The term used to refer to a reason provided for accepting a claim is premise. Premises provide reasons for a person to take a certain position on a particular issue. 2. Identify a true statement about the effects of critical thinking on the decision- making process. Critical thinking prevents a person from making prudent decisions.
Critical thinking promotes decisions based on logically accurate conclusions. Critical thinking results in reactions based on ill-informed decisions. Critical thinking involves forming conclusions through intuition rather than reason.The Correct Answer is: B. Critical thinking promotes decisions based on logically accurate conclusions.
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It s also described as thinking about the way a person thinks. 3. Which among the following is a subjective claim? There is no life on Jupiter. Russia is the largest country. Botanically, tomato is a vegetable. Bacon is a great breakfast dish.
The Correct Answer is: D. In this case, the claim “bacon is a great breakfast dish” is subjective. The accuracy of the given claim depends on what people think about bacon.Concept: Two kinds of arguments, deduction, induction, and unstated premises, and balance of considerations and Bibs 4. When is a deductive argument valid? When it is impossible for the premise to be true and the inclusion untrue When the premise is accurate, but the conclusion is inaccurate When the premise does not support the conclusion When the conclusion denies the truth of the premise by stating the opposite In the context of deductive logic in an argument, an argument is said to be valid if it is impossible for its premise to be true and its conclusion untrue.
When the premise of such an argument is true, it becomes a sound argument. 5. In the context of “inference to the best explanation” (BE) reasoning, identify an accurate statement about the best explanation of a phenomenon. The best explanation is one that fails to sufficiently account for the occurrence of a particular event. The best explanation is one that leads to vague predictions. The best explanation is one that often clashes with other firmly established explanations.The best explanation is one that involves the least number of needless assumptions.
The best explanation of a phenomenon is the one that includes the least number of needless assumptions. The best explanation leads to the most precise predictions and very rarely clashes with other firmly established explanations. 6. Jacob and Stefan, twin brothers, are spending Thanksgiving with their grandmother, Smeared. Smeared bakes pumpkin tarts for dinner. Just before serving dinner, she notices that half of the tarts are missing.
Since Stefan dislikes eating pumpkin, Smeared assumes toothache is the one who has taken the tarts. Based on the information provided in this scenario, from which of the following has Smeared most likely drawn her conclusion? An inductive supporting argument A deductive demonstration An untrue premise A theoretical claim Based on the information provided in this scenario, Smeared has most likely rain her conclusion from an inductive supporting argument. The premise of an inductive argument just supports the conclusion; it does not prove the conclusion.
Concept: Coin dive biases How do cognitive biases affect a person’s thought process? They help remove the confusion in a person’s mind. They enhance a person’s ability to assess and evaluate information correctly. They distort a person’s perception of reality. They enhance a person’s ability to reason objectively. The Correct Answer is: C. Cognitive biases tend to distort a person’s perception of reality. They also impede a person’s ability to think with clarity and to process information.
8.Which of the following is the cognitive bias that makes a person evaluate a reasoning based on his or her confidence in the plausibility of its conclusion? Better-than-average illusion In-group bias Belief bias Bandwagon effect Belief bias is the cognitive bias that makes a person evaluate a reasoning based on his or her confidence in the plausibility of its conclusion. This, in turn, tends to affect the person’s ability to think with clarity. 9. Kier never believed that wearing designer clothes was important for her self- mage.However, after working at a high-end fashion boutique for two months now, she has started thinking and dressing like her colleagues, who believe that it is important to wear only designer labels as such clothing projects an image of sophistication. Which cognitive bias has been exemplified in this scenario? Availability bias Overconfidence effect The bandwagon effect has been exemplified in this scenario.
In the case of the bandwagon effect, a person tends to arrange his or her thoughts on par with those of the other people around him or her.