MGT501

MGT501: Introduction to Business Management
Group Research Project
Group members & ID:
Manisha Devi (2018003133)
Vijeta Vani Kumar (2017140701)
Vriyansha Vanistha Kumar (2017142902)
Prashneel Praneet Prasad (2018003240)
Tutorial Day & Time: Thursday, 10am-11am
Management Functions and leadership styles used by managers/ supervisors in the Organization
Acknowledgement
Working on this project on “MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AND LEADERSHIP STYLES USED BY MANAGERS / SUPERVISORS IN THE ORGANISATION” was a source of immense knowledge to us. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to MR PERMAL NAIDU for taking out his valuable time to go through our questionnaire and for giving us a feedback on time. We acknowledge with a deep sense of gratitude, the encouragement and inspiration received from our lecturer MRS SUMAN. We would also like to thank our parents for their love and support.
Lastly, but not the least the members of this project, who worked so hard to compile this project.

Statement of declaration
We hereby declare that the work contained in this project and the intellectual content of this report are the product of our own work .This project has not been previously published in any form nor does it contain any verbatim of the published resources which could be treated as infringement of the international copyright law.

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Table of content
Acknowledgement i
Statement of declaration ii
Introduction 1
Aim & Background 2
Literature Review 3-4
Methodology 5
Analysis 6-12
Recommendation & conclusion 13
Reference 14
Appendix 15-16
Introduction
The YKK Group is a Japanese group of manufacturing companies. It is known as the world’s largest zipper manufacturer, YKK Group is also known for making zippers. However, it also manufactures other fastening products, architectural products, plastic hardware and industrial machinery.

The fastening products are the first and still the most important product of YKK. Within YKK, the company distinguishes between the Slide Fastener Division, the Textile and Plastic Products Division, and the Snap Fastener and Button Division
Architectural Aluminum products include fenestration systems for glass exteriors. These are the entrances for commercial and institutional structures. The aluminum sunshades and residential windows. It is based in Austell, Georgia, USA.

The YKK associate president in America manufactures entrances, store fronts, curtain wall, window wall, sunshades, windows and sliding doors for office buildings, residential high-rises, schools, stadiums, shopping centers and institutional structures.

The Machinery and Engineering Group focuses on the development and production of machines, equipment, and dyes, serving YKK Group with the Exclusive Machinery Division, Industrial Machinery Division, and Dye Division.

Thus, the discussion about the company’s four function and how it is applied in the organization. How the leaders motivate their subordinates, the leadership style carried in the organization and how it is effective. The various types of factors which motivates in influencing behavior I the organization. How managers empower employees in the organization which motivates them to perform and also the view of the employees towards the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory will be further discussed in the analysis.

Aim
The aim of this research project is to:
Apply the four functions of management in any organization.

To discuss about the types of leadership styles that are being carried out in the organization.
Is to incorporate the leadership styles effective in influencing the behavior in any chosen organization.
Background
The research project was conducted on the YKK Oceania Limited. The company is located in Lot 3 Carpenter Street Raiwai, Suva. Phone number: 3385699. YKK is one of the world’s largest zipper manufactures and distributes zipper, elastic and trims in Fiji. The company is also engaged in production of fasteners, slides, and snaps. YKK group companies seek to delight the customers, earn the high regard of society and make their employees happy and proud. The YKK group (YKK Waikeikei Gurupu) is a Japanese group of manufacturing companies. As the world’s largest zipper manufacturer, YKK group is most known for making zipper, however, it also manufactures other fastening products, architectural products, plastic, hardware and industrial machinery. YKK’s net income comes to around JPY 721.03 billion which is equal to US $6.1 billion as of 2014. The company employs around 42,154 employees. The initial YKK stands for Yoshida Kogyo Kabushiki geisha, which was the name of the company from 1945 till 1994. YKK was founded by Tadao Yoshida in Higashi Nihonbashi, Tokyo in January 1934.

Literature review
A manager is a person who plans, organizes, leads and controls the allocation of human, material, financial and information resources in pursuit of the organizations goal.
As the manger moves up the management hierarchy the essential management abilities of competencies required and work vary usually in scope and detail. The more efficiently the manager performs his management work the more efficiently the results required would be achieved. To be able to perform optimally the manager must have the required intellectual skills, leadership qualities, competency and the necessary resources and organizational structures at his disposal. He needs to know, understand and be competent in the application of management work.
However, Drucker (1968) and Donnelly (1998) reasoned that a manager’s first job is to manage a business, his second job is to manage managers and his third job is to manage the workers and their work. A manager is responsible for the work performance of other people. He must plan and make decisions, organize, lead and control human, financial, physical and informational resources and create an environment that would be conducive to optimal performance.
A leader, in the work situation, is automatically in a position of authority. To work under authority is a form of obedience to superior, group and social behavior, norms, authority and in the present day to instructions. It existed since the advent of the human race (Homans, 1965). The leader has, command authority, which implies that subordinates, without proper justification, may not simply ignore or disobey legitimate commands, suggestions or instructions – or introduce new ideas on their own.
Moreover, different types of leadership styles exists in work environments. The culture and the goals of an organization determine which leadership style fit the firm best, while personality differences often dictate which is most often used. Some companies offer several leadership styles within the organization, dependent upon the necessary task to complete and departmental needs.
The Laissez-Faire Leader.

A laissez faire leader lacks direct supervision of employees and fails to provide regular feedback to those under his supervision. Highly experienced and trained employees requiring little supervision fall under the laissez faire leadership style. However, not all employees possess those characteristics. This leadership style hinders the production of employees needing supervision. The laissez faire style produces no leadership or supervision efforts from managers, which can lead to poor production, lack of control and increase in cost.
The Autocrat
The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone within the input of others. Managers possess total authority and impose their will on employees.

The Participative Leader
Often called the democratic style, participative leadership values the input of team members and peers, but the responsibility of making the final decision rests with the participative leader. Participative leadership boosts employee morale because employees make contributions to the decision making process. This style meets challenges when companies need to make a decision in a short period.
The Transactional Leader
Managers using the transactional leadership style receive certain tasks to perform and provide rewards or punishments to team members based on performance results. Managers and team members set predetermined goals together, and employees agree to follow the direction and leadership of the manager to accomplish those goals.
The transformational leader
The transformational leadership style depends on high level of communication from management to meet goals. Leaders motivate employees and enhance productivity and efficiency through communication and high visibility. This style of leadership requires the involvement of management to meet goals. Leaders force on the big picture within an organization and delegate smaller tasks to the team to accomplish goals.
Methodology
For the completion of this research project, questions were made and distributed as a form of a questionnaire to the YKK Oceania Limited. It was then collected and data analysis was made. Also, the company was asked to put down their leadership styles and functions of management which help the company to influence their workers to perform well.
Analysis
6.1 The YKK Company adheres to the four functions of the management through Affirmative Action. Affirmative action is a positive or corrective effort by employers which is used to prevent discrimination in hiring or promoting an employee. The affirmative action requires the employer to make an extra effort in order to hire and promote people who belongs to a protected group. This action also includes in taking specific actions which is designed to eliminate the present effects of the past discrimination.

6.2 The functions applied in an organization
Planning
Planning is the function of the management which is made by the top level management. This is to dedicate where to take the company and selecting steps to follow in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. It also requires the managers to be aware of the environmental conditions facing their organizations such as economic conditions, their competitors and their consumers. They also need to work towards the success of their plans and take corrective measures when necessary.

However, the YKK Company develops their core fastening products. These are zippers, hook ; loop fastening (Quicklon), fabric tapes and plastic products, snaps and buttons, and more. Also along with architectural products, this is where YKK Company aims to offer more comfortable living and urban spaces in the future.
They aim for huge orders before the end of the each year. This is to compete against other companies in manufacturing their products and gaining more than expected profits each year.
Organizing
Organizing is the function of the management, where managers of the company are to organize, by bringing together physical, human and financial resources towards achieving the objectives of the company before the deadline, whereby they identify activities to be accomplished, classify activities, and assign activities to groups and individuals. They also create responsibility and then coordinates the relationship of responsibility and authority.

The structure of an organization is the framework within which effort is organized in different parts of an activity and the people involved in it so that it works well. The structure usually represents an organization chart, which provides a graphic representation of the chain and command within the organization.

Leading
Leading involves managers to influence their employees to be determined towards in meeting their company’s goals and objectives. The YKK Company achieves this through having a good and friendly relationship with their employees and also communicating which provides direction as by which the manager can be effective. This enables the employees to work in assigned activities which makes them accomplish the required manufactured products to be produced before the deadline approaches in order to meet their organizations goals and objectives.

Controlling
Controlling involves to ensure the performance that does not differ from what is expected. This also involves measuring of achievements against the established goals and objectives. Therefore, things are to be done according to the plan so that the YKK Company could establish more products which will lead to more achievements.
6.3 The leadership style which is best in all management situation
The type of leadership style which is the best in all management situations in the organization is strategic leadership style. This is known to be the best leadership style due to this style involves a leader who is essentially the head of the organization and is not limited to those at the top of the organization.

6.4 The leadership style is effective in influencing the behavior in the organization
The strategic leadership style is effective in influencing the behavior in the organization. It provides various techniques which focuses on the organization when they are to decide on their purpose and the best business practices which is critical for the remaining competitive and relevant. Thus, to remain successful it requires a different way of thinking about how to gather together resources and deliver services. Also strategic leadership style balances a focus use of an appropriate process to break a problem down into the elements necessary to solve it (Analytical Perspective) with the human dimension of strategy making in a strategy dialogue so that the foundation for building a winning for an organization can be defined, committed, adjusted adapted to their strategy as quickly as needed.

6.5 Managers are able to influence and direct workers
The managers of the YKK Company is able to influence and direct workers by giving instructions, the steps that are given are to be followed so their objectives are accomplished by their employees. Also by motivating them, by having a good and understanding relationship with their employees. This could make their employees to work towards their capabilities and skills for the accomplishment for the assigned work.

6.6 Managers empower employees
The managers are able to empower employees by giving the authority and responsibility for decision making regarding their specific organizational tasks.
The managers are to set goals for the group and also determine the best way to meet them. Divide employees into manageable activities, and assign these to closely connected team members. Motivating and communicating about the decisions clearly and creating a team target amongst staff. Also, to establish an appropriate targets, and analyze and interpret performance, and developing staff as company assets.

The incentives which are provided to the employees that motivates them to perform is by rewarding and recognizing staff. This is where employers make a conscious effort to reward and award their employees, not just to acknowledge their work but also to motivate them to continue with the same passion. Through giving compensation such as giving more than the regular paid wages in exchange for the work done by an employee in the organization.

6.7 Maslow’s Hierarchy
Physiological Need
Physiological need are air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep. The employees view towards these needs are to achieve more suitable and comfortable living style. Which is beneficial for the daily living lives.

Safety Need
There is a need to have a security and protection from elements so that there is no fear amo9nst the employees while working in an organization.
Social Need
The employees prefer friendship, trust, receiving and giving affection and love such as being part of a group (family, friends, and work)
Esteem Need
There are two types of esteem, first one is esteem for oneself such as independence and the second one is the desire for reputation or respect from others, For example, status.

Each employee working in an organization wants to be independent as they can show their skills and knowledge to work towards their assigned field. However, each individual employee also desires for respect from others so that they do not think that they are the odd ones out but to be treated as family in an organization.

Self- actualization Need
Is to realize personal potential and seeking of personal growth and experience. Thus, an employee is capable to become anything when one is capable of becoming.

Each employee in an organization has personal potential by which they are to gain higher experience in a field in which they are good at.

6.8 Linking of performance management system
The YKK organization links their performance management system which makes it effective is through having rewards strategy, where awards are given in terms of employer of the month. Team work determines an action to be taken, which makes it effective and efficient. Having leadership strategy is when a manager’s potential is to express a strategic vision for the organization which motivates others to acquire there vision.
6.9 The techniques used in the organization for assessing performance
The techniques which is used for assessing performance is observation which is to observe or monitor someone’s performance. Having check lists, to check if an employee has overcome the required work.

6.10 Change in performance system
The manager of the YKK Company has agreed that there will be changes in the performance system in the next 12 months.

.  
Recommendation
These are the possible recommendation for the YKK group of companies:
Organize by functions.

Create a chain of command.
Communicating structure.
Conclusion
After the completion of this research project, we got to learn about the YKK group of company, its history plus the services it provides. A manager is a person who plans, organizes, leads and controls the allocation of human, material, financial and informational resources in pursuit of the organizations goal. Out of many different types of leadership styles, YKK finds strategic leadership style more effective in influencing the behavior in the organization.
Reference
Wu, JC., 2003. The Mineral Industry of Japan. Minerals Yearbook, 3.
Ireland RD. Management ; organization. South-western Pub.
Dyachenko, Y.I., 2014. Leadership styles in an organization. Journal of Economics and Social Sciences, (4), p.2.
Kast F.E. and Rosenzweig JE. Organization and management: A systems approach. McGraw-hill.

Appendix
Fiji National University
Department of Management
Management functions and leadership styles used by managers/ supervisors in the organizations
Questionnaire
Name:
Position:
Company’s Name:
The four functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Does the company adhere to the four functions of management stated above?
Affirmative
Dissenting
How are the above functions applied in the organization?

Which leadership styles are best in all management situations in the organization?

Are the above leadership styles effective in influencing the behavior in the organization? Why or why not?

How are managers/ supervisors able to influence and direct workers?

How managers and supervisors able to empower employees and what are some of the incentives they provide to employees which motivate workers to perform?

What are the views or assumptions of employees towards the achievements of their needs in relations to the Maslow’s hierarchy (are the five basic needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization) of needs theory?

What strategies of the organization have been linked to the performance management system to make it more effective?
Reward strategy
Culture strategy
Team work strategy
Leadership Strategy
What are the techniques that are used in the organization for assessing performance?
Observation
Assessment and developments
Checklists
Others please specify

Are you going to make any changes to the performance systems in the next 12 months?
Yes
No
None of the above
*The above information will be kept confidential.*

*

x

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