Describe the management implications associated with each of these properties Organizations are complex because of the ever growing technology, the type f work involved, the skillets of people, the hierarchical structure of the organization, and the development of relationships outside the organization. The most complex component of any organization is the people whose behavior is difficult to predict. Each person within the organization brings with them interpersonal needs, desires and motivations that impact performance in both positive and negative ways.
Bellman, L. , & Deal, T. (2003). An example of a complex organization within the United States is the Veterans Health Administration. They operate 152 VA Medical Centers and approximately 1400 community-based outpatient clinics and employs an estimated 280,000 people. The VA reported 92 million outpatient visits and 902,000 inpatient admissions during 2013. List of Veterans Affairs medical facilities. (n. D. ). (2015). Organizations are surprising in that any predicted impact of an organizational decision can be unreliable due to the interpretation of others.
An organization’s leaders actions can be misinterpreted by others, sometimes with unexpected results. Bellman, L. , & Deal, T. (2003). For example, the military installation where I work organized an “active shooter” exercise that involved city and county law enforcement agencies and included several local hospitals. In turn, my organization volunteered as the active shooter site. Employees were briefed on what to expect and how to react. When the exercised kicked off, we heard the “bang, bang, bang’ and hid ourselves In any enclosed lockable space we could find.
We sat in our confined spaces for three hours waiting for our rescue. Unbeknown to us, at the time was that the county law enforcement was held up at the installation main gate for two hours waiting for authority to enter. The crux of the problem was that the exercise was planned before new military installation security procedures were implemented to tightened base access. The exercise planners did not take these changes into account during play and civilian law enforcement was delayed in clearing our building from two active shooters before nine exercise players were killed and thirty wounded.
In 2010, the Department of Veterans Affairs had been plagued with long appointment wait times for veteran medical care for more than a decade. In an attempt to improve timeliness of care, then VA Secretary Eric Shinnies approved a plan that ordered physicians to provide medical care to within 14 says of a veteran’s requested date for appointment. The plan did not include funding for this new requirement nor did it implement the internal controls to manage execution. The plan was doomed from the onset. Brenner, M. ( 2014).
While appointment wait times Were shortened outpatient patient workload increased and was further complicated by the shortage of healthcare workers to treat aging veterans and Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with complex health challenges such as traumatic brain injury, multiple limb amputations and prosthetics, diabetes and post-traumatic stress disorder. The increased epically care workload greatly stressed Ova’s ability to meet mandated appointment timeliness with limited available resources. Veterans Health Administration Scandal of 2014 (n. . ) (2015). . Organizations are deceptive in that the structure, culture and procedural practices overshadow what may really be occurring. Strategic Leadership and Decision Making (n. D. ) (2015). On April 30th, 2014, a retired VA physician reported to CNN that the Phoenix VA leadership forwarded a report that reflected appointments were timely, when in fact maintaining unofficial written lists which showed that veterans ere waiting up to a year for appointments. Managers had intimidated employees into complying with the deception.
CNN further reported that 40 veterans died while waiting for care and the Phoenix, Arizona Veterans Health Administration (VIA) facilities. The Veterans Affairs reported on June 9th, 2014 that an internal audit determined that 120,000 veterans were either waiting for or never received care and that schedulers and were pressured to use unofficial lists or manipulated data to reflect more timely appointment schedules on reports in violation of VIA rules. Additional VA internal investigations identified medical centers within nine States where schedulers used unofficial lists or illegally altered automated report data.
Veterans Health Administration Scandal of 2014 (n. D. ) (2015). Organizations are ambiguous. Trying to figure out what really happens within an organization complicated by the quality of and reliability of available information, the ability to properly identify a problem and the size of the organization. Within organizations, different cultures and subcultures exist, based on ethnic groups, race, religion and interpersonal relations that implicate a managers ability to understand what is going on within their purview. Strategic Leadership and Decision Making (n. D. ) (2015).
Often managers cannot identify what the problem is because of vague or competing requirements and often managers are unaware that a problem is actually occurring because of incomplete, ambiguous and unreliable information. Managers often do not have the required resources of time, attention and money to manage programs. There are many sources of ambiguity within an organization. Managers are unsure of role responsibilities because of unclear instructions from leadership, agreement over who is responsible for what, and shifting responsibilities as people move in and out of the organization.
Because Of ambiguity, managers are unsure how to can get what they want from whom. Finally, managers are unsure how to determine if they have succeeded in in their roles because they are not sure what criteria is used to evaluate success, or do not know how to measure the outcome to determine success. Bellman, L. , & Deal, T. (2003). For the VA leadership, it took a scandal to identify that their plan to reduce medical appointment wait times was not sustainable. Veterans Health Administration Scandal of 2014 (n. D. ) (2015). 2. Summarize Bellman and Deals Reframing perspective by addressing the following questions: a.
Why is the framing perspective important? How does it help managers to understand better the challenges and conditions they face. Proper reframing provides managers the ability to understand and use different perspectives to look at something in more than one view. Utilizing a frame is a mental model, or a set of ideas and assumptions that people carry in their heads to help understand and negotiate a particular “territory. ” A good frame makes it easier to know what managers are up against and ultimately, what they can do about it. Frames serve multiple functions.
They sort out important relevant information and provide tools for solving problems and getting things done. Reframing focuses four frames: structural, human resources, political and symbolic. The structural approach focuses on the architecture of organization within the design of units and subunits, rules and roles, goals and policies. The human resource frame focuses on understanding people and their strengths and weaknesses, reason and emotion, desires and fears. The political view sees organizations as competitive arenas of scarce resources, competing interests, and struggles for power and advantage.
Finally, the symbolic frame focuses on issues of meaning and faith. It puts ritual, ceremony, story, play, and culture at the heart of organizational life. Each of the frames is powerful and coherent. Collectively, they make it possible to airframe, looking at the same thing from multiple points of view. Reframing is a powerful tool for gaining clarity, regaining balance, generating new options, and finding strategies that make a difference Bellman, L. & Deal, T. (2003). B. What are the key features of the structural frame?
Managers focus on structural elements within the organization as well as strategy, implementation, and adaptation. Changing institutional structures works well when goals are clear, when cause-and-effect relationships are well understood, and when there is little conflict, uncertainty or ambiguity. This concept includes goals, structure, technology, roles and relationships and coordination of them. Responsibilities, division of labor, rules, policies, procedures, systems, and hierarchies which coordinate an organization’s verse activities into a unified effort relate to this frame.
The challenge for organizations and their leaders involves designing maintaining, and aligning structural forms with current circumstances, tasks, technology, the environment, and goals. When structure does not line up, problems arise. Reorganization or redesign may help remedy the structural misalignment. Rational analysis leads to the development and implementation of work roles and tasks and the appropriate coordination and integration of individual and group. Bellman, L. , & Deal, T. (2003). C. What are the key features of the unman relations frame?
Managers who approach change from a human resource frame focus on people. This approach emphasizes support, empowerment, staff development, and responsiveness to employee needs. A focus on people works well when employee morale is a consideration and when there is relatively little conflict. This frame emphasizes understanding people and their relationships. Individuals have needs, feelings, fears, biases, skills, and development opportunities. Managers are enabled to understand the fit between the individual and the organization.
By attending to employees, the organization can meet individual needs and train the individual to meet organizational needs. The employees feel empowered to have more control over what they do and the job gets done. Bellman, L. , & Deal, T. (2003). D. What are the key features of the political frame? Managers use the political approach to facilitate change on the political realities that exist within and outside organizations. This frame emphasizes power, competition, and winning scarce resources. Diverse values, beliefs, interests, behaviors, and skills provide the rich context for the allocation of power and resources.
People set agenda, bargain, negotiate, build coalitions, compromise and coerce, and manage conflict. Think competing interests, struggles for power, and who gets what and how. Political skill and acumen craft solutions. Such realities of organizational life can be toxic or sources of creativity and innovation. Effective management and leadership guide the proper disbursement of power and influence and determine organizational effectiveness. Bellman, L. , & Deal, T. (2003). E. What are the key features of the symbolic frame? Managers who make change using a symbolic approach focus on vision and inspiration.
Symbolic leaders feel that people need to believe that their personal work, and the work of the organization, is important and meaningful. Traditions, ceremonies, and rituals are very important to the symbolic approach, which is most appropriate when goals and/or cause-and- effect relationships are unclear. Members’ roles play out in the drama of everyday efforts of the organization. Meaning matters more than results. Events and processes have importance more for expression than production. The faith built up and meaning shared by members infuses passion, creativity, and soul.