Lifesaving miracle drugscommonly called Antibiotics are generally used in the treatment and stoppage ofbacterial infections. Global population today are totally dependent upon theantibiotics for minor to major bacterial infections. Global consumption ofantibiotics is increasing dramatically day by day.
The loss of efficacy ofantibiotics against the harmful pathogens has almost led to the dependency onexpensive drugs thus increasing morbidity and mortality of world population (Van Boeckel et al., 2014). However, extreme and inconsistentuse of these antibiotics would result in the rise of antibiotic resistance, ascenario which is now posing a serious threat to the globe. The emergence of resistanceto antimicrobial agent is becoming a major public health problem worldwide asit can easily cross international boundaries and spread between the continentswith ease in a great speed. So, knowing the global design of resistance isimportant (Zhang, Eggleston, Rotimi, & Zeckhauser, 2006). Thecurrent trend of globalizationhas also increased the vulnerability of countries to imported diseases, infectiousdiseases and antibiotic resistance species.
Natural environment acts as areservoir for antibiotic resistance genes and changes in the ecology may be oneof the important factor contributing to it (Martínez, 2008). Excessive use of antibiotics andchemicals in agriculture to promote livestock growth, and in hospitals israpidly leading to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, which is ultimatelyspreading via human travel and poor sanitation practices. Moreover, climate alterationand antimicrobial resistance appears to be interconnected to each other, sinceclimate change and global warming could be responsible for the evolution ofnewer and even severer resistance mechanisms within bacteria. Understanding thepresent form of antibiotic resistance and itsgenetic basis would provide the foundation to design and implement stratagemsto limit the advent and spread of resistance and progress innovative therapeuticsagainst these drug resistant organisms. Resistance is either acquired ornatural and is transferred via horizontal or vertical gene transfer and also isdue to gene expression alteration together with altered mechanism of drugaction (Alanis, 2005). ESBL producerorganisms are posing a serious threat to the world as they are showingresistance towards most beta-lactam antibiotics including Penicillins, Cephalosporins.E.
coli and Klebsiella pneumonia are two important ESBL producer organismswhich carry genes that confer resistance to the beta-lactams (Paterson, 2006). E. coli is themost recurrent cause of urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections,intra-abdominal infections and leading causative agents of foodborne infectionsworldwide. Similarly, Klebsiella pneumonia causes urinary and respiratory tract infectionsand, in neonates it causes bloodstream infections (Report, 2014).
These ESBL producingorganisms conferresistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics thus preventing the treatment.