Meece by early learning experiences and the

Meece (year) also drew attention that motivation could also be influenced by a certain situation. This meant that motivation occured through the individual’s reinforcement condition and reward contingencies provided by the given situation. To simply put it, motivation was only dependent on the external factors such as rewards and incentives to attempt student motivation. One famous theory to support this was actually known as Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (year), explaining that what gave people their drive in accomplishing certain things was due to the expected outcome they would gain from it. People become more motivated and will most likely excel at the task when given the desired reward, yet become less motivated when they dislike the reward. Newby (1991) also drew attention that newer teachers used this strategy to motivate the students by rewards and punishments. This included rewards such as longer recess time, stickers, or loss of privileges. The study also conveyed results stating that these strategies had a correlation in regard to on-task behaviours. addMotivation as A Set of Cognition and Beliefs Recent research has actually defined motivation as “a set of cognition and beliefs and processes that are shaped by early learning experiences and the immediate learning situation” (Meece, ). Emphasis is given on the academic expectations and values of students, allowing student motivation. Studies have shown that students are more likely to become more motivated and goal-oriented when they expect and want to succeed. A student’s beliefs are actually dependent on a “wide range of academic behaviours, including task, choice, persistence, and performance” (Eccles-Parsons, et al.,1993; Feather, 1982; Wigfield, 1994). In addition, the Self-Efficiency theory also plays a vital role in a student’s motivation. Bandura (1986) defines that self-efficiency is “a person’s judgement of their ability to perform a task given the skills they possess and the circumstances that they face”. Bandura (1996), Pajares (1996), and Schunk (1991) all conducted studies to prove that one’s self-efficiency actually impacts one’s “choice of activities, their effort, and their persistence”.   Attribution theories also examine how one interprets one’s success or failure and relating it to how it can motivate the individual. add


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