Labor office is cabinet body responsible for standards in occupational safety, wages and number of hours worked, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services and portion of the country’s economic statistics and worker define as “any man or woman over the age of sixteen working in return for any type of remuneration, for an employer and under his supervision and management whether under a written or unwritten, explicit or implicit contract, or under training or probation period or performing mental, technical, office or administrative work.” Whereas employer can define as “any person who employs, under a contract of employment, one person or more in return for any type of remuneration.” 1Occupational accidents define as any occupational injury or disease which afflicts the worker during working hours or because of work and which hinders his performance. The term also includes fire, explosion or collapse at the workplace and “Serious accident”: any accident which causes the death of a worker or his disability by 50 % or the injury of more than one worker.
“1A national occupational safety and health system comprises all the infrastructures, mechanisms and specialized human resources required to translate the principles and goals defined by the national policy into the practical implementation of programs. In turn, one of the main aims of national occupational safety and health program should be to strengthen national occupational safety and health systems. An occupational safety and health system must respond to the effects of both socio-economic and technological changes on working conditions and environment and so is not built just once but must be to be strengthened, reorganized and reoriented through a permanent cyclical process of reviews, performance evaluations and readjustments of objectives and program or creation of new ones to meet new needs. 2Objectives and functions of labor office:Coordinate, in accordance with the adopted general policy, the activities of the executive bodies in charge of workers.Osman Mohamed Osman – 202105518 3Calculate and count, on a regular basis, the number of workers and submit to the minister all the information and recommendations.Supervise the implementation of the adopted labor program in a manner which is adapted to the plans for development.Perform any other activities related to labor which the minister may assign it to perform within the framework of the general policy.1Role of the Occupational safety and health:Basically occupational safety and health is an broad multidisciplinary field, regularly deal with an issues related to scientific areas such as medicine in all aspects like physiology and toxicology – ergonomics, physics and chemistry, as well as technology, economics, law and other areas specific to various industries and activities, then we can summarize the role in few point:Essential issue to direct policies for promotion, action and management.
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General protection measures, for example, guarding of machinery, medical examination of young workers or limiting the weight of loads to be transported by a single worker.Protection in some areas of economic activity, such as mining, the building industry, commerce and dock work.Protection of definite professions e.g. nurses and other categories of workers having particular occupational health needs.Protection against specific risks such as ionizing, radiation, benzene and asbestos to prevent occurrence of damages and harmful e.g.
occupational cancer, and control of air pollution, noise and vibration in the working environment one of the big role of occupational safety and health also measures to ensure safety in the use of chemicals.2Importance of occupational health and safety:Based on the nature of human working is basic of our life and most of time during the day spending in the workplace so the environment should be safe and healthy for the worker, but most of worker and employer they did not take it seriously in particular here in Sudan, on the other side all over the world many countries dealing with occupational health and safety as priority and we hope it becomes a priority.Osman Mohamed Osman – 202105518 4There are some obstacles in the occupational health and safety can be summarizing as:Lack of infrastructure for collection, compilation and presentation of data.Shortage of suitably trained personnel in the field of occupational health, especially among categories other than doctors.Deficiency of equipment to monitor the environment and to carry out work.Inadequate legislations.The division of responsibility of occupational health between the various ministries of the governments and the lack of co-ordination between them.
Weak restrictions or punishment regarding tobacco law especially smoking in public placesCertain basic principles can be identified, including the following:? The right of worker: as we know all workers have rights, to ensure that these rights are protected and must strive to establish and maintain decent, safe and healthy working conditions and environment. Also should be consistent with workers’ well-being and human dignity, for example:Right to enquire about risks and preventive measures: every operator who is requested to operate a new machine or practice a new work has the right to enquire and be fully trained on the associated hazards.Right to remove themselves from a dangerous situation: a worker may terminate his contract of employment without prior notice to the employer in the following cases in the event of a serious threat to the safety or health of the worker; provided that the employer is aware of the said threat and has not adopted the necessary measures to remove the threat.Working at height, confined spaces and exposure to extreme temperatures: any work location over 3 meters height must be equipped with proper protection rails also the factory owner must ensure that the temperature in each room must comply with the nature of the work and that there is sufficient air circulation to ensure fresh air.? Occupational safety and health policies must be established at both the national and enterprise levels.Osman Mohamed Osman – 202105518 5A national system for occupational safety and health must be established and include all the mechanisms and elements necessary to build and maintain a preventive safety and health culture also should be progressively developed and must be formulated then implemented, monitored, evaluated and periodically reviewed.
Socially employers, workers and other stakeholders must be consulted. This should be done during formulation, implementation and review of all policies, systems and programs, taking in consideration the prevention and protection is important aim.Continuous improvement of occupational safety and health must be promoted, to ensure that national laws, regulations and technical standards to prevent occupational injuries, diseases and deaths are adapted periodically to social, technical and scientific progress and other changes in the world of work.
Duties and responsibilities to protect the safety and health of workers and others:Every owner of an industry shall inform his workers of the occupational hazards and means for protection against such hazards. He or she shall take the necessary precautions to protect workers against industrial accidents and occupational diseases. Factory owners must perform periodic medical check-ups for workers working in hazardous locations.Supposedly every factory or any work place must be equipped with a first aid box with specific contents and under the supervision of a trained first aid staff and provide clean healthy water in sufficient amount in work locations.
Also Clean areas supplied with chairs and tables and away from the work location. Addition to Standards on toilets and sanitary installations shall be available for men and women. At the end the industrial safety committee shall hold a meeting at least once a month. It shall be obliged to meet also in the case of a serious accident or within one week after the discovery of an occupational disease. 1Vulnerable group in the field of work in general:Some group of worker or worker with Specific condition in such as pregnant ladies or lactating women:Osman Mohamed Osman – 202105518 6A female worker shall after six months of service and for each further year of service, be entitled to maternity leave with full payment , also four weeks before her confinement and four weeks after her confinement, provided that the date of confinement is certified by a doctor; two weeks before her confinement and six weeks after her confinement if she wishes so; Because of a disease resulting from the pregnancy or the confinement which prevents her from resuming her work, as certified by a doctor, she shall be considered to be on sick leave. It shall be forbidden to rescind the contract of employment of a female worker during her pregnancy or confinement period.”Protection of lactating women at work and access to specific occupations, undertakings or shifts:It shall be prohibited to employ women in occupations which are hazardous, arduous or harmful to their health, such as carrying weights or assigning women to perform jobs under ground or under water or jobs which may expose them to poisonous material or to temperatures exceeding the normal limits borne by women.””It shall be forbidden to employ women between 10 p.
m. and 6 a.m. except in administrative and technical jobs or in any other jobs related to health and social services. Authorize the employment of women at night for purposes related to the public interest.
The total daily periods of rest for women shall not be less than one paid hour. These periods shall be broken into periods lasting for at least half an hour or more. The duration of work shall not exceed five continuous hours without any rest.””It is prohibited to employ young workers (below the age of 16) in the following jobs:Carrying heavy loads.Work involving the use of metal presses, iron and steel smelting.Work performed under ground or under water, and mining and quarrying work.
Jobs in which workers are exposed to organic or inorganic poisonous or harmful material such as lead, mercury, calcium, benzene and its derivatives.Jobs involving x-rays and other harmful radiation.Jobs involving the maintenance of machinery and conveyer belts.In hazardous or unhealthy industries and jobs or in jobs requiring large physical effort or in jobs or occupations which are harmful to their moralsOsman Mohamed Osman – 202105518 7According to Tobacco Control Law of 2005″It is not permitted to use tobacco to the following places:? Public places.? Closed places.
It is not permitted for the workers mentioned to use tobacco during the performance of the following functions:The workers in the field of manufacturing, preparing, or providing food meant for human consumption during service delivery.Physicians in health services are provided and treatment during service delivery.Workers during delivery of lessons or other educational activities.Workers in the public or private sector during service delivery to the public. 3Conclusion: As we know the workers have the right to be safe in the working place during working time and return back to his normal life without any damage, this roles are played by both ministry of labor with ministry of health trough developing laws, polices and regulations also both of them should be care about implementation of polices and regulations , and flow the employer to applied the laws and supervise the worker themselves and increase the awareness of worker about occupational health and safety also training to be healthy and safe is key role.
In Sudan we hope all involved in the occupational health and safety to deal with it as serious issue through application of safety system and work hard to improve and update the offered service at all health centers and facilities according to our needs also filling the gap and correct the mistakes are require solving. And we must not forget the promotion of occupation safety and health is clearly reflected on the productivity and performance of work.