themeconomize on their scarce resources, including labor, and make them morecompetitive in local, regional, and global markets. They lack access to theeducational opportunities that are widely recognized to be one of the mostimportant factors in ensuring the transition out of poverty for both individuals andfamilies.38The poor lack access to capital and to financial resources and services that wouldpermit them to enter into new value-creating activities. These impediments arecompounded by weak access by the poor to the legal status and documentation forthemselves and the resources they own (including clear title to their land) that would bothenhance their economic opportunities and ensure full access to government services towhich they are entitled.More generally, the poor lack voice and power in theinstitutions that affect their lives, even those designed to help them. This not onlydeprives them of the opportunity to articulate their specific needs. It also makesthese institutions less responsive and efficient, and more prone to corruption.The poor are prone to environmental shocks (famine, drought or floods, pests, and evenglobal climate change) because they have few or no reserves (food stocks, money, andother valuables) on which to draw when such shocks occur. For these reasons also, andbecause of their poor access to health care, the poor are especially vulnerable todisease. These shocks and vulnerabilities can significantly affect poverty levels in acountry, both by pushing more people into poverty and by blocking the upward rising outof poverty.Seeing Poverty through an Information Communication LensOne of the reasons for the high degree of excitement about the potential of ICT to combatpoverty and promote sustainable development is that it is possible to recognize aninformation, communication or knowledge component of virtually every poverty/development challenge articulated above.It is widely understood that information plays avital role in the proper functioning of markets. Yet information flows are crucial to societymore broadly. When information flows poorly, and the poor lack adequate access toinformation about rights, services, and opportunities,pubic institutions are oftenunresponsive to the needs of the poor, inefficient, and subject to corruption.When the poor lack information and knowledge about basic hygiene and health issues andresources, disease deepens and perpetuates their poverty. When poor farmers lackinformation about crop prices, new farming techniques, and new markets, they remainexcessively dependent on middlemen, unable to adapt to environmental and marketchanges, and unable to get the best yield from their own labor and that of their family.When information flows poorly both within government institutions and between thoseinstitutions and their stakeholders, those institutions remain inefficient and are more likely39to make poor policies. Their lack of transparency makes them more prone to corruptionand improper influence. When government institutions lack access to information abouttheir clients and their needs, and to knowledge about broader social and economicdevelopments, government officials often make short-sighted or self-defeatingdecisions.Economic growth is severely constrained in environments where markets andinstitutions perform poorly because of weak information, communication and knowledgeflows. Where information flows poorly, and where communication is difficult, investmentand innovation are also scarce. Without adequate information and communicationsinfrastructure as well as good physical infrastructure, foreign private investment will belimited.ICT contribution to developmentWhat are ICTS?Information and communication technologies can be defined as ‘electronic means ofcapturing, processing, storing, and communicating information’. ICTs include both theinformation infrastructure -wires, transmitters, computers – and the informationtechnology, i.e. the applications and content that travel through these infrastructure, i.e.ICTs are based on digital information and comprise computer hardware, software andnetworks.Modern ICTs can be described using four characteristics i.e.(1) Interactivity: For the first time ICTs are effective two-way communicationtechnologies.(2) Permanent availability: The new ICTs are available 24 hours a day.(3) Global reach: Geographic distances hardly matter anymore.(4) Reduced costs for many: Relative costs of communication have shrunk to a fractionof previous values.Role of ICTs in DevelopmentGenerally, the role of ICT in development and consequently poverty reduction can be viewedfrom the following three key dimensionsProviding access to relevant information40ICTs can help improve the economic and social situation of people in poverty by enablingthem toobtain relevant information on market prices, weather conditions, medicalassistance, land and political rights as well as welfare or credit schemes;- increase their competitiveness and market access;- Train themselves via e-learning, thus making them responsible for their owndevelopment.Giving a voiceAs a consequence of their poverty, people often lack an effective voice in public life andpolicy. ICTs help:- to increase the voice and participation of the poor in the decision-making processes;- to communities express their cultural identity;- people assert their own rights and interests and pressure decision-makers to bemore responsive to their needs;- to increase the efficiency, transparency and accountability of governments andinstitutions;- to promote local cultures and cultural diversity through local content.Facilitating communication and network buildingBy facilitating a new level of “many-to-many” information, ICTs offer an interactive anddecentralized platform that enables people to- share knowledge and build networks;- promote their interest and rights more efficiently;- influence more effectively, rapidly and collectively political decisions that affect theirlives;- Communicate more effectively, thus enhancing intercultural understanding.41The following section discusses the direct and indirect impacts that access to ICTs can haveon a number of areas that are central for poverty alleviation and human development andindirect effects on economic growth.Direct impact of ICTs on developmentDirect impacts of ICT on poverty reduction take several routes.· Educational aspect. Information and knowledge enable the poor to understand theirown circumstances and to voice their own opinions and needs. ICTs such as radioand television have been effectively used in many countries to reach students in poorrural areas. The Internet provides a virtual classroom in which intense interactivityand the sharing of resources and information take place.· Impact is on health: the most immediate and visible impact that the internet canhave in the poorer parts of the world is on the volume and flow of medicalinformation.· Productivity and income generation. ICTs give micro and small enterprises access tomarket information (faster and cheaper than printed material), input prices andoutput markets and it may strengthen forward linkages to the marketIndirect impact of ICTs on developmentIndirect impacts of ICTs on development have drawn a distinction between ICTconsumption and ICT production (investment in information infrastructures, includingtelecommunications hardware and software production).Production of ICT goods andservices has contributed significantly to the economic success of many developingcountries, (Asian examples). Evidence of the benefits of investments in informationinfrastructure appears conclusive, particularly for telecommunications. The economicbenefits of telecommunications- especially voice and fax communication for business – areconsiderable for individual small and micro-scale businesses in LDC marketenvironments.On the other hand lack of accessible and affordable communication servicesare inhibiting the transmission of market information, preventing interaction betweenproducers.Constraints to the use of ICTs by the poor:1. Lack of human capabilities42Much of the information exchanged by the poor is organic, transmitted throughinterpersonal communication, which does not even require literacy. Telephone, television,radio and the printed media require few formal skills and only mother tongue literacy foreffective usage. Thus, they are likely to be in greatest demand from the majority of illiterateand semi-literate users for the foreseeable future.By contrast, effective use of e-mail and Internet requires not only literacy but languageskills, predominantly the use of English. It also requires technical and computer literacy,i.e. the ability to operate and interact with a computer-based information system. Directaccess to computer-mediated information for the populations of most low developmentcountries is likely to remain with the educated elite unless literacy can be considerablyraised through greater participation in formal schooling at post-primary level. The lack ofskills and human resources may be the greatest barrier for diffusion of ICTs among thepoor.2. Urban-rural inequalitiesFor most people in the developing world, the probability of having access to ICTs dependson location. The disparities in access to ICTs between urban and rural communities areindeed startling, with the rural areas lagging behind.As a result, urban centers represent an overwhelmingly disproportionate share of Internetusers in developing countries. However, the situation is changing: urbanization has beengrowing significantly, and urban populations are forecasted to expand significantly in thenear future.3. Gender inequalitiesGender inequality for ICT access derives from the relatively higher levels of illiteracy amongthe female population and from the lower level of female participation in the formaleconomy. In most developing countries the vast majority of the female labor force remainsconfined to rural areas partaking in predominantly subsistence agriculture, while men tendto dominate in industrial and service-based employment. Women have a number of relativedisadvantages compared to men that inhibit their access to ICTs including the competingdemands on their time both as homemakers and workers.4. AffordabilityFor ICTs to become relevant for poverty reduction they have to be affordable. Neededfinancial resources include those necessary for the ‘supply’ of a technical infrastructure43and those necessary to create ‘demand’ for user technologies, information andcommunication services. Over the long term, ICTs are expected to become cheaper. Theinability of the poor to raise their standard of living and afford to purchase eithercollectively or individually ICTs services is a major barrier.5. ContentSurveys of urban and rural households and of micro and small enterprises show that thepoor favor and trust information sources close to home and those that are applicable totheir existing knowledge base. For small entrepreneurs as well, the most valued sources ofinformation are friends, family, and business networks. By contrast, ICT mediatedinformation often lacks proximity and the element of ‘trust, confidence and security’ that isgained through business networking and personal contacts. ICT-mediated information isalso not easily applicable to the existing local knowledge base.6. ICT applications are technologies and as such cannot solve political or socialproblems that are often at the roots of povertyWhile information and the new communications technologies have a potentially largeimpact on growth and poverty alleviation, their effective use may be constrained by lack ofskills, financial resources and the existence of urban/rural, gender and other inequalities.Local content and developmentLocal content is the totality of the culture, values, heritage materials, and indigenousknowledge of a group of people with common interest in a given locality. Local contentrefers to what a community creates, owns, or adapts in terms of knowledge. It is a vitalplatform for local people to express, share, and communicate locally-relevant knowledge onthe issues that affect their lives. Content creation must follow a bottom-up approach andideas not be imposed on communities.The potentials of local content development are quite indispensable to sustainable nationaldevelopment. Local content is important in any society as it is crucial in bridging the digitaldivide through empowering the people to link and communicate with the rest of the world.It is a powerful force and driver to national development as it is closely tied to humandevelopment and empowerment of local communities. Absence of local content can lead tocapital flight in terms of goods and services purchased from abroad. Harnessing localcontent helps to increase the sense of pride and value to our local languages, culturalheritage and indigenous practices.44In the context of Africa, local content may be taken to refer to among other things: artifacts,traditional medicine, music, arts, handcraft, local attire, etc. Local content is “anexpression and communication of a community’s locally generated, owned and adaptedknowledge and experience that is relevant to the community’s situation. The creation anddissemination of local content reflecting the values, heritage, and experience of localcommunities and culture is imperative for the preservation of cultural diversity. On ageneral note, local content is a useful tool in promoting African languages and a positiveattitude towards the use of technology. Local content, when disseminated widely, allowsmembers of a community to express their values and be identified as unique entity, thusenhancing their political and economic bargaining power.The overall objective of local content development is to promote knowledge creation,preservation, dissemination, and use of locally generated knowledge. Local content is asource of identity and development, and it enables cultures to flourish. More importantly, itprovides the communities with the relevant information necessary for their development.Challenges of Local Content DevelopmentLocal contents are always available but the critical issue is capturing, repackaging, storingand disseminating them to a wider group of users. Content does not flow on its own accord;it needs owners or originators with motivation and innovative mind to create, adapt orexchange it. This has posed a lot of challenges as a result of lack of technical skills neededto capture, repackage, store and disseminate the local content. Some of the reasons for lackof local content as noted by authors include:· Limited financial resources of developing countries for content production;· Inappropriate training opportunities for content creators;· Lack of access to advanced technology (production units, digital cameras, digitalstudios);· Low motivation and commitment at the decision-making level to change thesituation; and· Market forces, which do not encourage diversity.Reasons for lack of local content· Limited financial resources of developing countries for content production;· Inappropriate training opportunities for content creators;45· Lack of access to advanced technology (production units, digital cameras, digitalstudios);· Low motivation and commitment at the decision making level to change the situation· Market forces, which do not encourage diversity.But local talent is never a problem!Role of ICT in Local Content DevelopmentInformation and Communication Technologies, and particularly the Internet, aretransforming all human activities dependent on information. ICTs present newopportunities for individuals and communities to be not only consumers but also producersof information. Through media convergence, ICTs can also build on and integrate thecapacities of other media (e.g. radio and television). This enables low-cost creation, accessand distribution of information, which requires a networked rather than centralizedapproach. In order for content to be relevant for communities there are fundamental factorsthat need to be considered. It is also imperative that local content should be linked todevelopment and how ICT can facilitate this process. It is not about ICT but the use of ICTas enabler for communities to achieve development. Beyond physical access, informationneeds to be timely, retrievable and easily applied by a broad range of users, accessible intheir own languages and consistent with their values.Communication for development encompasses many different media and approaches – folkmedia and traditional social groupings, rural radio for community development, video andmultimedia modules for farmer training, and the Internet for linking researchers,educators, extensionists and producer groups to each other and to global informationsources.Whether villages are connected to the outside world through modern telecommunications,learn about health care from folk proverbs and songs or listen to radio broadcasts on betterfarming practices, the processes are the same – people communicating and learningtogether. (Communication and Development, Food for Agriculture and Organization) TheICT sector will not be directly responsible for a significant number of new jobs, but rather ispositioned as an enabler of increasing competitiveness in other sectors, as a source offuture export earnings, and as a key enabler to achieve development goals. (National ICTApproaches: Selected Case Studies).46Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have enabled various information orcontent to be placed over internet in order to share it all over the world, thus opening thedoors for content globalisation. Today, huge information is available over the internet intext or document format like market prices, poverty alleviation government schemes,hospital, weather, educational institute’s directory, telephone directory and much more.While urban citizens increasingly upload content available with them due to greaterawareness on part of urban organisations, what is still ignored or not available is localcontent available with and for rural communities.Indigenous knowledge as local contentInformation and communication technologies (ICTs) are not really about the computer, theInternet, and telephone lines. They are about information and communication. This makesthe issue of content a very important priority as we try to use the new technologies forcommunity development and alleviation of poverty. Indigenous knowledge is part andparcel of the culture and history of any local community.Development agencies “need to learn from local communities to enrich the developmentprocess”. Indigenous knowledge also affects the wellbeing of the majority of people indeveloping countries. Some 80% of the world’s population depends on indigenousknowledge to meet their medicinal needs and at least 50% rely on indigenous knowledge forfood supply. Indigenous knowledge is indeed the cornerstone for building a unique identityand ensuring coherence of social structures within communities.Because indigenous knowledge is mostly stored in people’s minds and passed on throughgenerations by word of mouth rather than in written form, it is vulnerable to rapid change.Development processes like rural/urban migration and changes to population structuremay contribute to loss of indigenous knowledge. Indigenous knowledge faces extinctionunless it is properly documented and disseminated. Communities need to preserve andmanage their own local knowledge in an economically viable and sustainable manner andso create a legacy for future generations. This can be done through local content creation.Types of communication toolsGenerally, we can distinguish between several types of communication tools including;· Interpersonal communication tools47· Mass media (newspapers, radio, television)· Traditional media (storytelling, theatres, songs),· “Group” media (video, photographs, posters)· Community media such as short-range rural radio broadcasting.The following describes some of the tools and techniques one may wish to use in acommunication strategy. It may be useful to remember that often the use of more than oneapproach, tool or medium can strengthen your approach so these should not be viewed inisolation or as independent of one another.Interpersonal communication toolsGROUP DISCUSSION AND DEBATEGroup discussion and debate are widely used. They are so common that we seldom think ofthem as communication tools. But if we do, we can greatly enhance their utilization. Ascommunication tools, they should support a given activity (in this case, generally acommunity meeting), in order to reach a specific objective. Usually, the objective willconsist of raising an issue publicly, stimulating awareness and preparing for otheractivities.A large group discussion is not always the best tool though important to facilitateparticipation. Often, only certain categories of people will talk, offer their arguments or askquestions. In many settings, young people or women will not talk in front of the older men.And of course, many topics cannot be discussed openly in public.The effectiveness ofdiscussion and debate resides in its complementarity with other activities, for examplediscussions with smaller and more focused groups.VISIONING SESSIONSUsually, these sessions are organized during a public meeting where resource persons talkabout a given issue, and where, after the projection, a discussion is organized. This tool isvery effective in raising awareness on a specific issue, or to introduce knowledge orbehavior elements, but as a single activity, it has little potential to stimulate participationto work out some solutions.Again, the effectiveness of the tool is linked with theorganization of other activities, with smaller and more focused groups.48FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONSA focus group discussion is held with a small number of people (7–10) who share similarcharacteristics. The information obtained through this technique is considered valid forother community members who demonstrate those characteristics.The discussion evolvesalong the lines of a discussion guide, prepared before hand, but the questions are openended.The idea is to enable every participant to express his/her opinions on a giventopic.In many cases, a focus group discussion can also evolve in a strategy-developingactivity, with each participant contributing not only to the identification of a problem,causes or solutions, but also in a strategy which could facilitate community participation tothe resolution of that problem and the experimentation of the potential solutions.PRA/PUP TECHNIQUESParticipatory rural/urban appraisal techniques are well documented and used in the field.The exercises can include the use of different techniques like collective mapping of the localarea, developing a time line, ranking the importance of problems inside a matrix, wealthranking, doing observation walks, using Venn diagrams, producing seasonability diagrams,etc.As communication tools, they give us a lot of information in a limited time span aboutthe characterization of natural resources in a given area and basic social, economic andpolitical information, in order to plan a development or research project. As such, they arepowerful tools for facilitating the participation of community members. But as mentionedearlier, they can also be used restrictively, when the different techniques are not fully in thehands of the participants and remain techniques used by the research team only to gatherinformation for their own purposes.The main idea in using PRA is to collect information quickly with the participation ofcommunity members and to share it so that everyone becomes empowered by thatinformation and can participate better in the analysis and decision-making processes.When this does not happen, and when researchers or development practitioners go backwith the information without nurturing this empowerment process, the technique is notapplied as it should. In fact, such a process can be detrimental because researchers andpractitioners then think that they are doing participatory work, when, in fact communitymembers are only “being participated”.49ROLE-PLAYINGRole-playing can be a very interesting way to facilitate participation in a small group,identify attitudes and collect views and perceptions. In a role-play, two to five people take aspecific identity and play the interaction between the characters. It is interesting when thesituation asks for one character to make a case before the other ones or try to influencethem.As an example, one character could take the role of a researcher coming to thecommunity, and another would play a community member. Each would simulate asituation in which the researcher engages in a dialogue with the community member toidentify her communication needs regarding a specific natural resource managementinitiative.After the play, a discussion follows. Each participant explains what happens inher group and how she felt in the guise of her character interacting with the othercharacter. The facilitator underlines the main ideas related to the topic of discussion andlinks the exercise with the topic of discussion. Afterward, the participants and thefacilitator evaluate if they reached the objective of the activity.VISITS, TOURS, WORKSHOPS AND EXHIBITIONSHome visits are an excellent way to raise awareness on a given topic and to collect the viewsof people on a given problem. Often, people who will not speak openly in a communitymeeting, or who will not participate in it, will be more at ease to share views andinformation in the context of their home or their field.In the context of rural poor, it is oftenmore effective when contact farmers instead of the research team itself make the visits, orwhen contact farmers accompany the research team.Tours and visits by farmers to otherfarmers are useful to demonstrate some solutions, which have been used in other settings,and also to raise the motivation to try them out and experiment with them. But to be moreeffective, they should be prepared by the farmers who are going to visit, after manydiscussions on the problems they face and the solutions they could implement, instead ofhaving farmers participate in a tour by itself.The organization of a workshop on a giventopic is useful to present and discuss specific technologies, which can support solutions toa given problem, or to assemble similarly minded people in order to develop a commonstrategy. It is however often more effective regrouping resource persons and collaboratorsfrom the community than community members themselves. Farmers often will not feel atease in the context of a workshop given in the city, and the poorest and more marginalizedpeople certainly will not come. So attention must be paid to the issue of who is at ease withthe formula and who is not.50Mass” media toolsRURAL RADIOAs everyone recognizes, rural radio is an especially appropriate tool for reaching largegroups, or groups beyond the immediate vicinity. Many producers working with rural radioare aware of participatory communication and will steer clear of the conventional”journalistic” approach. For example, they will attempt to include discussion panels in theirbroadcasting, and will do their best to make local voices heard.There are two importantprovisos, however, for using radio successfully: first, it is important to enlist a producer (orthe broadcast authorities) in the initiative and work with her in planning the entirecommunication process.This means an ongoing cooperative relationship, and not just occasional requests for help.Maintaining such a relationship is not always easy and requires constantattention.Secondly, it will be necessary to put together the funding needed to produce thespots or broadcasts (local FM stations often charge less than others), or to seek anexemption from the ministry or agency responsible. For these reasons, radio is not used aswidely as it could by communicators working with participatory approaches involvingspecific community groups.The use of rural radio should also be combined with field workto ensure that communication flows in both directions: in this case, radio can either followand support a communication initiative being undertaken at the same time, or it can bemade an integral part of that initiative as a means for allowing people to expressthemselves.LOCAL PRESSLocal press is of course not an interactive medium. But it can greatly assist the efforts of aparticipatory development initiative, by informing the community or targeted decisionmakers on the evolution of the initiative. Again, collaboration with a journalist at thebeginning of the initiative may develop into a partnership, while occasionally requesting theparticipation of a journalist may be considered a demand of services.TELEVISIONTelevision is not used the way it could mostly because of the costs involved. In somecountries where it is well-developed, community television can host debates andinterventions, giving them the reach that working with small specific groups cannot have.51But this is seldom the case.In other countries, there is sometimes the possibility to connectwith the producer of development programs and use television to illustrate the realization ofa given community initiative, thus influencing other communities to embark on such aventure. But again, this is not very common.There is a lot of potential though to usetelevision in a participatory way by relying on community television viewing and discussionclubs. Experiences in India and Africa have been quite successful in using that tool. Butagain, costs have made it unsustainableMEDIA, GENDER AND SOCIETYThe issue of gender and the media can be understood at 2 levels: the participation ofwomen vis-a -vis men in decision-making and expression in the media and secondly,representation or portrayal of women vis-à-vis men, and gender relations in the media.GENDERGender is perhaps the basic category we use for sorting human beings and it is a key issuewhen discussing representation. Essential elements of our own identity and the identitieswe assume other people to have, come from concepts of gender what does it mean to be aboy or girl.It is the way in which society assigns characteristics and social roles to womenand men. The society then determines or defines what is being male/man orfemale/woman. This in turn determines what women or men are allowed to do or not todo. Gender is therefore not biological but instead refers to the social roles and relations.It is therefore not universal: as what is expected in one community may not be expected inanother. Gender is learnt and therefore changeable. Essential elements of our own identityand the identities we assure other people to have, come from concepts of gender. Manyobjects, not just humans, are represented by the media as being particularly masculine orfeminine particularly in advertising. People grow up with an awareness of what constitutes”appropriate” characteristics for each gender.THE MEDIAThe media do not merely represent, they also recreate themselves and their vision of theworld as desirable. What they produce is chosen, not random, and not neutral, not withoutconsequence.52The events and issues that become news each and every day go through a process ofselection. News is a choice, an extraction process, saying that one event is more meaningfulthan another event. The very act of saying that mean’s making judgments that are basedon values and based on frames (mental structures that shape the way we see the world).The media define their role as;1. To inform2. To educate3. To entertainThe radio, television and newspapers give us information through news, current affairsprograms and talk shows. They also entertain through television soaps, films, game shows,music and sitcoms. It is through advertisements on radio, television and in the newspapersthat we know about goods and services for sale. The media also see their key role in anysociety as a ‘watchdog’ of the government and all entities to ensure accountability in asociety in the public’s interest. The media do this by providing information that is collectedand edited based on the media guiding principles of accuracy, fairness and balancedrepresentation.The media’s ability to carry out this role depends greatly on whether themedia operate within political and legal environments which enable free speech, reasonablyunfettered access to information, free media, and economic and political environmentswhich encourage and promote the development of a diversity of media.Because the process collecting, editing and choosing what news is not purely objective,media and communications researchers and analysis have identified several other key rolesthe media play in any society:1. Shape public opinion and attitudes.2. Determine the public discourse and thereby shape our political cultural andeconomic priorities.3. Influence public policy through the news agenda.4. Reinforce or challenge gender, racial and other stereotypes and norms.5. Serve as the channel through which policy makers communicate to the public6. Media can act as a catalyst for social change through coverage of injustices andthe marginalization of populations in a society that often have little access toexpression in the public sphere. In other words, the media can give to those whooften find their voices marginalized.53TYPES OF MEDIAAccording to Wikipedia, the media refers to various aspects. In communication, it rangesfrom the recording media, print media, electronic media and published media1. MASS MEDIAMass media is the term coined in the 1920s to denote that section of the media specificallyconceived and designed to reach a very large audience ( typically at least as large as thewhole population of a nation state). ( Wikipedia)Mass Media are the channels of communication through which messages flow, produced bya few for consumption by many people Newspapers, magazines and the broadcast mediumsof television and radio fall into this category. Mass media is often general in its content inorder to cater for a diverse audience. Mass media view audiences as both consumers ofinformation and of goods and services. Advertising is essential to the sustainability of themass media. Mass media can be owned and operated the state, public or private interests.(WACC)2. COMMUNITY MEDIAAccording to WACC, these are limited to certain geographical areas and targeted at smallergroups of people. It caters for people in towns, rural area; close-knit communities whichseek to keep themselves informed on issues of interest. In this kind of media, there is moreroom for people within a local community to participate in the governance and editorialoperation unlike in the mass media where the control of information and messages isvested in the hands of the media practitioners,3. NEW MEDIAThis is the term used to refer to the new information and communications technologies(NICTs) that include web sites, web portals, e-mail news alerts etc. The main stream mediahave web based editions of their information and news products and NICTs has also openedways for civil society, special interest groups, as well as individuals to create their own sitesfor dissemination information and viewpoints, outside of the mainstream media sites. Thegreatest challenge surrounding the use of new media is the accuracy and credibility of theinformation.54Gender roles are not biologically determined, but are socially constructed by culture. Mostof the behaviour associated with gender is learned rather than innate. People learn whatsorts of behaviour and personality are regarded in their cultural context as appropriate formales or females.2.8.4 Representation of gender rolesPortrayal of men and women in the media is largely traditional and stereotype.Within cultures, Chandler points out that masculinity and femininity may be defineddifferently by various groups, in particular according to ethnicity, age, social class andsexuality. However there is cultural prevalence’s of traditional gender stereotypes in whichmen are seen as seeking achievement and dominance while women are compliant andsupportive.Femininity is associated with traits such as emotional, prudence, cooperation; acommunal sense and compliance.Representation of women across all media tend tohighlight the following:· Beauty· Size/physique· Sexuality· Emotional· RelationshipsAccording to Meehan, good women are presented as submissive, sensitive anddomesticated while bad women are rebellious, independent and selfish. Women are oftenrepresented as being part of a context (family, friends, and colleagues) and working orthinking as part of a team. In drama, they tend to take the role of helper or objective,victim hood (passive rather than active)Masculinity tends to be associated with such traits as rationality, efficiency, competition,individualism and ruthlessness.Representation of masculinity or men across all mediatends to highlight the following;· Strength – physical and intellectual· Power· Sexual attractiveness· Physique· Independence55Male characters are often represented as isolated, as not needing to rely on others. If theycapitulate to being part of a family, it is often part of the resolution of a narrative, ratherthan an integral factor in the initial equilibrium. It is interesting to note that the malephysique is becoming more important a part of representations of masculinity. As mediarepresentations of masculinity become more specifically targeted at audiences withproduct promotion in mind, men are encouraged to aspire to live like the role models theysee in magazines. Increasingly, men are finding it as difficult to live up to their mediarepresentations as women are to theirs. Men heroes on TV are physically strong,aggressive, assertive, takes initiative, independent, competitive and ambitious. It is nowonder that boys try to emulate such characteristics through action and aggression. Boyshave even copied the WWF wrestling matches and at one time it was reported some boyhad killed his classmate while trying to emulate one of his wrestling heroes2.8.6 Media portrayal of Occupations by genderThere are differences in how roles are portrayed. Men are portrayed more in employment,tend to have a higher income and less likely to be shown at home. They are shown ashusbands and fathers as well as athletes, celebrities and tycoons. Women are often shownon TV in traditional roles such as housewives, mothers, secretaries and nurses. Maritalstatus is revealed more in women than men.Various studies on the subject show that themedia tend to project mostly negative images of women that tend to perpetuate thenegative stereotypes. These may be anything from poverty-stricken dependents, sexobjects, and victims (of war, poverty, hunger and violence) and suffering from low selfesteem.Many television commercials manipulate the female image in order to persuadewomen to buy the product being advertised. The most common of these are women ashousewives and women as mothers. Many of these images are not necessarily negative inthemselves. It is the imbalance and the failure to project images of women asprofessionals and successful businesswomen in their own right that is the problem.(Kamweru).The portrayal of women’s work such as housework and family care is projectedas trivial and inconsequential. The frequent repetitions give out the message that theplace of women is in the home, especially the kitchen.Men are portrayed as strong,successful, forceful, self-reliant and dominating. In contrast, what emerges as women’smost common traits are meekness, gullibility, weakness, submission and lack ofconfidence? Another popular created image is that of women as seekers of beauty toplease their men. This is evident in almost all advertisements of beauty products, which56urge women to buy products that will attract many by her improved looks after using theproducts.A survey done on women in advertising in 1992 segmented the findings into threecategories:1. A woman’s goal in life is to attract and retain her man. This conclusion was drawnfrom the fact that women in advertising were always young and attractive and werefrequently depicted as sex object.2: Women’s body parts such as shoulder, hands and feet are displayed to advertise beautyproducts which, according to the ads, will enhance their beauty for a night out with theirmen.3: Advertising defines woman’s relationship to man primarily in terms of the appealfeminine attractiveness has for man.There is a lot of gender stereotyping in TV advertisements. Men are portrayed as moreautonomous, in more occupations and most likely advertising cars or business products.They are more likely to be shown outdoors (ENO advert, Dettol) and in business settings.Portrayal of Men in commercials1. The Businessman and decision maker- Men portrayed as independent, intelligentand involved in a career i.e. Hedex, Eno. They are the frequent fliers. In the Safaricomadvert , it is shown that the man at sea asks his son to Sambaza him credit and the boymakes the decision to sell eggs to get enough money. Note that the man does not consulthis wife2. Income earner- Rich One- Shows where the man banks his money or sends moneyhome (MPESA). He is always going to work, owns the big car and house and property (Housing Finance).3. Sportsman- male oriented sports are sponsored and advertised i.e. football byCocacola, Tusker, Basketball by Sprite, Marlboro. Rarely will you see any woman’s sportbeing advertised e.g. netball.4. Scholar- reading newspapers5. Preferred gender- the commercial on Telkom Phone card- “It’s a boy”576. Sharp Observer- The man is allowed to have many women e.g. trust Condom,Smirnoff7. Incompetent House helperGenerally, in most commercials, the man or boy child is shown as being the active onewho benefits from use of the products eg Dettol Cool advert, Blue Band, BrooksideIn thesame way, when adverts feature boys and girls, the boys tend to be more dominant,aggressive, active and discontented e.g. Blue band adverts. They engage in traditional maleactivities such as sports, travel and causing trouble. The girls are often shown as moredomesticated and either heading, talking on the phone, playing mum ( Roiko advert) orhelping with housework.Women are mostly advertising domestic products.Portrayal of women in Commercials1. Homemaker and caring partner- Housemaker and caring partner, obsessed withcleanliness, cooking- Royco, Kasuku2. The gossiper- Kencell, Safaricom3. Sex Symbol and seducer- Advertisements do not show women as individuals but asmindless, sexy and beautiful bodies, scantily dressed, gyrating in sexy moves. Note that itsWomen’s bodies that are used to advertise cars4. Sex – used to sell make-up, beauty and personal products5. Women portrayed as unemployed, low income earners, idle decorative roles6. Fashion- Women copy the fashion as advertised in the media. They go to greatlengths to strive to fit in the popular images, body sizes and fashion trendsVoice over represent the programmes interpretation of what is seen: these are voices ofauthorityChildren advertising and Gender RolesA study carried out to promote healthy families through the wise use of media revealed thefollowing:· Television provide children with wealth of opportunity to observe social behaviourand gender roles for e.g. how boys behave, how girls behave, what toys to play with, whatto wear, games to play and what to eat.· Once children are settled into awareness, they are more likely to identify with themodel in the commercials and copy behaviour. Given the many number of advertisements58aimed at children, any stereotyping of gender behaviour can either impact positively ornegatively on children’s view about himself or herself or what she/he is capable of.· Children between ages 2 and 11 watch over 20,000 TV advertisements per year(Scheneider, 1989)· Gender bias favors boys than girls in advertisements. Girls are morel likely to showinterest in boys’ products than boys in girls’ products. (Humes, 1983)Advertisers favour using boys even in commercials where gender neutral products arefeatured. Either boys or girls are used together or only boys are shown (Smith, 1994)Some typical gender roles stereotypes that can found in commercials aimed at childrenare:· Commercials with boy models are found to feature more away from home setting· Commercials with girls models are found to be set at home· Most boys are shown in anti social behaviour· Girls in most commercials show only socially acceptable behaviour.· Girls are tied with passive activity unlike boys with physical activity.Programme TypesMorley shows that male prefer factual programmes such as news, current affairs anddocumentaries while women prefer fictional programmes including romantic fiction.Women watch romantic fiction to escape from their work inside and outside the home.Thus you will find women watching soaps e.g. desperate housewives and even identifyingwith the characters.A research carried out in Canadian Television Network news examinedboth the presence and the roles of women and found the following:1. Women appear most frequently in news programmes as anchors than asreporters and list often as people interviewed.2. When women are interviewed, they appear proportionately less often than men asexperts or as a central figure in a story, and proportionately more often as people “at thescene of the even”3. Women tend to appear less often than men in “hard news” stories and in nationaland international news stories. This difference however is not consistent across all studiesof news programming.In 1990 Canadian Television carried out a research which studied all television dramaprogrammes, not just those in prime time. Significantly more female characters were59found to appear in daytime programming than in prime time, 43% versus 34% there werealso differences among types of drama, with “action drama” having the smallest proportionof female characters 30% female or less, and sitcoms, soaps and teleromans having thehighest proportion typically around 45% female.Mass media acts as an agent ofsocialization together with family and peers. We learn to be male or female and TV hasunfortunately been presenting powerful, attention grabbing images of gender. It has beennoted that many boys are spending more time with male role –models on TV than theirown fathers.It is undeniable that the media shapes our conceptions of what it means to bemale or female. We encounter many different male and female role models in the course ofday’s media consumption.It is therefore important that the media create balanced and realistic images of women andgive them so much media visibility as enjoyed by men. At another level, an increasingnumber of women are reading the newspapers, watching television and listening to theradio.The picture that emerges, even from a casual glance in the media especiallynewspapers, is that majority of women are uninterested and uninvolved in political affairsand developments, the economy and other societal issue. In fact, the content of generalinterest and business section of newspapers and magazines are often dominated by men’saffairs. Women are under represented in newspapers and magazines (except in women’smagazines) and it would seem as if their interests are limited to beauty and fashion.Women Media UsageDespite the advancements that women have made in the economic and home fronts, theiruse of media continues to be hampered by 2 main factors; low purchasing capabilities andlanguage.A great majority of women in Kenya live in the rural areas and yet another great numberlive in the slums of the cities and towns. There, they eke out a living doing variouseconomic activities. The common thread among them all is that they get little from theirefforts as they are caught up in the malaise that has but the whole country.Their prioritiesof use for the little money they will get will be feeding their families, providing shelter forthem and educating their children. Reading newspapers or buying a radio/TV set is noteven among their list of priorities.It is only when the economic base of these women isstrengthened that they can begin to think about media and start to benefit from them.LANGUAGE60Media researchers have cited the issue of language as one hindrance to women access tomedia. Low levels of illiteracy mean that women will not buy newspapers and if they do,they may not draw maximum benefits from them because of the language used. This, theresearchers say, is especially so in regard to business pages in newspapers that are said,use very technical language little understood by the common person.Another aspect of thisis the question of who is addressed by the media. Very often, one comes across headlinesand phrases like “Farmers And Their Wives Advised” while it has been proven that womenare responsible for 80% of subsistence farming in Africa. In this regard it would actuallybe more accurate to say “Farmers And Their Husbands” while using the term generally(Esther Kamweru pg. 73 Media Culture; Performance in Kenya).Examples of thisabound in the media where views about issues are collected from the ordinary man in thestreet. It’s mainly men who are interviewedGender biases within the mediaWithin the media, gender inequalities, biases and prejudices show themselves in thefollowing ways:Opportunities in the workplace- It is noted that the top management in themedia is still male dominated Women often comprise the rank and file of journalists andpresenters in the print and broadcast media but few are in the topleadership. It is notedthat society is still dominated by men; Men dominate TV production and thusunconsciously reproducing a traditional masculine perspective.Equal professionalopportunity – When it comes to division of labour and assignment of duties, womenreporters are often assigned to health, education, and social issues, while men are giventhe political and economic assignments which are seen as part of the career path to senioreditorial and media management positions.What is newsworthy is seen through genderedlens i.e. headline aerials are hard issues while soft issues are shunted to special andsupplementary segments of the media.Who speaks in the media -If we read, listen to andwatch those who are speaking in the media, those who are quoted in stories on events ofthe day, the majority are men, although women and men live in the societies reported onand both have views on the events and issues. Women are made ‘invisible’ by the media’somission of their voices and images.Gender stereotypes – When women do appear in the media, they most often areportrayed as sex objects, beauty objects , as homemakers, as victims or they become61front-page and headline news when they engage in activities which are no in line withsociety’s prescription of what women should and should not do e.g.WambuiOtienoMbuguaWhat is considered newsworthy -News on the violations of women’s human rightsand discrimination against women are few and far between. When the media does covergender issues such as violence, sexual and reproductive health, women in decisionmakingthese articles are often confined to special pages and segments in the media andtagged as women issues, rather than being placed on the news pages as issue of concernto everyone.Invisible women: -Certain categories of women receive even less attention in the media,such as elderly women from minority ethnicities and religious groups, the working class,and women with different sexual orientations.While the media worldwide fight tenaciously to guard, protect and obtain legally the rightto be free from government censorship, free from political and economic interests andcontrols, the media has been unable to detect, analyze and change alone, the genderbiases, prejudices and inequalities that influence and impact on its operations andcontent.Gender biases and prejudices in the media emerge through the choices mediamanagers, advertisers, and media professionals) editors, journalists, sub-editors, newphotographer etc) make each day. Decisions about who will be promoted, who will not,what will make news, what will not, who will be interviewed who will not are decisionsaffected by media professionals beliefs about where women and men should be in society.CONCLUSIONThe media play a crucial role in influencing opinion, shaping attitudes and formulatingpolicy. It has the capacity to help correct prevailing negative gender imbalances andportrayals of women, which in turn will see society, sit up and look at women morepositively. In regard to women, the media needs to give more coverage as well as a correctand positive portrayal of women. This means integrating women and issues central towomen in their daily bulletins so that women cease to be mere spectators and indeedbecome equal participants in society. This calls not only for a change of attitudes among62the male editors in Kenya’s newsrooms but also an increase of women employed asjournalists.Perhaps it is high time actors in the media industry are sensitized so as to embracegender-neutral language because they are undermining women by default. Activistsshould also lobby for more gender sensitive communication rules. Since the media playsa cardinal role in communication, media practitioners must make it their duty to lead inobjective portrayal of women and their true contribution to human endeavors. It isunacceptable that media should perpetuate perspectives which reinforce the romantic andreactionary view of women. Media practitioners who also wear the hat of educators shouldplay a more effective role in helping shed off the obviously negative aspects of socialengineering which disadvantages the girl child and women. There are numerous successstories of women who the media could project to society.For gender and feminist activists, the media should be1. A medium through which messages are transmitted through editorial content,images and adverts. The messages can either reinforce or challenge gender stereotype andsex- based discrimination2. media can also be a channel for putting women’s rights and gender equality on theagenda of public policymakers. The media can hold the government accountable to manyinternational and regionals womens rights conventions and instruments that have beensigned.3. Media should respect women’s and men’s human rights. Media Institutions shouldnot practice sex based discrimination.63REFERENCES:1. Kamweru Esther, Women and Media, Media Culture and Performance in Kenya,Copy Right 20002. http://www.ippmedia.com/ipp/guardian/2006/04/19/64551.html4 http;//www.mediaknowall.com/gender.html5 The Kenya Times Opinionhttp:www.timesnews.co.ke/19may07/nwsstory/opinion1.6 Humes , S. “Fast food caught in the middle: but chains can lean to boy orientedpromos” advertising age. 8,pp, S12,S227 Schender, C. Children’s television; how it works and its influence on children,Lincolnwood; NTC Business books 1989.8 Smith , lois J. a content analysis of gender differences in children’s advertising” Journalof broadcasting and electronic media. Spring, 1984,p 3239 Nyamorata Tom et. Al. , Group presentation in a Gender and Media class, 1999: Thereis an Extensive Gender Bias in Commercial. Discuss10Chandler, Daniel, 1998, note on television and gender roles, (www document) URLhttp://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Modules/TF33120/gendertv.html

x

Hi!
I'm Gerard!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out