Most people argue that education hastwo essential goal in society. One is to enable and prepare children for theirfuture roles or to nurture and develop the talents of children.
Social class can have a significantimpact on a child’s quality and goal in education. This might be becausechildren from upper and middle-class families can afford a better-qualityeducation in private institutions. They are also able to access different partsof the education system to their benefits.
(Walkup,2011). Whereas, children fromlower social class who are entitled to free school meals (FSM)- a measure forsocial class and poverty are 17 per cent less likely to achieve good grades bythe age of 11. This gap continues to increase in secondary schools wherechildren receiving (FSM) are 26 per cent likely to achieve 5 A* to C and 18 percent of them going into higher or further education. (Symaco)With more jobs requiringeducational attainments, individuals from low socioeconomic groups may find itdifficult to obtain a role in society. Plato divided the soul into three andthe nature of the soul is presented in an illustration of a story of a charioteerwith two horses to control.
One horse is black and symbolizes the bronze soul. This soul acts on desire and appetites, whichinclude food, warmth and pleasure. Their roles for the state consist of labourers,farmers and craftsmen. This soul is similar to lower or working class socialgroups and the roles they have in today’s society.
The other horse is white andrepresents the silver soul. This soul is described to be courageous and spirited.This element of the soul is represented by the noble white horse on the right.
Thesepeople are auxiliaries who are responsible for defending the state. Lastly, thecharioteer represents the gold soul. They are responsible for ruling the stateand controlling both the souls as they possess reason and wisdom which is whythey are regarded as philosopher-kings. Plato saw education for futureroles in the state in accordance to an indidviuals soul.Gender is another is another factorthat could influence the goal of education for young people.
For centurieswomen have been marginalised and regarded as second-class citizens. It was onlyduring World War II that women were allowed to work in men’s ‘ jobs, while they were at war. Educationalso began to change as legislations such as the sex discrimination of 1975 wasintroduced to protect men and women from discrimination in employment or education.It was later reformed into the Equality Act 2010 which also included thirteen otherprotected characteristics. A research carried on 5 year olds found that girls ‘outperformed’boys with 78 per cent of girls being able to hold a pencil and write recognisableletters in comparison to 62 per cent of boys. In the Greek society of Plato and Aristotle’stime women has very little rights and were expected to be obedient subordinatebeings to their husbands and fulfil their roles as housewives and mothers.
Plato,in the Republic argues that women should be able to undertake the same roles asmen if they show the same capabilities as men. Plato said “then the women has equally with theman the qualities which make a guardian” (Tuana) Plato’s notions have a significantlink with the ideas that modern day UK education polies are enforcing. As both believethat women should be educated the same and receive the equal preparation forfuture roles (Tuana, 1994). The student of Plato, Aristotle returns women totraditional roles in society.
The beliefs of Aristotle regarding educating womenare significantly different to what modern day UK policies are trying to implement.Aristotle stated, “as regards the sexes, the male is by nature superior and thefemale inferior, the male ruler and female subject” (Aristotle polics 2) Healso advised that women be regarded lower than men but higher then slaves inthe social hierarchy. Jean-Jacques Rousseau is considered one of the keyenlightenment philosophers. Rousseau’s views on educating women are similar toAristotle, as they both share the idea that women’s roles in society is tocater and obey men. (ROUSSEAU) The other goal of education is to nurturethe talents and interests of young people.
During the mediaeval times childrenwere viewed as sinful creatures that needed to be disciplined. People’sattitudes towards children’s education was no better as knowledge was acquiredthrough books and memorisation. It was not till John Locke challenge theattitudes and stated “children are to be treated as a rational creatures” ( Lock,2012: 109) He also disagreed with beating andcapital punishment as they are not fit to be used in education and emphasisedthe importance of relationship between tutors and parents this is alsoprojected in modern day education policies such as parents evening whichprovide parents with the opportunity to observe children levels in education. John he described the mind as Tabula Rasertranslating to blank state in relation to gender locks police were similar toPlato’s as he believed that boys and girls should be educated but definitelyexcepted for girls to be educated only for roles allocated to them on thematter of who should be fund from the education of young people lock thoughtthat it was the parents responsibility to make sure the children gained a goodeducationDo you Jacaruso also had similarbeliefs on how children should be treated they both had child centred approachin education and raising children and young adultsSo thought it was the parentsresponsibility for funding their sons education in his book emile which talksabout the way children specifically everyman should be raised and educated youalso wrote a chapter about Sophie explaining how to raise every girl on being asuitable wife material for Emileshare many similar views on theway education should be and who foundthem they both have the idea that education should be playful age-appropriateand not strict they also both share the believe that parents being responsibleto fund the children’s education if this belief was implemented in modern dayeducation policy there could be a division between division and socialinequality concerned who can and cannot afford to educate the children whichcould result in predetermined roles from birth in connection to their parentsincome. Thenational curriculum is an important legislation that was passed by thegovernment in 1989, as a guide for teachers and educators on what students areexpected to learn and how the learning is taught.
It also ensured that “pupilsreceived a broad and balanced curriculum” (Walkup.34)Thenational curriculum embarked on maintaining same subjects, same level andteaching in every school. It introduced tests to as part of the curriculum toassess the level or stage of learning that children were at.
According toWalkup this could either motivated or discourage a child’s attitude towardslearning. The curriculum upheld a significant focus on the three core subjects(Maths, Science and English). Whereas, subjects such as Arts, Music, IT andDrama were given less time in comparison to the core subjects. This did notgive children sufficient amount of time to be creative and develop a personalinterest. This UK education policy could be criticised on the goal of educationregarding the certain concentration it has on core subjects. The use of sameeducation for all is democratic and fair, however, Nodding thought this couldalso be undemocratic and ineffective.
He stated that “it will be ineffective ifPlato was right when he said that people will care for (and do well at) worksthey love. Many fail in schools because they are forced to do work they hateand deprived of work they love. (Nodding,2003,80-81).