Mekelle Dr.Kebede Nigussie November 2017 Mekelle ? Acknowledgements

Mekelle University College of Natural and Computational SciencesDepartment of ChemistryMSc Research Titles: Assessments of the Impact of Industrial Waste on Water Quality in Debre birehan (in case Beressa River) North Shewa, EthiopiaByAyele Mamushet SubmittedToDr.Kebede NigussieNovember 2017Mekelle?AcknowledgementsSecond, I would like to thank my advisor Dr.Kebede Nigussie, for his valuable advice and consistent guidance throughout the research period. This work would not have been completed in the present form without the help and cooperation of different institutions and individuals. Among others the most important ones are Ezana Analytical Laboratory in Mekelle and Geo chemistry laboratory. I greatly appreciate the support of Dr.

Abreha G/kidan, Abadi Romha, and Robel Dawit Table of Contents Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………….iiiAbbreviations ……………………………………………………………….ivAbstract……………………………………………….

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VTable of Contents………………………………………………………………….VIList of Figures…………………………………………………………………….ViiiList of Tables……………………………………………………………………….ixChapter One Introduction1.1.

Introduction and Background…………………………………………………11.2. Background …………………………………………………………………..21.3.

Problem of statement …………………………………………………………31.4. Research Questions………………………………………………………….

..31, 5.

Objectivesof the study………………………………………………………..31.

6. Research hypothesis…………………………………………………………..

41.7. Significance of the study………………………………………………………

4Chapter Two Literature Review2.1. Environmental pollution………………………………………………………52.2. Industrial effluents…………………………………………………………….62.

3. Industrial Wastewater Characteristics…………………………………………72.3.1.

Composition of Brewery Effluent…………………………………………..72.3.

2. Tannery effluent……………………………………………………………………82.4.

Physicochemical parameters of water quality……………………………………….82.4.1. Total Suspended Solids (TSS)…………………………………………………….92.

4.2. Total dissolved solid (TDS)……………………………………………………….92.

4.3 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)…………………………………………………….102.4.4 Alkalinity.

…………………………………………………………………………102.4.5 Dissolved oxygen (DO)……………………………………………………….

…..11 2.4.6. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)…………………………………….

……..112.

4.7. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)……………………………………………….11 2.

4.8. Electrical Conductivity (EC)……………………………………………………..122.4.

9. Hardness………………………………………………………………………. …132.4.

10. Nitrate……………………………………………………………………………142.4.11.

Phosphorus………………………………………………………………………15 2.4.12. PH and Alkalinity………………………………………………………………..152.

4.13. Sodium (Na)……………………………………………………………………..152.

4.14. Magnesium (Mg)…………………………………………………………………

16 2.4.15.

Potassium (K)……………………………………………………………………162.4.16.

Temperature…………………………………………………………..: ………..

16 2.5. Heavy metals………………………………………………………………………..

17 2.5.1. Chromium (Cr)……………………………………………………….

,,,…,,,……..182.5.

2. Lead (Pb)…………………………………………………………………….

…..

..182.5.3.

Cadmium………………………………………………………………….……….19 Chapter Three Materials and Methods 3.1.

Study area……………………………………………………………………………203.2. Sampling Locations and Collection ………………………………………..………..

213. 3. Sample analysis……………………………………………………………….

..223.4.

Data analysis…………………………………………………………………….23Chapter 4 Result and Dissociation 4.1. Result of physico chemical analysis……………………………………….…..

24 4.1.1. Total Suspended Solids (TSS)………………………………………………….274.

1.2. Phosphate………………………………………………………………………27 4.1.3.

Potassium……………………………………………………………………….28 4.

1.4. Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)……………………………………………………284.

4.5. Conductivity………………………………………………………………. ….294.1.6. Total Hardness……………………………………………………………. …..304.1.7. Calcium and Magnesium……………………………………………………….30 4.1.8. pH……………………………………………………………………………….314.1.9 Sodium……………………………………………………………………………314.1.10. Nitrate……………………………………………………………………….….32. 4.1.11. Total Alkalinity………………………………………………………………. …32 4.1.12. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)…………………………………………………………334.1.13. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)……………………………………………..34 4.1. 14. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)………………………………………………354,2 heavy metals………………………………………………………………………….36Chapter 5 conclusions and Recommendations5.1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….375.2. Recommendation……………………………………………………………………..38 Reference……………………………………………………………………………….39 Abbreviations BOD- Biological Oxygen DemandCOD -Chemical Oxygen DemandEIA -Environmental Impact AssessmentEMIA -Ethiopian Manufacturing Industries’ AssociationEPA -Environmental Protection Agency (Ghana) UNEP -United Nations Environment ProgramUNESCO -United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationFEPA -Federal Environment Protection AgencyDO -Dissolved OxygenEC -Electrical ConductivitypH- Potentiality of Hydrogen Ppm- Parts per millionsSPSS- Statistical Packages for Social SciencesTSS- Total Suspended SolidsWHO- World Health Organization List of figure Figure 4.1: TSS, PO4, K Trend along the site: ……………….……………………………29.Figure 4.2: TDS, TH, EC Trend along the site ….………………………………………….31.Figure 4.3: PH. Na, NO3 Trend along the site ……………………………….…………….33Figure 4.4: Ca, Mg, alkality Trend along the site …………….…………………….………35Figure 4.5: Trend along the site …………………………………………………………….36List of Tables Table 3.1: sample location ……………………………………………………………………23Table 4.1: MEAN ± SD results of physico chemical parameter ………………………………27Table 4.2: MEAN ± SD results of physico chemical parameter ………….………………….28Table 4, 3: MEAN ± SD results of physico chemical parameter……………………………..38ABSTRACTThis study involves assessment of physico-chemical parameters and trace metals of water samples in Beressa River at Tebasie Sub-town and rural area. A study was carried out in Beressa River to assess the extent of chemical pollution in a receiving river as affected by industrial effluents. Water at selected points in the river were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, nitrate, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate and heavy metals(Pb, Cu. Cr, Cd Ni). Parameters such pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, nitrate were investigated using standard analytical procedures. The level of the studied heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) was determined using the AAS. The pH of the water ranged from 6.82 to 7.69, EC of all collected water samples were within the range of 290 to 1241 µS cm-1. The DO was within the range of 2.49 to 5.16mg/L. Total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 53.68 to 267.05 mg/L. Considering TDS, all the samples were rated as fresh water (

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