K&U1.What are the maincomponents of diversity?The perception ofdiversity embraces acceptance and respect. It means tolerating andunderstanding that everyone is unique and knowing their differences.
These canbe together with the dimension of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation,age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, socio-economic statuses, politicalbeliefs or other perceptions. Diversity is all about understanding eachindividual and progress further understandable tolerance to grasping andachieving these dimensions that are concealed within everyone.· Race.
Isconsidered an authoritative social class which was forged in the past throughslavery, persecution and conquest. Race is noticed by one’s physical geneticand cultural characteristics.· Ethnicity Iswhen a person or group of persons are associated with another group of peoplemostly based on beliefs, language, nationality, race and other apparentresemblances.· Cultural DiversityInany culture around the world, diversity is nothing more than dissimilaritiesfrom the majority.
Culture is a set of norms that set definitive behaviour ofwhat is or not acceptable in society. This type of diversity is manifested inthe distinctiveness of one’s identity in a group and society that make uphumanity.· Sexual DiversityIsnot just concentrated on biological dissimilarities between a woman and a man,but this diverse component concentrates also on sexual orientation. Sexual Orientation A person’s sexual orientation is not aboutthe colour of one’s skin, this is a term used to describe the humans’prototypes of emotional, romantic and sexual attraction.
Heterosexuality is anattraction to the opposite sex, homosexuality is the attraction of the same sexand bisexuality, the attraction of both sex. These are the three commoncategories mentioned when sexual orientation is discussed. Thus, othercategories of sexual identification exist apart from these three.
Queer for aninstance is an umbrella term for its nonspecific orientation. · Family Structures Despitedeveloping lifestyles and ever-increasing personal mobility that build modernsociety, families continue the main element of present-day life. Familiesdeliver security, protection and companionship against all odds of the world.In the years, family structures, like society, have experienced momentouschanges.§ TheNuclear Family This is the traditional thought type offamily where there are the parents and siblings.
Even though this is the morecommon and basic family settlement, it also rife with intricacies such asparents might start to consider whether to have more than one child. § ExtendedFamily When talking about extended families, itis usually referred to the grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins. This typeof family structure can be as rewarding as growing up in a nuclear family.§ WorkingParentsWhen the other parent decides to go backto work can be difficult especially for those who are new to parenthood.Though, missing the child’s first encounters with the world can never bereplaced, but each family has to make these types of decisions on their own.
§ SingleParents Diverse attenuating experiences may resultin a single parent. Normally a single parent is caused by divorce but a parentthat has lost his or her wedded partner or a woman who was never married caneven be considered as single parents. § OlderParents Couples who have children later on inlife, probably have less energy than their younger counterparts and the situationwill only be more pronounced as their child matures. Parents who have childrenlater in life face several advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, theyare most likely more financially stable, secure in their job and home, andclear about what they want.
§ YoungerParentsParents that have children in theirteenage years, face u numerous amount of problems. Firstly, social stigmaattached to having a child at an early age. With some cases the new parents donot get any family support, and this leaves them to cope on their own. Thisresults for the parents to have financial problems which leads to seeking allthe financial and emotional support they need to bring their child into theworld. Another difficulty teen parents face, is that they cannot continue theirstudies and find their dream career. § OlderSiblings If parents have another child years aftertheir first child, the new baby may end up having three parents.
It might bethat the older sibling helps in watching over his/her sibling, mentor and carefor. In any case the older sibling may refuse to help in such a role.§ StepFamilies In the past eras, step families were exceptional,and most individuals did not know how to relate to such situation. Presently,as the marks of shame against separation against separate and remarriageproceed to break down, increasingly step families are coming together.
While itis never simple to combine two families together, step families can be anopportunity to fashion modern, enduring, cherishing bonds.§ Adoption Adoptinga child can be exceptionally challenging, there are long and now and thenembarrassing tests into the parents’ lives and domestic judgement about thepotential capacity as a parent. There are moreover numerous distinctive methodsof adoption to consider. Adoption can be done through an agency, newly parentscan also refer to private adoption services, foreign and open adoptions orindependent adoptions. § EconomicInequalitiesEconomic inequalitiesare most obviously shown by people’s distinct positions within the economicdistribution – income, pay, wealth. Income Inequality is the extent to whichincome is distributed unevenly in a group of people.
Pay inequality thereforedescribes the difference between people’s pay and this may be within onecompany or across all pay received in the country. Measurement of income can beon an individual or household basis – the incomes of all the people sharing ahousehold. Pay Inequality A person’s pay is different to their income.
Incomeis not just the money received through pay, but all the money received fromemployment (wages, salaries, bonuses etc). Household income before tax thatincludes money received from the social security system is known as grossincome. Household income including all taxes and benefits is known as netincome. However, people’s economic positions are also related to othercharacteristics, such as whether or not they have a disability, their ethnicbackground, or whether they are a man or a woman. Wealth Inequality refers tothe total amount of assets of an individual or household.
K2.Describe the differencebetween absolute and relative poverty.Absolute Poverty As a result,the absolute poverty’s dividing line is based around a minimal level of incomethat allows an individual or household to meet their basic needs. The uncountabilityof poverty in the global personality then allowed the founding of a povertyspectrum, with absolute poverty at the very end of the scale, regardless of thejudgement of its apprehension mentioned above.
Hence, one can assume that the strategytaken in undertaking absolute poverty is one that pursues to defend the livesof those living below the absolute poverty line by supporting them with accessto crucial services. Henceforth, social scientists have brought up additionalfactors, such as social exclusion, into the poverty debate as an effort to widenits definition and achieve a better understanding of this phenomenon. “Itdepends not only on income but also on access to social services” (UN, 1995).
Absolutepoverty is a situation defined by severe deprivation of basic human needs,including food, safe drinking. § Thefood – energy intake method,in which the supreme destitution line is characterized by the level of wage afamily must have “to meet a predeterminedfood energy requirement” (World Bank, W/D). As costs shift insidelocales of the same nation, this leads to errors in the outright destitutionline set up for said nation. § The cost of basic needs method in which the neighbourhood costs for alist of nourishments frequently consumed by the destitute in the locale istaken into thought.
At that point, “aspecific allowance for non-food goods, consistent with spending by the poor, isadded” (World Bank, W/D), setting the outright destitution line. Finally,it is worth noticing that supreme destitution —and thus, its measuring— is aterm more as often as possible related with creating nations and as such, hassmall put on its possess in created nations, where it frequently needs supportingby markers concerning relative poverty.Relative Poverty Is often considered irrelevant and hence it is avoided. This can be interpretedby the methods used to measure relative poverty, where a family is consideredpoor if its revenue is less than a certain percentage of the national’s wage. Asa “comparative economic deprivation” and says that “it is based on the notionthat poverty is relative to a society’s existing level of economic, social andcultural development” (Richmond Vale Academy, 2017).
This is because there is no conclusive way toaffirm absolute poverty, since the poor in certain countries do not rely on 1or 2 dollars per day income that comprise the international absolute povertyline. That is to say, if studies show stable levels of relative poverty and subsidedlevels of absolute poverty, this means that there is a sign of economic increase.Relative poverty levels are measured in rich countries and those in the latestages of development, whilst absolute poverty is determined in third worldcountries, where people live on less than the bare minimum to survive still thrive.Relative poverty is related, because it prohibits the competence of familieswhose income is considerably inferior than the ordinary society.
K3.How do various forms ofdiscrimination leave an impact on children? Use examples to help youdemonstrate further your knowledge.The impact of bias on children’s cognitive and or academicdevelopment, can have some particularly negative consequences their sense ofself and social integrity.
When schools face children positively they offerthem cognitive and academic creative, and culturally relevant learningexperiences. They most likely to adopt positive relation to the outsideenvironment. On the contrary children that have negative views about themselvesin school are less likely to achieve academic success. Family is undoubtedlythe key setting where children learn and develop, most of their learning takesplace before attending school, they start to observe social behaviour. Youngchildren gain a lot from being taught in positive surroundings as their improvementsare appreciated. Children normally start school at the ages of 4 or 5 years,when they are constantly developing their competence to communicate with society.
On the contrary, when schools focus on their recognised weaknesses, children encounternegative perceptions of themselves. Wen-Jui Han specifies that “schoolsserve as another important influence by being children’s first connection tothe external macro-environment and the place where they spend most of theirday.S1.Plan and design achildren’s needs assessment.
By reflecting about a particular case that maybeyou have already encountered during your past placements. Compile the needsassessment so as to show the effects of inequalities on children. To be able tocompile the needs assessment you have to identify 1 specific and concrete needthat the child had and then plan questions that you would ask so as to assesshow this need might be affecting the child.The Need Child has a difficulty tobuild up simple words, names, cannot follow directions.
Questions for the childAsk the child to sayanimal out loud to see where the problem is”Can you rhyme dog and hog please?”What colour is the sun?””Can you point out the picture of the dog please?”Remind the child that itis break time and he/she needs to get their bag to start eating.Questions for thepractitioner”Whattype of activities do you implement to help improve his/her need?””Doyou plan your activities based on the child’s needs?””Doyou guide the child during the day, and give one to one attention? Or as agroup?””Asa practitioner do you attend to PD sessions and speak about the child’sdifficulty?”Questions for the parents”Doyou know how the practitioner address this certain need in the class room?””Areyou providing any resources to help in your child’s need?””Doyou seek any professional help to guide you on how you should tackle his need?””Doesthe child understand you when you give him/her orders to follow?””Isthe child having a positive communication environment?”K&U6.Discuss and demonstratethe many ways that workers can promote inclusion in their practice.Working and getting to knowcolleagues irrelevant of what their cultural background is, helps to find mutualunderstanding and deepen the gratitude towards diversity, and promote an inclusiveworking place. People from distinct cultural backgrounds may have different ideasand approaches towards business.
Currently, it is more likely to interrelate ina professional way with such people and your cultural backgrounds. The ideal methodto endorse diversity in the working place, is by grasping it and work to developsympathy. Diversity is made up of various forms, by encouraging inclusiveness anddiversity within the working place, this is a best way to promote a tolerant environmentby respecting individuals’ boundaries and cultural differences. For example, onemust be knowledgeable about different cultures and how one should behave towardsothers for example; maintaining eye contact, and respect one’s personal space.K&U5.
Furthermore, discuss therole that other professionals and tools (such as interpreters, translators andbraille) have in addressing inequalities.Educational Interpreters Focusing oninterpretation in the school setting, which is challenging job especially whenworking with young children. This service is offered for those who have hearingimpairment such as deafness and hard-of-hearing.
The educational interpreter,understands the child’s strength and to accommodate the child’s needs. One ofthis professional’s roles is that he/she teaches the child to not only sign butalso learn lip reading, as in the outside world not every person is familiarwith sign language. This helps the child to interact more with society and doesnot feel left out in conversations with others. Learning SupportAssistantThe LSA has a thoroughjob when working with various needs around children, she must work closelyaround other pupils in the classroom and help the teacher throughout the day.The LSA’s role is to differentiate materials to enable the child’s access,recording and monitor the his/her progress. During her time with the child, theLSA needs to do necessary evaluation and adaptation to the child’s needs, also,this will help her when the IEPs session take place to give feedback to thestatemented child to other professionals.
This type of profession does not onlyinclude children whom are wheelchair bound and unable to move, children whohave learning difficulties, gifted children and other non-physical needs,benefit from this professional to help them improve their development. It isher duty to guide and teach the child basic ways to get along with others andhelp them to interact for their future benefits. Tools for the visuallyimpaired When reading aboutvisually impaired people, we get the impression of blind people.
When a personis visually impaired, it does not mean that he/she is blind, but they may haveproblems in seeing clearly and other difficulties which regard their vision.During the years, helping these people are improving and this helps to includethem in society. Such tools are: braille (which has been invented in 1824)which accommodates blind people, large print or audio files. These tools allhelp to improve inclusion and equality and make the society aware of suchneeds. K&U4.Describe how you wouldconduct an activity to facilitate access and participation for disabledchildren and children with additional support needs.
As a teacher, showingsupport alters the physical, social and or temporal environment. If certainresources and materials are not adequate for the child, modification of thesematerials to give access to the child to manipulate them. For example, duringpainting; if a child who does not have the strength to stand for a prolongedperiod, a chair must be provided so that the child can sit and continue withhis/her participation sitting down.
During activities it is an effective waythat adaptive devices are used to allow the child in need access and canparticipate fully. When planning the activity, it is important that it issimplified, broken down into smaller parts and the number of steps are reduces.When the activity is taking place, it is needed for the teacher to speak insimple and clear tone so that all children understand, if need be pictures maybe included for better understanding.
For more encouragement during play, theteacher must take in consideration to base the activities to the child’spreferences such as materials. For more support it is advisable that otherpeers/teacher help and join the child during play to encourage throughmodelling and commenting.ReferencesPsychologyToday. (2017). Sexual Orientation | Psychology Today.
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