Morton and Williams (2008) suggested that ecological validity can be achieved if there is systematic replication across a variety of data-sets. The replication of the study can be established by taking the same measurement repeatedly and using multiple groups.
The study can be strengthened by using the split half method to improve its internal reliability of the measurement method since respondents needs to indicate 11 multiple work activities how scientific they are from a range of 1= very scientific to 4= not scientific at all. It can be implemented by comparing the results of one half of the questionnaire with the results from the other half. For example, the researcher can split the 11 work activities inclusive of marriage counselling, into half and ask respondents to compare marriage counsellor to other 5 work activities for the first half and compare marriage counsellor to another 6 work activities. When the two halves of the survey results prove that marriage counselling has a low scientific rating, it can further reinforce that the measurement method has internal reliability. Specifically, the researcher can use Cronbach’s Alpha Test to calculate the average of all possible split-half reliability coefficients by rating the survey responses between one to five for each indicator to generate a score of between zero and one, with 0.7 generally accepted as a sign of acceptable reliability (Martyn,2009).
1(a) A qualitative study believes that reality is subjective and that social environments are personal constructs created by individual interpretations that are not generalizable (Gall, Gall ; Borg, 2003). Therefore, I will use a phenomenology research method to address my objective.
This methodology researches how individual interpret their experiences or events in the social through the eyes of the people being studied. The use of this methodology is appropriate because since phenomenology study the subjective experiences of individuals, it can use to find out what views does Singaporean adults have towards marriage counselling. Based on this methodology, implementing a qualitative interview increases individual understanding of perspectives through its in-depth studies of specific groups, to understand their experiences (Morales, 1995). Interviewing also provide information on attitude, beliefs and uncover insights of Singaporean adults’ perspectives when they start to “ramble” about marriage counselling (Bryman,2016).
1(b) Probability sampling involve the use of randomization principle where participants have an equal chance to be a part of the sample while in non-probability sampling, participants have unknown chance and is chosen arbitrarily. Statistical inferences can be made by using probability sample and the result obtained can be generalized to the target population but in non-probability sample, selection relies on the subjective judgment of the researcher and conclusion cannot be inferred from the sample to the whole population. Probability sampling are free from bias while the results of non-probability sampling has a higher chance of being biased.
Generic purposive sampling is suitable because it is fixed and priori which allows me to sample participants with certain key characteristics needed to address the research question without the generation of theory (Bryman,2016). I can employ criteria for selecting participants with a variety of socio-demographic like nationality, gender, age, marital status and first-hand experiences in marriage counselling.
1(c) According to Bryman, researchers need to be skilled and prepared in conducting interviews for data collection, therefore preparation includes arranging a private and quiet setting, getting a functional digital recorder and microphone to capture all the interviews effectively. Although not recommended, only in the case when the interviewee is uncomfortable in recording, taking down of answers in details is required. Once preparation is done, I will use an interview guide consisting of pre-determined open-ended questions conducted in a person-to-person format to collect data.
Firstly, record down participant’s name, age, gender and marital status into the factsheet and start the recording. Then, I will try to establish rapport by informing the research objectives and processes, and the reasons why the participant is selected. Next, select two main topics that can address the research question and start of from the introduction questions in that topic. I will listen actively and be flexible when appropriate so that I can alter the order of asking the questions based on how the interviwee responds. When I have sufficient data or have interviewed all the questions for each participant, the interview will end. Lastly, after all the interview with the participants is completed, I will transcribe the data from the recordings and store the data for analysis.
1(d) According to Bryman, ethical issues of harm to participants rises in many forms of qualitative research like a breach of confidentiality. When there is a lack of precaution over maintaining the confidentiality of records, identity may be revealed and cause harm to the participants.
When the findings are being presented, I must inform them on their rights and ensure the removal of identifier components and records of individuals using pseudonyms so that participant’s identity cannot be associated with personal answers and prevent harm to them (Bryman,2016).
The lack of informed consent may arise as it is difficult to describe the direction and provide complete information about the study to inform participants and be an informed participant. I will ensure that individuals chose to participate of their own free will and that they have been fully informed regarding the procedures of the research project and any potential risks by getting them to sign informed consent form. The clarity in writing that states what data will be collected, who will have access to the data and how the data results might be published and used allows me to fully inform participants about the nature of the study like the participants’ role, the identity of the researcher, the objective and process of the research (Hoeyer,2005). Therefore, when participants are aware of this information, they can choose to be involve or not before agreeing to participate.