Unit Test #2 Review Erred Reactions oxidation: involves loss of electrons, often occur with loss of hydrogen, occur with gain of oxygen reduction: involves gain of electrons, often occur with loss of oxygen, occur with gain of hydrogen erred reactions: coupled reactions that play a key role in flow of energy, involve gain/loss of electrons Energy Terms anabolic: using energy to build large molecules catabolic: breaking down compounds into smaller molecules to release energy metabolism: all the chemical reactions that take place in cells undergoing: reaction that requires input Of energy exercising: reaction that releases energy
TAP: adenosine troposphere us abstract-level phosphorescently: process of forming TAP by the physical addition of a phosphate group to ADAPT TAP cycle: Process of breaking down glucose and creating energy, ADAPT + Pi –>TAP Diagram of Mitochondria & Parts Cellular Respiration – 4 Stages (Aerobic) Glycoside: Anaerobic process that occurs in the costly/cytoplasm. It breaks down glucose into two 3-carbon private molecules. Key terms: glucose, clearheadedly 3-phosphate (GAP) Activation: Substrate-level phosphorescently adds 2 phosphate groups to glucose.
Uses 2 TAP molecules and produces fructose 1 ,6 – phosphate. Lists: The carbon molecule (glucose) turns into GAP and ADAPT (the adapt is converted to GAP). Basically split into two 3- carbon molecules of GAP (clearheadedly-3-phosphate). Oxidation: GAP is oxidized by AND+ which is reduced to NADIA. This releases energy to attach phosphates to sugar molecules producing 1,2-phosphorescently. This happens nice – once for each GAP. Phosphates are transferred to ADAPT producing 4 molecules of TAP.
This is a net gain of 2 TAP and 2 private. NADIA molecules go to the ETC If oxygen is present, private will enter the Krebs cycle Private oxidation: Aerobic process that occurs in mitochondrial matrix. Private molecules are transported to the mitochondria through transport protein. Key terms: private 1 . Decertification: A carbonyl group is removed as CA (enzyme private destroyable). (turns into 2 carbon compounds) 2. The 2-carbon molecule is oxidized by AND+ to become an acetate group.
AND+ is reduced by AH+ and 2 electrons to produce NADIA H+. 3. Commence A (Coca) attaches to the 2-C compound to form acetate-Coca 4. Acutely-Coca enters the Krebs cycle. This is repeated for second private molecule 2 NADIA go to the ETC 2 CA diffuse out of the mitochondria and out of the cell 2 H+ ions dissolve in the mitochondrial matrix Fate of actual-Coca: Can enter Krebs cycle if the body needs energy If TAP levels are high, it can go onto produce lipids and be stored Krebs Cycle: Aerobic cyclic reaction that occurs in the mitochondria.
By the end of the cycle, the glucose is totally consumed and is in the form of CA, H2O, co-enzymes NADIA & FADED, and a small yield Of TAP. Acutely-Coca (C) combines with collocate (C) to produce citrate (C) 1 . Commiseration occurs to produce citrate (c) 2. Erred reaction (oxidized decertification) to produce a-stouthearted (C) AND+ reduced to NADIA CA is released (decertification) C to C molecule losing CA and 2 H+ ions in the process 3.
Erred reaction to produce succinctly-Coca (C) C to C molecule losing CA and 2 H+ ions in the process 4. Succinctly-Coca (C) is converted to succinctness (C) Substrate level phosphorescently of GAP to GET which then converts ADAPT to TAP and becomes GAP again – produces 2 TAP molecules Coca is released 5. Succinctness (C) is converted to fumigate (C) Erred reaction FAD is reduced to FADED by gaining 2 H atoms from succinctness 6. Fumigate (C) is converted to emulate (C) Hydration reaction – water is added 7. Emulate (C) is converted to collocate (C)
AND+ is converted to NAUGHT by gaining 2 H atoms from emulate One turn of the Krebs cycle produces (make sure to xx for each glucose since there are 2 perpetuates): 3 AND+ reduced to 3 NADIA 1 FAD reduced to FADED 1 TAP produced 2 CA released There are 2 turns of the Krebs cycle for every glucose molecule At the end of the Krebs cycle, the entire glucose molecule is consumed All the carbon has now been converted to CA The energy is now in the form Of 12 commences (1 0 NADIA and 2 FADED) The commences carry electrons into the electron transport chain where they will be used to drive the production of TAP
Key terms: phosphorescently (PEP) – PEP is an enzyme in the carbonyl family, catalysis’s addiction of HACK to phosphorescently (PEP) to form the a-carbon compound collocate and Pi. PEP + HACK ?I collocate + Electron Transport Chain (ETC): a series of erred reactions that occur on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Site of commissions, results in large yield of 1. The 2 commences transfer their electrons to proteins in the ETC When NADIA and FADED give up H+ and e? to molecules embedded in the Cristal membrane, the e- travel along a series of electron acceptor molecules After
NADIA and FADED are reduced, AND+ and FAD are recycled back to the Krebs cycle The 2 commences transfer their electrons to proteins in the ETC When NADIA and FADED give up H+ and e– to molecules embedded in the Cristal membrane, the e– travel along a series of electron acceptor molecules AND+ and FAD are recycled back to the Krebs cycle 2. Electrons are transferred “downhill” from one carrier to another (erred reactions) and energy is released at each stage 3. As e– move through the ETC, H+ ions are pumped out of the matrix into the intermediate space 4.
For each 2 e– transferred, there are 2 H+ being pumped across the inner membrane 5. This creates an electrochemical gradient (electro-charge difference-more positive charges on outside, chemical = concentration gradation = more H+ on the outside) 6. Protons (H+) can only re-enter matrix through TAP syntheses complex This drives production of TAP by oxidative phosphorescently ADAPT + TAP This process is called COMMISSIONS 7. The final electron accepter is oxygen ? it combines with 2 protons (H+) to form water 8.
Overall, 32 TAP molecules are produced from 1 molecule of glucose through ETC For each NADIA, 3 molecules of TAP are produced For each FADED, 2 molecules of TAP are produced SUMMARY and where each stage occurs: AT p NADIA FADED LOCATION Glycoside 2 Cytoplasm Link Reaction Mitochondrial matrix Krebs cycle 6 ETC 32-34 Inner mitochondrial membrane TOTAL 36-38 10 Photosynthesis: 1. Explain why plants are essential in the biosphere. Plants are important to the biosphere because most of them process CA and released oxygen through the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis.
The other essential part is that most of them are atrophic, meaning they can actually produce their own energy and even store it. As a result, plants become a food source for herbivorous animals, who in turn become food for carnivorous animals. 2. Describe and label the structure of the leaf. 3. Compare, in general terms, the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle (light-independent reactions). The light dependent reactions are driven by photons of light (there are two photometers). Chlorophyll is required to absorb light and TAP & NADIA are produced which are both needed in the dark stage (Calvin cycle).
In addition, water is split (photolysis) and oxygen is produced. The reaction occurs in the ethylated membranes. Calvin cycle reactions occur in the strata of chloroplasts, are enzyme driven and so are temperature sensitive. The TAP and NADIA produced in the light tag are used to fix CA into carbohydrate. 4. Write the general word and balanced chemical equations of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide + water ?> glucose + oxygen + water CHIC+ 6820 C6H1206+ 602 5. Describe and label the structure of a chloroplast – point out where the various reactions take place.
Seen in diagram above. 6. Explain the role of photosynthetic pigments. Terms: electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, visible spectrum, chlorophyll, carotids, fluorescence Electromagnetic spectrum: the entire range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to the ingest radio waves and including visible light Wavelength: The length of a single cycle of a wave, usually measured from crest-to-crest. Visible Spectrum The visible spectrum is the portion of telecommunication spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Chlorophyll: a green pigment, present in all green plants and in contractible, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Carotids: Pigments synthesized by plants, algae and bacteria. These richly colored molecules are the sources of the yellow, orange, and red colors of many plants Fluorescence: The emission of electromagnetic radiation, especially of visible light, stimulated in a substance by the absorption of incident radiation and persisting only as long as the stimulating radiation is continued. 7.
Compare the structure and absorption spectra of chlorophyll a and b. Terms: absorption spectrum, action spectrum. Absorption spectrum: how much light is absorbed at any given wavelength Action spectrum: how much photosynthesis occurs at any given wavelength Chlorophyll a is present in all photosynthetic organisms and is the green photosynthetic pigment. Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment and absorbs different pigments than a. A absorbs energy from mostly blue-violet and orange-red wavelengths. B absorbs some energy from the green wavelengths. 8.
Compare photosynthesis and II; Terms: photosynthesis, reaction center, primary electron acceptor; IPPP and p 700 Photosynthesis: a biochemical mechanism in plants by which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Reaction center: a system consisting of proteins and cofactors which facilitate light energy and electron transfer in plants Primary electron acceptor: The molecule to which a high-energy electron from an excited pigment molecule, such as IPPP*, is transferred. IPPP: photosynthesis 1 absorbs light at Mann IPPP: photosynthesis II absorbs light at damn 9.
Describe how light energy is converted into chemical potential energy of TAP and NADIA during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis (light reactions). Terms: semiotics theory, photosynthesis I and II, photolysis, TAP synthesis, photojournalist’s, cyclic and non-cyclic photojournalist’s. Chemicals theory: movement of H+ through TAP syntheses to drive the phosphorescently of ADAPT + Pi TAP Photolysis: chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons Photojournalist’s: the synthesis of TAP from ADAPT and phosphate that occurs in a plant using radiant energy absorbed during photosynthesis.
Cyclic photojournalist’s 1. A photon of light causes AS to eject electron. 2. Electron is passed through a series of electron carriers and is used to drive proton pumps. Protons are then used to drive production of TAP. 3. Excited electron is passed back. 4. NO NADIA is formed. Non-cycle photojournalist’s: A photon of light hits AS II (IPPP) This causes lists of water (photolysis) and the ejection of an electron Oxygen is released as waste Electron passed through a series of electron carriers (ETC) embedded in the ethylated membranes to AS (IPPP) Platitudinous be-f complex
Plasticization As the electrons are passed along, energy used to drive protons from the strata into the ethylated space (be-f complex). At the same time AS I (IPPP) absorbs a photo of light and excites an electron. This electron is passed from foreordain (which contains iron, chemical symbol Fee). Iron (a strong electron acceptor) is used to reduce NADIA+ + H+ NADIA (the electron lost here is replaced by the one from AS II), along with NADIA reeducates. Photons that accumulate in the ethylated space form a gradient that drives the production of TAP by commissions TAP and NADIA produced go to strata for use in the carbon fixation. . Describe how the TAP and NADIA form the light reactions are used to fix carbon and produce GAP (PAGE). Terms: (5-carbon compound), GAP a-carbon compound), Calvin Cycle, rubrics The light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) Takes place in the strata & does not require light Carbon molecules from CA are fixed into glucose TAP provides the energy, NADIA provides the reducing power There are 3 stages: Carbon fixation Reduction Reactions Regeneration of Rub 5 Carbon (SC) sugar molecule called rebellious phosphate (Rub) is the acceptor that binds CA.