It is however not before the late 60’s that authors began to really give noticeable attention of its truth to the public (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.
3); naturally on account to Kotler’s justification to extend marketing’s concept but also by virtue of technology innovations, being the rooted cause to merge politics with marketing (Newman 1993 p.17), which in addition generalized to stimulate changes in the conducting course of presidential electioneering activities (Newman 1993 p.XIV, Newman 1993 p.
17). Indeed, as television began to be increasingly common to own in United States (with a total of 90% household’s ownership by 1960) (Adweek by Staff 2000), this one became at that time one of the major American’s source for politics’ information (New York Times Archives from 1984). It was however already in 1952 with the first ever aired TV advertisement, purposely created to promote Dwight D. Eisenhower’s presidential candidacy, that experts began to relatively understand the level of power it medium had to influence voters, as this one had been suggested to help considerably to Eisenhower’s victory (New York Times Archives from 1984).
Its tool and tactics mastered over time by experts (Newman 1993 p.17) was then again strongly used to promote the followings’ presidential candidates in United Sates (Newman 1993 p.-). During John F. Kennedy’s campaign, noticed and believed Kennedy’s better presence and calmer appearance during an aired TV debate against his adversary Richard Nixon, was the reason for his succeeding election in 1961 (Corry 1984 in New York Times; Archives): “The story has it that those Americans who tuned in over the radio believed the two candidates were evenly matched, but tended to think Nixon had won the debates. But those 70 million who watched the candidates on the television believed Kennedy was the clear victor.
… Kennedy himself said after the election that “it was TV more than anything else that turned the tide” toward his victory.” (National Archives by Parkinson 2010). Till today, the candidate’s presence on television is believed to matter significantly in the context of winning the presidential election (Newman 1993 p.17). The compression and continuous confirmation of television being one of the most powerful tool ever created to influence voters has gone, however, as far as to air negative political advertisement to degrade the other advisory candidates through a fear appraisal genre, firstly used for the incumbent Lyndon B.
Johnson against his adversary Barry Goldwater in 1964 with the spot “Daisy” that many considers to be one of main factor of his victory (Adweek by Staff 2000). Rapidly, some outspoken their bitterness sentiment against the deceptive, misleading and unfair use of it tool: ”more important than what you say is how you look on television’ (Nixon in Corry 1984 in New York Times Archives) and denunciate it as a “… threat to democracy in a way” (Salinger in Corry 1984 in New York Times; Archives) by the political communication advisor Pierre Salinger. Despite public and clear opposition of such marketing tactic, these methods were yet again strongly use during the during the following presidential campaigns (such as in 1988 and 1992) (Newman 1993 p.15-). After it however, the American’s voters were not pleased with such deceptive and even hypocritical political campaigning used for the sake of achieving the ultimate victory objective forcing to change campaigning marketing tactics (Newman 1993 p.5-6; p.
15). It was clear that running for president without the use of such strategic marketing method and well-prepared speeches through the most efficient communication channel was a sprint-game lost in itself. With much less comprehension of its fact and using a much authentic approach, George McGovern experienced it fact during the 1968’s presidential campaign, contractionary to his rivals Nixon and Humphrey whom skyrocket their “high tech campaigning” production advertising budget (Adweek by Staff 2000), hiring diverse advertisement and public relations agencies, image consultants, makeup artists, photographers and other “to create the image and the aura that would make this man Nixon America’s favorite “brand.
” (Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.3). These various circumstances led to compare these marketing tactics to commercial organizations whom employ selling orientation and merchandizing approach (in Kotler & Zaltman 1971p.3). In The Selling of the President 1968’s, Joe McGinnis denunciated Nixon’s and other presidential campaigns of using a total telemarketing tactical plan to sell their candidacy (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.
182) like a product, giving people what they want through illusionary images and/or hiding candidates imperfections: “the public were certainly sold a President whose reality was concealed from them, so that a talented neurotic was placed in the highest office in the land. … The marketing approach had certainly reassured people, but with a falsely confident image of reality, that muffled alarming social change; for this genre simply reflects the image they desire back at people; it neither challenges, educates nor leads.” (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.184-185).
In study conducted by G. D. Wiebe in 1951-1952 (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.3; 6) showed that indeed, treating and using methods to promote social campaigns like product ones, helps to achieve successfully the objectives set. Moreover, Wiebe observed as well, a lack of market research for such campaigns and called for success limitations (Wiebe 1953 in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.
3). Additionally, noticed five criteria of which effective social campaigns followed; Centered to reach audience’s heart, (1) the audience must feel concerned and believe to be able to make a change (2) once the interest translates into the wish of participation, the person needs direction of what and how to do it (3) supported by an (4) effective and active agency (5) and which the audience’s participation, must be felt as reward that must be equal to the participant’s energy given (Wiebe 1953 in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.6). Ronald Reagan, although always holding strong communication skills and comprehensive knowledge about how to work with television as medium and other technology innovations to his advantage, initiate to apply a heavy marketing management tools and techniques into his campaigns; all oriented by the societal marketing concept, incorporating a market-oriented philosophy and value-orientated approach which were strongly based on most common and current American’s social issues and its values throughout his whole political career (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.
189, Newman 1993 p.17). Already during his candidacy for governorship in California in 1966 and 1970, Reagan relied heavily on specialized behavioral analytics’ and advertising agencies as well as expert advisors’ consultants such as Spencer Roberts and Richard Wirthlin to help gather knowledge about his “market” (through market research, voters’ values, expectations, attitudes surveys and focus group, pooling research) (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.186-188). Taking these data into strategical marketing advantages, Reagan and his team were able to draw an impeccable promotion mix for his campaigns, influencing himself to voters, focusing primarily to the most supportive and potential ones as the best solving-issue’s candidate who shares consistent values, and which encourage it to his two successive victories (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.
186-188). Continuing with implementing such marketing techniques with the aid of marketing experts during his presidential campaigns in the early and mid 80’s, Reagan further used modern technologies into his advantage for more accurate market research and further efficient communication campaign’s process (imitating commercial organizations strategic planning and tactics) (Newman 1990 p.18) which resulted to his two successful electoral votes by; (1) developing PINS; a more accurate computerized election simulation (invented in 1960 to apprehend voter’s attitudes and its changes in regard to occurring political situations (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.152)), bringing more accurate pools research, dividing the mass American’s voters into segments based on their various criteria such as geographical, behavioral (past votes) and demographic, bringing knowledge about their judgement and political preferences, predicting their future voting behavior (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.
152-153) (2) using social advertising and social marketing tactics where in one hand uses mass media communication (presence on television and airing negative advertisements, direct mail) and in the other uses efficiently his personal connections and created small communities to raise founding for his campaign (direct mail) (Newman 1990 p.18; O’Shaughnessy 1990 p.154). NOT FINISHED