Data Motors, for instance, upon its initiation in 1945 would also have put in place built-in mechanisms to respond to its environment and to function in a manner appropriate to that time. Networked organization Modern organizations function in a world of digital networks in addition to the physical world that was the same for the old organizations. The organizations are linked as nodes on the network where they receive and transmit information. Remaining on the network requires sensing and responding to this FL owe of information.The digital network consists of the Internet and telecommunication neurons that rely on digits (ones and zeros) to carry information across large distances. Sensing the world means frequent monitoring of the news and information that becomes available. This information is in the form of text, audio, or video.
Organizations such as Data Motors have to constantly monitor their digital environment to learn about the markets, their competition, their partners, and the business they operate in. Dispersed organization Another key aspect of many large modern organizations is that they are highly dispersed.Data Motors, for instance, has operations in many cities in India and in other parts of the world. The companies disperse their operations to best meet customer needs or to locate functions where the resources such as skilled labor or raw materials are available.
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Multinational organizations are well known to seek out new destinations for their operations and also new markets. They are able to do this owing to laws and facilities that are created by host nations, as it benefit TTS their economy. Knowledge organization Modern organizations rely on knowledge workers to a much larger extent than older organizations.These workers differ from blue-collar workers as their work responsibilities involve accessing and dealing with knowledge about the work and the environment, as opposed to repetitive manual labor related to production. Knowledge workers enjoy greater autonomy in their work and the variety of work they have to perform. Consequently, they are better educated and more informed about the business they are working in. A major function of modern organizations is to process information. They create information about goods and services, accumulate it within the organization and use it to achieve goals.
SQ.Marketing managers are keener to look for a least cost route that also allow a sales person to meet all his customers. Identifying a least cost route with this features is slightly complicated. Therefore, managers depend on excision support tools to find the most cost effective routes to cover the market.
The traveling salesman problem is one of such tool. Describe the tool with a diagram. NAS. In this question, we described the traveling salesman problem (TTS), which belongs to the NP class- difficult problems (Garry, 1 979) which does not recognize a polynomial algorithm (Corner,2001 and Beryl 2008).We talked about modeling in the ML (Unified Modeling Language). Heuristics used to solve this problem are genetic algorithms which belong to the modern meta-heuristics.
In the end we specified a particular application that illustrates how these algorithms work. The application is cap able of setting the necessary parameters and visual display of the optimal. GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND TRANSCENDENTALISM PROBLEM First, we will mention some of the main features of graphs. Graph G= (T, L) is an arranged pair(T, L) where T is the set of vertices (nodes) and L system of arcs (links) of the graph. Route is a series of vertices connected by arches.If the route has all the arcs different it is called a chain,and if all the vertices are different then it is a simple chain.
Simple closed chain is called a cycle-We will kook at the traveling salesman problem, by solving a concrete example, through a fully non oriented graph. This means that we chose the stricter requirement, to pass through each node exactly once. Graph in which it is possible to construct a cycle that goes through each node is called a Hamiltonian graph. So, for the given set of cities and the travel cost. The Traveling Salesman Problem describes a salesman who must travel between N cities.The order in which he does so is something he does not care about, as long as he visits each one during his trip, and finishes where he was at first. Each city is connected to other close by cities,or nodes, by airplanes or by road or railway. Each of those links between the cities has one or more weights (or the cost) attached.
The cost describes how “difficult” it is to traverse this edge on the graph, and may be given, for example, by the cost of an airplane ticket or train ticket, or perhaps by the length of the edge, or time required completing the traversal.The salesman wants to keep both the travel costs, as well as the distance he travels as low as possible. The Traveling Salesman Problem is typical of a large class of “hard” optimization robbers that have intrigued mathematicians and computer scientists for years. Most important, it has applications in science and engineering. For example, in the manufacture of a circuit board, it is important to determine the best order in which a laser will drill thousands of holes. An efficient solution to this problem reduces production costs for the manufacturer.Exact solutions to the problem can be found, using branch and bound algorithms.
This is currently possible for about 40-60 cities. Heuristics approaches use a set of guiding rules for selection of the next node. But since heuristics result in approximations, they will not always give the optimal solution, although high quality admissible heuristics can find a useful solution in a fraction of the time required for a full brute force of the problem. An example of a heuristic for a node would be a summation of how many unvisited nodes are “close by” a connected node. SQ.
There are many examples of digital goods. Companies such as Amazon . Com are selling digital versions of books over their site. These digital books can be read on special readers that display the pages on a screen. A. List the important properties of information goods . Explain positive feedback with diagrams NAS. Information goods have certain properties that make them distinct from physical goods.
Information goods are typically expensive to produce but very cheap to reproduce. For example, the original cost of producing a music track by a professional band may run into millions of rupees.However, once the digital version of the track is available, it can be reproduced or copied for almost no cost or at a very low cost. It is widely believed that owing to the spread of AMP music files across the Internet, the music industry as a whole as been deeply affected. Many new businesses have evolved that directly sell music if Sis off the Internet; the most famous example of this is the tunes store that sells music files for the Apple music players. Another property Of digital goods is that they can be converted into versions quite easily. A version of a good is a form that is different from the original, yet of the same nature.For example, physical books are typically released in the market as cloth- bound books that are more expensive; and a few months later the same book is released in a paper-bound version.
The content of both the books is exactly the same except that the expensive version has a better quality of binding and better printing; and the cheaper version usually has smaller print and the paper is of lower quality. Information goods that have a time value can be versioned quite easily using Information technology. For example, cricket scores that are sent out on SMS have a small price.However, the same scores can be obtained a few minutes later in an online form for free.
Explanation on positive feedback In a situation where there is a benefit t for individual users when many others tart using a network technology, the benefit t from using the network acts as boost for all the users. For example, when people start using e-mail that allows them to send messages and documents to many others, they realize the benefit or value Of the network and then are encouraged to use it even more. When they use the e-mail network more often, others are further encouraged too, and the usage of the technology grows.This is positive feedback. Positive feedback has been observed in many technologies that have network externalities. The growth in users of a network technology that as positive feedback follows an S-shaped curve.
SQ. Decision support systems (ADS) are used extensively across organizations to assist managers with making decisions. Decision making by managers involves the phases of intelligence, design, and choice, and ADS help mainly with the choice part as they support structured and unstructured types Of decisions. A. What is it that managers do when they make decisions? . Explain the different types of decisions. NAS. A.
Explaining decision making process Herbert Simon, the Nobel Prize winning researcher, showed that unmans went through three essential stages in the act of problem solving. He called these the Intelligence, Design, and Choice stages. Decision making can also be considered as a type of problem solving. When making a decision, humans tend to follow Simony’s Intelligence-Design-Choice Model. In the if rest stage, that of intelligence, they collect information about the issue from the environment and the surrounding context.For example, if a person is faced with the problem Of traveling from Bangor to New Delhi, a distance Of about 2000 km, then in the intelligence stage the person will seek all possible information of how to travel – by air, by train, by bus, or by a personal vehicle. This inquiry is open-ended and will involve searching for all possible avenues by which the problem can be solved. Once the intelligence information is available, the decision maker moves on to the next stage which is the design stage.
The question addressed at this stage is as follows: What criteria should be used to decide between the alternative possible solutions to the problem? This question requires the decision maker to settle on the criteria that are important, and then select or rank-order them. For example, the choice of cost and time may be the most important criteria for the decision-making process. At the next stage, that of choice, the criteria are applied to select the best answer from the available choices. For example, based on the criteria of cost and time available, it may be best to travel to Delhi from Bangor by train.The criteria may be weighted and these weights are applied in a formal manner, often with the help of a mathematical model. Once a solution is available, the decision maker may be satisfy deed with the answer or may return to earlier stages to redo the process. At the choice stage, the criteria and parameters for the decision help curtail the amount of search required to arrive at a decision.
If the criteria are not specific deed sharply then the number of alternatives to be considered to arrive at a decision may be very large.This stage may also require returning to the intelligence gathering activity, and then to the design stage to change or modify the criteria and the weights used to apply them. B. List and describing the different types of decisions ADS are typically used to support what are called structured decisions. In a tortured decision-making scenario, the relevant criteria, the data needed, and the method of analysis are usually known and can be modeled by the system.
For example, the traveling salesman problem is a very well-known structured problem.In this problem, the data on the number of cities the salesman has to visit, the distance between the cities and the criterion for selecting the tour for the salesman (which is the lowest cost route that he can take calculated on the basis of distance), are all known. The problem is to then if ND the best solution among the many possible tours the salesman loud go on. ADS effectively tackle such structured problems. However, it should be mentioned that the traveling salesman problem is very hard to solve, especially if the number of cities exceeds 30.Unstructured problems do not have clearly defined parameters or criteria for selecting solutions. For example, finding the best candidate for filling the position of a Chief Executive Officer of a firm is an unstructured problem.
The criteria may not be sharply defined, the parameters by which to describe and evaluate the candidates may also not be sharply identified, as they pertain to objective concepts like personality, leadership skills, vision, motivation, and so on. Unstructured decision problems are usually solved by imposing some form of structure in order to apply the analysis and select the best candidate.For example, to choose between several candidates for the Chief Executive Officer position, the decision makers may create a scale on which to rank the candidates on the subjective parameters. These ranks can then be used objectively to select the best candidate. A large class of problems is of the nature of semi-structured problems where some parameters are specified, but other parameters have to be determined by studying the problem domain carefully.
The problem of finding the best marketing campaign for a product, for example, is a semi- structured problem where some parameters such as the budgets, the target population, etc. Are known, but others such as the effectiveness of the media may not be known. ADS are used in cases of semi-structured problems with some assumptions and some imposition of structure.
5. What is crowd sourcing? How does the site Galaxy Zoo manage crowd sourcing? NAS: Crowd Sourcing The phrase crowd sourcing is often used to describe projects that encourage collaboration. The term refers to the idea that a ‘crowd’ of people, not necessarily known to each other, participate in working on a project.Galaxy Zoo management The problem that Galaxy Zoo places before visitors is that of classifying images of galaxies, which are star constellations in the universe, obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope. The site is created by a consortium of universities that do research on studying the universe.
One of the first tasks that the site put out was that of classifying the galaxy images into two groups – spiral and elliptical galaxies. Although the classification of images can be one by software such as Neural Networks, the researchers knew that humans were much better at this task.The project was initiated in 2007 with a million images of galaxies to be classified, and the organizers assumed it would take about 2 years to complete the task.
However, the site started receiving 70,000 classifications an hour, and in 1 year received more than 50 million classifications (many galaxies were classified multiple times). The classified galaxies were then considered for further research. The participants in this crowd sourcing exercise were often school children and ordinary tizzies, not necessarily scientists.After the success of the first round, the site set up another project by taking images from the first classification effort, and asking more detailed questions about the images. Within 14 months, the site had received over 60 million classifications. Some volunteers of the site were also able to point to the objects in the images that were outside the scope of the task, which drove the researchers to examine these new objects and ask new questions – thus opening up new areas of research. SQ.
Data and information relating to individuals could be of sensitive nature. Give some examples of such kind of data. NAS. 1.Employees, who work extensively with computers, log in every morning when they come to work and log out in the evening when they leave. During the working day, every time they leave their desk or are not working on the computer, the system logs their inactivity at work.
For example, a United Airlines worker, in the USA, Was threatened with job loss on the grounds that she had Spent more than the allotted time in the bathroom, making her co-workers take up her work. 2. Medical records detailing illnesses and treatments, hospital visits, and dedication routines are all stored on organizational databases that contain personnel data.The data is specific to individuals and, for some organizations, also contains details about the individual’s family members. In the ASSAI, for example, the medical records of the famous singer Brittany Spears were read by employees of a hospital in which she was treated. The employees later leaked the information to the press. Spears took legal action against the hospital, which had to fire several employees.
3. Web surfing activities of individuals are also logged by corporate web servers. Which sites individuals have visited, how long they have been on the site, and what kind of material they have downloaded are also logged.A multinational media firm, for example, threatened to fire unemployed based on his visits to Yahoo. Com from an office computer.
The firm had obtained details about the employee’s surfing behavior from server logs. 4. Security systems in some organizations, which are based on swipe cards or security cards that enable doors and office buildings to be opened or accessed, retain records of all individual movements across buildings and workplaces.
Data pertaining to individual movements is available in security logs.