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??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????????????????.

 

???? ?? ????? ????, ?????? ?? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????????????, ?? ??????? ????? ??
???????? ????????????? ????????????. ?????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????
??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????, ?? ???
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????
?????? ????????? ??? ??????????????.

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1.      ?????????????
????????????????

 

???? ??? ???
???????? ??? ???????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????????. ?? ??????????, ????????????
???? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???
?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? 1990 ?? ?? 2000, ???? ??? ????? ????????????
??? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????
????????? (???) ??? ???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ???
?????????????? ??????????? (Belke, Baumgartner, Setzer, & Schneider, 2006,
?. 122).

 

???? ??? ????
?????, ???????????? ? Barnett (2000) ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???
???????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????
??? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???????
??? ???????? (?. 130).

 

? ??????????????
????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????
???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????. ?? ??????? ??? ??????????
???? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ? ???????? ???? ??????????? ???
???????????, ? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ??? ?
???????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ???
??????????. ?? ?????? 110 ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????
?????????? ??? 80% ????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??? ???? ?? 70%
?????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????????? (Bortolotti ??? Milella ……..).
???????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???
?????? ??? ?? ?????????, ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???
???????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? (????????????,
1986, ?. 287).

 

??????, ????????
?????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ?
???????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??
???????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?? ?????????????? ????????
????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????.
(????????, 2006, ?. 100)

 

???????????,
??????? ??????? ??? Davis ??? ???
?????????? ??? (2000), ???????????? ? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ???
??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ????
???????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????????????? (?. 194).

 

2.      ?????????????
????????????????

 

????? ???
??????????????, ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???
 ???????????????. ?? ????????? ???, ???
??????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????.
????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???
????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????.

 

??? ???? ???????????
??? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????
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?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????
?? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???
??? ???????? ??? ???????.

 

??????, ?
??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ???
???????? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????
??????????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????????????? ?????????
??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????.

 

?????,
?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ? ?? ???????? ?? ?????
??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ? ????????
??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????. 

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