LIFE OF MELANIE KLEIN
Melanie Klein was born in 1882 in a middle class family in Vienna (Donaldson, 2002, para.2). Melanie Klein, recognized in the field of developmental psychology, is the most important female psychoanalyst (Donaldson, 2002, para. 2). Although Melanie Klein want to attend medical school, she could not continue her medical school due to some financial difficulties her family had suffered during that period (Donaldson, 2002, para. 2). Therefore, Klein married Arthur Klein at the age of 21 (Donaldson, 2002, para. 2). Melanie has three children from this marriage and Klein experienced depression from time to time throughout her marriage (Donaldson, 2002, para. 2). When Klein moved to Budapest with his family, she was interested in psychoanalysis and she was following curiously Sigmund Freud (Do?rul, 2018, para. 1). During in this period, Klein met with the psychoanalyst Sandor Frenzci and Melanie Klein was focus on especially developmental psychology thanks to the this meeting (Do?rul, 2018, para. 1). Klein saw Freud for the first time at International Psycho-Analytic Congress and she was very impressed (Donaldson, 2002, para. 3). Klein’s first work on children psychology is “The Development of the Child” (Do?rul, 2018, para. 1). Klein continued to studies more willing with the approval of her first work (Do?rul, 2018, para. 1). Klein joined the Hungarian Psychoanalytic Society in 1919 (Crann, 2010, para.4). In those days, Klein was having problems in her marriage and she was divorce from Arthur Klein (Donaldson, 2002, para. 3). Klein first went to Berlin in order to join the Berlin Psycho-Analytic Society and then to London in order to join the British Psycho-Analytical Society (Donaldson, 2012, para. 3). Klein met with British psychoanalysts who wanted to learn their ideas and play technique (Donaldson, 2002, para. 4). Klein created a system of children development theory and Klein trained many analysts (Donaldson, 2002, para. 4). She was written many books about children psychoanalysis. Melanie Klein died in 1960 from cancer (Crann, 2010, para.6).
WORKS AND THEORIES OF MELANIE KLEIN
Sigmund Freud is a very influential factor in Melanie Klein’s orientation to children psychoanalysis (Do?rul, 2018, para. 3). Despite her commitment to Freud’s views, Klein differs in some respects (Do?rul, 2018, para. 3). The most significant difference of Klein from Freud is her viewpoint of ‘object relations’ (Do?rul, 2018, para. 3). According to Freud, while the person bear to objects in order to empty impulses of pleasure, Klein argues that the objects come from birth (Güngen, 2015, para. 2). Influenced by Psychodynamic theory of Freud, Klein founded her own school (Object Relation Theory, 2015, para. 2). Klein is accepted to be one of the founders of Object Relations Theory (Object Relations Theory, 2015, para.2). Other psychoanalysts who have developed Object Relation Theory are Otto Rank, Sandor Ferenczi, Ronald Fairbairn, Donald Winnicott, Harry Guntrip, and Scott Stuart (Object Relations Theory, 2015, para.2). Object Relation Theory examine that relation with objects of children (Nesne ?li?kileri, 2010). This theory examine that the effect of the internalized relations with primary caretakers in infancy period and their unconscious influence on future relationships (Object Relations Theory, 2015, para.2). Infants internalize new objects from birth (Güngen, 2015, para. 4). Infants internalize objects as ‘good objects’ or ‘bad objects’ (Güngen, 2015, para. 5). The mental formation called ‘early ego’ has the task of separating the good and the bad objects from each other (Güngen, 2015, para. 5). According to Melanie Klein, infants want to be relieved by internalizing good objects against bad objects because infants have innate death impulse (Güngen, 2015, para. 4). The first object that babies meet is the mother’s breast and if the mother’s breast can feed the child and the child can reach every time, breast is good gor infants but if the mother’s breast does not feed the child and the child can not reach the breast all the time, breast is bad for infants (Güngen, 2015, para. 5). Also, according to the positive and negative reactions of the mother to the child, they form the self defined as ‘good self’or ‘bad self'(Güngen, 2015, para. 5)
PERIODS OF CHILDHOOD PERIODS
Melanie Klein has classified childhood periods since the birth of children (Do?rul, 2018, para. 6).The first period is that ‘Paranoid-Schizoid Position’ and this period covers the first three month from birth (Güngen, 2015, para. 6). At this period, infants are worried about innate death impulse (Paranoid-schizoid position, n.d.,para. 1). The anxiety of infants about death impulse lead to ‘paranoia’ in infants (Object Relations Theory, 2015, para.7). And in order to deal with this condition, infants use ‘splitting’, ‘projection’ and ‘introjection’ phantasies (Paranoid-schizoid position, n.d.,para. 1). Since the baby is primitive in this period, she continues her baby relationships with pieces of objects and divides objects as good and bad (Object Relations Theory, 2015, para.5). Then the good and the bad objects are introjectioned, then the projection is done, then the again introjection is done and so a loop is created (Paranoid-schizoid position, n.d.,para. 3). The second period is that Melanie Klein defined between three and six months as ‘Depressive Position’ (Güngen, 2015, para. 6). At this period, infants combine the good objects and the bad objects that are divided until then (Güngen, 2015, para. 6). ‘Early ego’ wants to combine because it can deal with the harm from the combine of good and bad objects (Güngen, 2015, para. 6). Attack of the bad impulses to good objects causes guilt in the infants and this is called ‘ambivalence’ (Güngen, 2015, para. 6). Infants enter a depressive period as a result of this condition (Güngen, 2015, para. 6). When the good and the bad objects interact, the aggressive impulse disappear and the objects of affection become important so that the object is saved from being good and bad (Güngen, 2015, para. 6).
CONTRIBUTIONS OF MELANIE KLEIN
Klein was the first psychologist to consider children’s games as important (Donaldson, 2002). Klein developed appropriate gaming techniques for children psychoanalysis (Do?rul, 2018). Melanie Klein has spent her whole life quite efficiently and effectively (Do?rul, 2018, para. 13). Klein has compose a lot of works about her school, and Klein is transferred her thoughts to all people until the last moment (Do?rul, 2018, para. 13). Melanie Klein has laid the foundations of today’s game therapy and has made considerable contributions to this field through her many researchs on children psychology (Do?rul, 2018, para. 12). Klein was the first psychologist to consider children’s games as important (Donaldson, 2002). In the game technique developed by Klein, children play games as they like, so that the children reflect their worries outward (Do?rul, 2018, para. 12). The therapist usually releases the child while playing so that the child will be able to explain the emotions and thoughts children can not explain by playing the game (Do?rul, 2018, para. 12). The therapist is in the position of an observer and analyzes the children by interpreting the children’s behavior (Do?rul, 2018, para. 12). Prior to Klein, there was no analysis or therapy for childhood emphasizing the importance, but Klein found it in the method to apply his own technique and play therapy is still in use today (Do?rul, 2018, para. 13).
Melanie Klein has been involved in productive discussions for many years with Anna Freud, one of the pioneers of this field (Güngen, 2015, para. 1). The discussions of Klein and Anna Freud are due to scientific, educational, administrative issues ( Steiner, n.d., para. 2 ). Anna Freud blamed Melanie Klein for get away from classical Freudian psychoanalysis (Anna Freud, n.d., para. 3). Also Melanie Klein and Anna Freud, pioneers in psychoanalysis, did not share the same idea about the age of a children’s analysis (Anna Freud, n.d., para. 3). At the same time, Klein was strongly criticized in this period and Klein was accused of not being psychoanalytic (Anna Freud, n.d., para. 3). Anna Freud described Melanie Klein as savage, unscientific and arrogant while Klein described anna freud it as very conservative and narrow-minded (Anna Freud, n.d., para. 3). As a result of these discussions, three groups were established: Freudians, Kleinians and Independents (Steiner, n.d., para. 2 ). These debates were published as 1941-1945 (Crann, 2010, para. 5).