Krisitjonas can be called “violence.” (Fisk – Schellberg,

Krisitjonas Barcevicius

CST 200

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Assignment – Fisk – Schellenberg Ch1



Patterns of
Conflict, Paths to Peace.  Fisk &
Schellenberg, ed.

Ch 1. Shaping a Vision: The Nature of
Peace Studies, by C. Brunk.


one quote, idea from the chapter that stands out for you, makes you think or
raise further questions, applications:

“Conflict can be defined (and usually is defined in
conflict theory) simply as what results
from the existence, real or imagined, of incompatible interests, goals, beliefs, or activities.”(Fisk – Schellberg, page 9).
This quote
brings out a lot of interesting question you may think of or may ask about what
is really a conflict.


Define the Central Concepts in Peace


Peace: discuss various
types/definitions of peace:



“A useful aspect of
Curle’s definition is the way it points out that human conflicts can be handled in “unpeaceful” as well
as”peaceful” ways, and that the point is to find ways of turning conflicts of the former type into
conflicts of the latter type.” (Fisk – Schellberg, page 12)

“Another useful aspect of Curle’s definition is that it
defines Peace Studies
very broadly, since it includes the study of peaceful and unpeace­ful relations at every one of the
levels of human conflict from the individual to the international.” (Fisk – Schellberg,
page 12)


“He calls any situation unpeaceful in which “human beings are being influenced so that their actual
(physical) and mental realizations are below their potential realization.” (Fisk –
Schellberg, page 17)

Negative peace –

peace by pointing out that really each of them has a”negative” definition – peace is the absence of something, which can be called “violence.” (Fisk –
Schellberg, page 17)


“When, for example, a ceasefire is enacted, a negative peace will ensue. It is negative because something undesirable
stopped happening (e.g. the violence stopped, the oppression ended).” (


Positive – define

 “Positive peace is the absence of
structural violence. When viewed this
way, it becomes evident that the common element
in both conceptions of peace and violence is the element of harm. ”
(Fisk – Schellberg, page 19)


Positive peace is the presence of social justice and
equality, and the absence of structural or indirect violence. It is
characterized by the presence of harmonious social relations and the
“integration of human society” (Galtung, 1964).

! Explain the tension between
Peace and Justice (on violent means)

“Perhaps we can say that its aim is to ana­lyze human
conflicts in order to find the most peaceful (negatively peaceful) ways to turn
unjust relationships into more just (positively peaceful).
This definition has the advantage of capturing the full impor­tance of the concept of positive peace without
losing sight of the distinction
between peace and justice.” (Fisk – Schellberg)

and its elements


A clear physical or psychological harm witch results from the action.

An identifiable actor or group of actors.


Is violence sometimes
justifiable? When? Why?

The most plausible justification of violence is when it is perpetrated in
return of other violence.If a person punches you in the face and seems
intentions to keep doing so, it may seem justified to try and respond to the
physical violence.

Conflict –
what is it and what is it not?


Conflict is disagreement, but contrary
to popular belief conflict does not necessarily involve fighting.

List the advantages of

Opens our eyes to new ideas.

Teaches flexibility

Teaches us to listen


central concept in Peace Studies, power, is like conflict, com­monly understood
in many different ways. Throughout human history there has been a tendency to think of power (especially
political power) as synonymous with force and violence or the threat of force or violence. Western political theorists from the
Greek historian Thucydides to the uses of power.”
(Fisk – Schellberg)





to Peacemaking: –
describe and explain the difference. Think of real-life examples!

approach peace people need to work together towards something. There is plenty
of examples were countries in war after years and years of fighting approach
peace. To approach peace is to say that maybe you were wrong and had made bad decision
in life, same with countries in was like Yugoslavia and Bosnia with Serbia.


“Democracy, for example, is a system
of conflict management. It resolves questions by a set of rule-governed mechanisms like voting (majority rule), establishing rules
to protect the minority (or minori­ties), and so on.” (Fisk –


“Conflict resolu­tion is most appropriate and
constructive in those situations where the parties
may perceive their interests to be incompatible, but where
there is a “win-win”
solution available which would allow them both fully to achieve their goals.” (Fisk –


“Conflict Transformation approaches to peacemaking are
usually confrontational in nature. They are concerned with finding ways to motivate unwilling parties to
make peace. Often they are aimed at either strengthening the power of the weaker party or
weakening the power
of the stronger party.” (Fisk – Schellberg)







Think about the applications
of these notions in your setting,

relate them to current events,
look for the deeper relationships of the concepts





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