Mononucleosis essay

Infectious Mononucleosis and Community Health Nursing Infectious mononucleosis (IM), or “mono,” is a communicable disease that is most commonly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBB). EBB is one of the most common human viruses found all over the world, and most people will become infected with it at some point in their lives (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 201 AAA). However, not all people infected with EBB will develop IM.By understanding the epidemiological triangle of IM and identifying how the determinants of health contribute its development, the immunity nurse can better understand the scope of their role in helping to reduce or resolve its impact. IM is most commonly caused by EBB, which is a member of the herpes virus family. Other viruses that can cause IM are HIVE, hepatitis A, B, or C, taxonomists, extraterritorial, rubella, and streptococcal pharynges (CDC, Bibb).IM is often called “the kissing disease” because EBB is primarily transmitted through saliva, but it can also spread through a cough or sneeze or by sharing a drink, food, cups, utensils, or toothbrushes with someone who has IM (CDC, AAA; Mayo Clinic, 201 SC).

EBB can also be transmitted just by shaking hands with someone who has the virus or by touching an infected utensil or an item that has the saliva of an infected child on it (CDC, AAA; Mono Treatment, AAA).While EBB and some of the other viruses that cause IM are most commonly spread through saliva, all of them can also be spread through semen and blood during sexual contact, organ transplants, and blood transfusions (CDC, AAA). Typical symptoms of IM usually appear four to six weeks after you become infected with EBB; they may develop slowly ND may not all occur at the same time (CDC, 21 bib). Most symptoms of IM can be hard to distinguish from other viruses, such as the flu (Sofas, 2012).According to the CDC (Bibb) and Mayo Clinic (20th), the most common symptoms of IM are: Fatigue (can be extreme at times) Fever (may be very high) Sore throat or strep throat that doesn’t improve with antibiotics Attenuated in the neck and axial Headache and body aches General feeling of unlawfulness (malaise) Swelling of the tonsils Skin rash Swollen spleen and/or liver The possible complications of IM are more serious than the disease itself. IM can cause enlargement of the spleen, which in very rare cases may lead to rupture (Mayo Clinic, 201 b).

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Complications with the liver may also occur, such as hepatitis and jaundice (Mayo Clinic, Bibb). The Mayo Clinic (201 b) lists rare complications to be: Anemia Thermodynamic Myocardial Severe tonsillitis leading to airway obstruction Meningitis, encephalitis, Bell’s palsy, and Guilin-Barrel syndrome (caused by EBB) There is no known cure or antiviral drugs for IM, and no vaccines for its prevention are available. IM is self-limiting, and will usually resolve on its own n about 2-4 weeks, but the fatigue may last longer (CDC, Bibb).

Treatment is aimed at easing the symptoms. The most important things are to drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated and get plenty of rest, and also take over-the- counter medications for fever and pain and gargle with warm salt water to help relieve the sore throat (CDC Bibb; Mayo Clinic, 201 ad). Antibiotics may be required to treat a secondary infection, such as strep throat or tonsillitis, and corticosteroids may also be prescribed to reduce throat or tonsil swelling (Mayo Clinic, 20th).Any activity that may cause blunt abdominal trauma would be avoided for at least a month after infection to prevent splenetic rupture (Sofas, 2012). The only way to prevent transmission is to avoid transfer of saliva by not kissing or sharing drinks, food, or personal items, like toothbrushes, with people who currently or was recently infected with IM IM commonly affects teenagers and young adults, especially college students.

Because IM is not a reportable disease, demographic statistics are not often readily available or vary depending on the source. According to Buffalo, et al. 2013) “incidence and risk factors for acquisition and correlates f severity of primary EBB infection are incompletely understood [and] the prevalence of EBB antibodies varies widely by age and geographic location” (p.

80). According to the CDC (Bibb), at least 25% of teenagers and young adults who contract EBB will develop IM, where Mono Treatment (201 b) lists this statistic at 35-50%. In the study by Buffalo, et al. (2013) 143 EBB-naive college freshmen living in the dormitories were voluntarily tested for EBB antibodies over four years which yielded an incidence of 89%.Generally, EBB causes IM 90% of the time it’s contracted, but the severity differs so that mom cases show no symptoms at all, especially among young children (Mono Treatment, 201 b).

Because most Americans have been exposed to EBB at some point during their lives they have built antibodies against it and will not develop symptoms. Secondary infections that may occur with IM include strep throat, tonsillitis, and sinus infections, and splenetic rupture is a possibility even a month after infection.People rarely die from IM, and it’s usually from its complications. In 2004 there were a total of 78 recorded deaths caused by IM (as cited in Mono Treatment, 201 b). The epidemiological triangle of IM is as follows: IM is caused by EBB found in saliva (the biological agent) that is spread directly from person to person or indirectly by sharing items contaminated with an infected person’s saliva (the host) usually within dormitories or schools (the environment).Because IM typically affects teenagers and young adults, human behavior is a major factor in the transmission of this disease because individuals of this age group tend to have increased close personal and sexual contact with each other. Teenagers and young adults who contract IM are usually found in orneriest and schools, illustrating how close proximity of the environment can contribute to its transmission. In a European study, Semen (2010) stated that “intermediary determinants of health [such as] crowded living and working conditions, inadequate food availability, high-risk sexual behavior, etc.

Happen differences in exposure and vulnerability’ (Para. 2). Therefore, college students living in close quarters on a tight budget may tend to share personal items, food, and utensils, and when this is combined with increased physical contact it can lead to the development and spread of IM at a faster ate. The community health nurse plays an important role in communicable disease and epidemiology in case finding and reporting, collecting and analyzing data, and patient follow-up.According to the Minnesota Department of Health (2001), “Surveillance describes and monitors health events through ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data for the purpose of planning, implementing, and evaluating public health interventions” and is used to identify changes in incidence and prevalence. Case finding the individualized form of irreverence, is a one-to-one intervention that locates and identifies families or individuals that are most at-risk for a specific disease and then gives them to information on risks and resources (Minnesota Department of Health, 2001).For example, a school nurse may evaluate a patient or a cluster of patients with symptoms of IM, and may then alert other students or their parents on what to look for and how to prevent transmission of the disease to others.

Reporting new cases of major communicable diseases to local health authorities is required for the health and safety of others. Although IM is a communicable disease, it does not need to be reported due to its short, self-limiting course and non life-threatening nature.Referral and follow-up are intertwined, and the community health nurse assists individuals, families, and communities to access resources in order to prevent or resolve problems or concerns (Minnesota Department of Health, 2001 However, making a referral without following up and evaluating its results is both inefficient and ineffective. The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit worldwide leader in medical care, education, and research.

Their website contains information for patients and clinicians on IM and all other diseases, communicable or not.Their mission is “To inspire hope and contribute to health and well-being by providing the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education and research” (Mayo Clinic, 201 AAA). Their website can be accessed at http:// www. Monoclinic. Org/ IM is a highly contagious disease that can be prevented by breaking a link in the communicable disease chain. Education on signs and symptoms of IM, modes of transmission, and high-risk behaviors can increase awareness and reversion.

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