Machiavelli portrayed “The Prince” as a manual for daily routine life and how to maximize the opportunities. He described human nature through different interpretations. He says that anyone is innocent or noble until he is not given any chance or opportunity. There are two sides of human nature that men are rational and stupid. They only prioritize taste in anything, no matter the drink is poison.
It is man’s inner nature that he is unreliable and self-interested. Machiavelli says that man is greedy as he soon forgets the death of his father as compared to the loss of his wealth. Wherever, any man finds his personal interest, his monetary lust indulges him to cross all moral barriers.Here, Machiavelli gives suggestions to prince how to rule any state under different circumstances.
He motivates the prince in order to get dominance and acquisition of any power. Only that prince can successfully maintain law and order in his state who is visionary and foresighted. He says that a prince should be brave like a lion and cunning like a fox. As a lion alone survives itself under the critical situation and how fox tricks the hungry wolves for its survival.
A prince should notice every time where the wind is flowing because the establishment of any state is not pre-destined or pre-determined. Storm can arise anytime without any prediction or warning. Machiavelli exemplifies Pope Julius II and Cesare Borgia how they utilized their foresight to face the upcoming hurdles and barriers.Machiavelli says that everyone is not capable to figure out the underlying meaning of any problem. Only a few diagnose the ills when they arise. In order to maintain any sovereign, any ruler must adopt some unique and different strategies which yet are not applied.
Machiavelli appreciates the concern of Pope Julius II and Cesare Borgia toward religion. Because these two rules did prefer a new way to strengthen their power and state. Before these two rulers in Italy, most of the conflicts were between church and state ruling authorities. In fact, the people of the church were not ruling the state, but he has the strength of all Christian communities. Pope Julius II and Cesare Borgia figured out that religion is becoming a main power in the state, therefore they did mutually collaboration with church authoritative figures for solving all current challenges. If any prince has the trust of his native community, then he has no fear of external invaders.
Machiavelli gives a piece of advice regarding the church and religion in “The Prince” that any prince or ruler should avoid any kind of conflict with the church. If he will harm the church or religion he will see defeat in the case of blasphemy and the ultimate outcome is death and hopelessness. By mutual co-operation of any church authority, it is very easy to manipulate the people, because people blindly follow the instructions what the church says in any period. Even religion was the dominant factor throughout the entire course of human history. He suggests the prince use religion as a tool to maintain his governing system. Because religion is the ultimate power and every wise ruler should adopt new tactics to use religion for his personal benefits.
It is human nature that man is reactionary, but the difference between animal and me is that man uses his laws and intellect in order to confront something, but animal lacks this entity of intellectually so animal uses its force to overcome other things. So, a prince should behave like a man. Machiavelli explains the term humanity by referring to renowned Greek Philosophers Aristotle and Plato because of their distinctive convention, which was not based on solely on seeking of material possessions and benefits. The different approach of their conventions made them distinct from beats. They prefer such laws through which one can gain glory without giving anyone physical harm. Machiavelli in chapter XVII of “The Prince” “Of Cruelty and Clemency, and Whether It Is Better to Be Loved or Feared” says that human nature is fickle and thankless because he forgets all his blood relations, where he gains his profit.
He will against you no matter how deep relation you have with that person. Man gets easily manipulated because of his irrational nature.Prince on the other hand, if has a goal to gain glory he should avoid harm. As any prince has responsibility for the well-being of any state.
Any ruler should give more preference to the benefits of any state as compared to his own integrity. If any ruler is foresighted then he will make better plans for the betterment of any society. Machiavelli says that human nature is corrupt and greedy. He says that any person who is greedy has all other negative vibes like he is a deceiver, cunning and cheater. What makes him different from the prince beside prince has all such attributes. The difference between person and prince is that the prince is long sightedness and other greedy person is short-sightedness due to which he could not enable himself to rule any state or society.
Long-sightedness is a remarkable quality which makes the prince from the rest of the community. There are two ways to become a ruler or prince. Any prince first becomes a ruler by using power or threat. While the second option is to rule by getting the approval of the citizens. In VIII, chapter of “The Prince” Machiavelli describes an ancient character Agathocles who attain his control on Cecily through crime. He even betrayed his friends, family members for the greed of authority.
So, we cannot say this fortune, he achieved all this through his brutal and criminal actions. Due to which he lost his honour and dignity and he could not get success in achieving the trust of eminent people. Therefore, he faced a lot of problems because of his pitiless nature. Whereas, Machiavelli gives a modern example by introducing Oliverotto of Fermo who was raised by his own uncle.Oliverto planned to arrange a feast party for the renowned citizen and the members of his family. When they arrived, he ordered his soldiers to kill all of them.
Later on, he got control of his state by strengthening the state. Then after some time, he was captured along with his army by Cesare Borgia who killed Oliverotto. Machiavelli says that cruelty benefits to a certain limit.
Cruelty should not be applied to the high intensity where the outcomes will be in the form of massive loss of subjects. So, he advises the prince to use the concept of cruelty by applying his common sense in order to maintain his relationships with other subjects. But if cruelty is being used badly, then this thing harms the position of any ruler. So, if prince uses cruelty wisely then it is a virtue.
But if he uses cruelty badly then there is no possibility of his survival because he ultimately loses the trust and favour of the natives.So, in a nutshell, we conclude that Machiavelli describes human nature as greedy, clever and thankless who only concerns about his personal motifs and benefits. Eve prince has a remarkable quality which is lacking in local natives is long-sightedness. Then, Machiavelli says that cruelty is a virtue I fit is used wisely otherwise it will harm both state and ruler.
Then Machiavelli describes the dominant power of the church how Pope Julius II and Cesare Borgia manipulated the church in order to gain their personal materialistic desires. According to Machiavelli both Pope Julius II and Cesare Borgia are the real models who have an outstanding attribute of long-sightedness. He says that every man has a greedy nature, but everyone does not know how to utilize that cynical nature in or pursue her dreams of getting possessions. Only that person who has long-sightedness can achieve his desired goal of life. The only prince or ruler has such unique qualities.
Machiavelli prefers adversity in case ruling that means the viewpoint of any prince varies from rest of community. He must devise such plans and strategies by sacrificing himself which are beneficial for both state and ruler. Everyone remains in search of acquiring power and fame but only those get those entities who use the present opportunities efficiently.
Plus Machiavelli says that religion is only fundamental power in that era as all Christian communities believe firm which religion says so there is no harm to manipulate religion for seeking the power of the crown. But only that ruler apply such strategies who is visionary, clever, and long-sighted.