Microcrystalline Some of the applications of Microcrystalline

Microcrystalline waxes contain higher proportions ofiso­and cyclo-alkanes (naphthenic) than paraffin waxes.Micro­rystallline waxes exhibit molecular weights between 500 and 700 with carbon atomchains ranging typically from C23 to C85 in length. Their Microcrystalline waxes(microwaxes) exhibit kine­matic viscosities greater than 10 centistokes at100°C. Because microcrystalline waxes are derived from residual fractions,they do not have a distinct boiling range.

Physical properties ofmicrocrystalline waxes vary with the type of crude oil and processingconditions used to produce the wax. Typically, microcrystalline, naphthenicwaxes ex­hibit needle-like microstructures.Intermediate wax properties are intermediate between those exhibited by paraffin andmicrocrystalline waxes. They generally exhibit viscosities between 6 and 10centistokes at 100°C and a melting point between 68-74°C. Intermediate waxes arederived from the highest boiling distillate lubricating oil fraction and likeparaffin waxes, they exhibit a distinct boiling point range.Petrolatums are soft, unctuous products having a melting point between 38-65°C.

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The term”unctuous” means “smooth and greasy” in texture.Petrolatums are gener­ally produced from the same residual oil fraction asmicro-crystalline waxes and can be prepared by controlled blending of microcrystalline wax with mineral oil. Petrolatumsgenerally exhibit oil contents greater than10% and are marketed with colors thatvary from dark brown to white.Some of theapplications of Microcrystalline  waxesare: ·        In industries where petrolatum is keycomponent.·        It is used for making candles adhesives.·        Corrugated board.

·        Cosmetics·        Castings.Montan wax is natural wax obtained fromlignites, which contains pure wax (50-80%), resin (20-40%) and bitumen(10-20%). Montan wax consist of three separated parts: long chain wax alcohols,long chain wax acids and wax esters formed by them, the carbon number of whichis in the range of C26-C32. Montan wax is commercially obtainable by theextraction of bituminous’ lignite or bituminous shale, by extracting it with asuitable solvent or solvent mixture. The latter is of an azeotropic type ofnonpolar and polar solvents. The customary nonpolar solvent is benzene, and thepolar solvent is alcohol. The crude wax so extracted is always blackish incolor, and for most purposes must be deresinified. The four grades of montanwax in commerce are customarily’designated as “crude,””deresinified.

,.” “yellowrefined,” and “whitebleached.” The last named is, however, not a true montana wax. No meanshas yet been found of fully bleaching montan wax without considerably alteringits composition.  Montan wax and carnauba wax share manysimilarities in their properties. However, the former’s color is too dark andhas limited its applications. When color is not strictly required, the montanwax can serve as a cheap substitute for the carnauba wax. The carnauba waxcontained in the shoe polish, floor wax and car wax can be replaced by montanwax.

 The montan wax contains much higheraliphatic acid, higher aliphatic ester and alcohol etc. which provide excellentadvantages, like oil absorbency and color solubility. When appropriate amountof montan wax is added into the carbon paper recipe, it can absorb excessiveoil substances, help to dissolve pigment and provide the carbon paper withsmooth, uniform surface and is not sticky. The montan wax is an important rawmaterial in the carbon paper industry. Since the montan wax is characterized bylow electric conductivity and good insulating property, it can be coated on thesurface of the electric wires and cables. Moreover, it can also be used on thefixed porcelain insulator and the binding wires as well as the external layerof the mated compensating wires coatings to improve its electric insulatingproperty, prevent it from being tacky and extend its service life. The melting point of Monatan wax is  77-86°C, Acid value 22-30 and saponificationnumber 103.Uses of Montan:  ·        Is used in automobile.

·        Leather and phonograph records forpolishing. ·        It is also used as lubricant formoulding paper and plastics.The Polyethylene Wax is made either by high pressurepolymerisation, low pressure polymerisation or controlled thermal degradationof high molecular weight Polyethylene.Process routes:1.       PolyethyleneWax by synthesis Polymerisation CH2= CH2 ——————————>        –(-CH2-CH2-)n—Monomer                                                              PE Wax2.      Polyethylene Wax by degradation Thermalcracking –(-CH2- CH2-)n — —————————–>        –(CH2 – CH2-)n –Polyethylene                                                            PE WaxLow molecular weight polyethylene is known aspolyethylene wax (PE wax). It is a synthetic wax produced during thepolymerization of low molecular weight polyethylene.

The ethylene used isgenerally obtained by cracking petroleum naptha or from natural gas.Polyethylene wax has good dispersion andfluidity, good electrical and remoulding properties, good light resistant andchemical-resistant properties. It is well known for increasing abrasionresistance and providing excellent barrier protection.

It also improves surfaceappearance by providing a non-sticky wax surface. It is soluble in variouspolymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl acetate, ethylene propylenerubber, butyl rubber, and various aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also used fortemperature and viscosity modification of other polymers.

Polyethylene wax isnon-toxic in nature and is available in the market in various forms and gradesdiffering in viscosity, softening point, hardness, density and molecularweight. The melting point of the polyethylenewaxes ranges from 97 to 115°C depending on the reaction conditions taking placein the reactor in their making. The acid value of Polyethylene wax is 0,saponification number 6-7, and iodine number 0.35.Some of the Uses of Polyethylene waxes: Ø  Polyethylenewax /Polypropylene wax act as activator and dispersing material forPolyethylene, Polypropylene, ABS resins.

Ø  Theaddition of Polyethylene wax to hydrocarbon waxes increases the melting pointsof such waxes to a marked degree.Ø  PEwax as homo polymer is used in elastomers, hot melt adhesives, inks,lubricants, coatings, plastics, solvent polishes, personal care products andwax blends.Ø  Copolymersprovide greater compatibility and solubility than comparable homopolymers.Major use of copolymers includes adhesives, polishes, textiles, candles, papercoatings and color concentrates.


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